Literature context: uz BiotechnologyCat# sc-101199; RRID:AB_1131430Bacterial and Virus StrainspZIP-
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) cooperates with Hedgehog (HH) signaling, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we provide genetic, biochemical, and pharmacologic evidence that MTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent translation is a prerequisite for HH signaling. The genetic loss of mTORC1 function inhibited HH signaling-driven growth of the cerebellum and medulloblastoma. Inhibiting translation or mTORC1 blocked HH signaling. Depleting 4EBP1, an mTORC1 target that inhibits translation, alleviated the dependence of HH signaling on mTORC1. Consistent with this, phosphorylated 4EBP1 levels were elevated in HH signaling-driven medulloblastomas in mice and humans. In mice, an mTORC1 inhibitor suppressed medulloblastoma driven by a mutant SMO that is inherently resistant to existing SMO inhibitors, prolonging the survival of the mice. Our study reveals that mTORC1-mediated translation is a key component of HH signaling and an important target for treating medulloblastoma and other cancers driven by HH signaling.
Literature context: anta Cruz Cat# sc101199; RRID:AB_1131430 Phosphorylated focal adhesion k
YAP is a mechanosensitive transcriptional activator with a critical role in cancer, regeneration, and organ size control. Here, we show that force applied to the nucleus directly drives YAP nuclear translocation by decreasing the mechanical restriction of nuclear pores to molecular transport. Exposure to a stiff environment leads cells to establish a mechanical connection between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton, allowing forces exerted through focal adhesions to reach the nucleus. Force transmission then leads to nuclear flattening, which stretches nuclear pores, reduces their mechanical resistance to molecular transport, and increases YAP nuclear import. The restriction to transport is further regulated by the mechanical stability of the transported protein, which determines both active nuclear transport of YAP and passive transport of small proteins. Our results unveil a mechanosensing mechanism mediated directly by nuclear pores, demonstrated for YAP but with potential general applicability in transcriptional regulation.
Literature context: technology Inc. Cat# sc-101199; RRID:AB_1131430 rabbit anti-DKK1 (clone H-120)
The lung harbors its basal stem/progenitor cells (BSCs) in the protected environment of the cartilaginous airways. After major lung injuries, BSCs are activated and recruited to sites of injury. Here, we show that during homeostasis, BSCs in cartilaginous airways maintain their stem cell state by downregulating the Hippo pathway (resulting in increased nuclear Yap), which generates a localized Fgf10-expressing stromal niche; in contrast, differentiated epithelial cells in non-cartilaginous airways maintain quiescence by activating the Hippo pathway and inhibiting Fgf10 expression in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). However, upon injury, surviving differentiated epithelial cells spread to maintain barrier function and recruit integrin-linked kinase to adhesion sites, which leads to Merlin degradation, downregulation of the Hippo pathway, nuclear Yap translocation, and expression and secretion of Wnt7b. Epithelial-derived Wnt7b, then in turn, induces Fgf10 expression in ASMCs, which extends the BSC niche to promote regeneration.
Literature context: c-101199, RRID:AB_1131430 Rabbit mon
Tissue homeostasis requires the production of newly differentiated cells from resident adult stem cells. Central to this process is the expansion of undifferentiated intermediates known as transit-amplifying (TA) cells, but how stem cells are triggered to enter this proliferative TA state remains an important open question. Using the continuously growing mouse incisor as a model of stem cell-based tissue renewal, we found that the transcriptional cofactors YAP and TAZ are required both to maintain TA cell proliferation and to inhibit differentiation. Specifically, we identified a pathway involving activation of integrin α3 in TA cells that signals through an LATS-independent FAK/CDC42/PP1A cascade to control YAP-S397 phosphorylation and nuclear localization. This leads to Rheb expression and potentiates mTOR signaling to drive the proliferation of TA cells. These findings thus reveal a YAP/TAZ signaling mechanism that coordinates stem cell expansion and differentiation during organ renewal.
Literature context: t #F0214; RRID:AB_1131430) and rabbi
Branching morphogenesis is a fundamental program for tissue patterning. We show that active YAP, a key mediator of Hippo signaling, is distributed throughout the murine lung epithelium and loss of epithelial YAP severely disrupts branching. Failure to branch is restricted to regions where YAP activity is removed. This suggests that YAP controls local epithelial cell properties. In support of this model, mechanical force production is compromised and cell proliferation is reduced in Yap mutant lungs. We propose that defective force generation and insufficient epithelial cell number underlie the branching defects. Through genomic analysis, we also uncovered a feedback control of pMLC levels, which is critical for mechanical force production, likely through the direct induction of multiple regulators by YAP. Our work provides a molecular pathway that could control epithelial cell properties required for proper morphogenetic movement and pattern formation.
Literature context: c-101199; RRID:AB_1131430 Rabbit ant
Endothelial cells (ECs) line the inside of blood vessels and respond to mechanical cues generated by blood flow. Mechanical stimuli regulate the localization of YAP by reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton. Here we demonstrate blood-flow-mediated regulation of endothelial YAP in vivo. We indirectly monitored transcriptional activity of Yap1 (zebrafish YAP) and its spatiotemporal localization in living zebrafish and found that Yap1 entered the nucleus and promoted transcription in response to blood flow. In cultured human ECs, laminar shear stress induced nuclear import of YAP and its transcriptional activity in a manner independent of Hippo signaling. We uncovered a molecular mechanism by which flow induced the nuclear translocation of YAP through the regulation of filamentous actin and angiomotin. Yap1 mutant zebrafish showed a defect in vascular stability, indicating an essential role for Yap1 in blood vessels. Our data imply that endothelial Yap1 functions in response to flow to maintain blood vessels.
Literature context: ap 1:100 (RRID:AB_1131430, sc-101199
The segregation of the trophectoderm (TE) from the inner cell mass (ICM) in the mouse blastocyst is determined by position-dependent Hippo signaling. However, the window of responsiveness to Hippo signaling, the exact timing of lineage commitment and the overall relationship between cell commitment and global gene expression changes are still unclear. Single-cell RNA sequencing during lineage segregation revealed that the TE transcriptional profile stabilizes earlier than the ICM and prior to blastocyst formation. Using quantitative Cdx2-eGFP expression as a readout of Hippo signaling activity, we assessed the experimental potential of individual blastomeres based on their level of Cdx2-eGFP expression and correlated potential with gene expression dynamics. We find that TE specification and commitment coincide and occur at the time of transcriptional stabilization, whereas ICM cells still retain the ability to regenerate TE up to the early blastocyst stage. Plasticity of both lineages is coincident with their window of sensitivity to Hippo signaling.
Literature context: c-101199; RRID:AB_1131430 KNL1Â N ter
Defining the genes that are essential for cellular proliferation is critical for understanding organismal development and identifying high-value targets for disease therapies. However, the requirements for cell-cycle progression in human cells remain incompletely understood. To elucidate the consequences of acute and chronic elimination of cell-cycle proteins, we generated and characterized inducible CRISPR/Cas9 knockout human cell lines targeting 209 genes involved in diverse cell-cycle processes. We performed single-cell microscopic analyses to systematically establish the effects of the knockouts on subcellular architecture. To define variations in cell-cycle requirements between cultured cell lines, we generated knockouts across cell lines of diverse origins. We demonstrate that p53 modulates the phenotype of specific cell-cycle defects through distinct mechanisms, depending on the defect. This work provides a resource to broadly facilitate robust and long-term depletion of cell-cycle proteins and reveals insights into the requirements for cell-cycle progression.
Literature context: c-101199; RRID:AB_1131430 YAP/TAZ (r
Mechanical signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cellular geometry regulate the nuclear translocation of transcriptional regulators such as Yes-associated protein (YAP). Elucidating how physical signals control the activity of mechanosensitive proteins poses a technical challenge, because perturbations that affect cell shape may also affect protein localization indirectly. Here, we present an approach that mitigates confounding effects of cell-shape changes, allowing us to identify direct regulators of YAP localization. This method uses single-cell image analysis and statistical models that exploit the naturally occurring heterogeneity of cellular populations. Through systematic depletion of all human kinases, Rho family GTPases, GEFs, and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), together with targeted chemical perturbations, we found that β-PIX, a Rac1/Ccd42 GEF, and PAK2, a Rac1/Cdc42 effector, drive both YAP activation and cell-ECM adhesion turnover during cell spreading. Our observations suggest that coupling YAP to adhesion dynamics acts as a mechano-timer, allowing cells to rapidly tune gene expression in response to physical signals.
Literature context: c-101199; RRID:AB_1131430 Anti-CD81
Poorly immunogenic tumor cells evade host immunity and grow even in the presence of an intact immune system, but the complex mechanisms regulating tumor immunogenicity have not been elucidated. Here, we discovered an unexpected role of the Hippo pathway in suppressing anti-tumor immunity. We demonstrate that, in three different murine syngeneic tumor models (B16, SCC7, and 4T1), loss of the Hippo pathway kinases LATS1/2 (large tumor suppressor 1 and 2) in tumor cells inhibits tumor growth. Tumor regression by LATS1/2 deletion requires adaptive immune responses, and LATS1/2 deficiency enhances tumor vaccine efficacy. Mechanistically, LATS1/2-null tumor cells secrete nucleic-acid-rich extracellular vesicles, which induce a type I interferon response via the Toll-like receptors-MYD88/TRIF pathway. LATS1/2 deletion in tumors thus improves tumor immunogenicity, leading to tumor destruction by enhancing anti-tumor immune responses. Our observations uncover a key role of the Hippo pathway in modulating tumor immunogenicity and demonstrate a proof of concept for targeting LATS1/2 in cancer immunotherapy.