The Golgi apparatus is the central hub for protein trafficking and glycosylation in the secretory pathway. However, how the Golgi responds to glucose deprivation is so far unknown. Here, we report that GRASP55, the Golgi stacking protein located in medial- and trans-Golgi cisternae, is O-GlcNAcylated by the O-GlcNAc transferase OGT under growth conditions. Glucose deprivation reduces GRASP55 O-GlcNAcylation. De-O-GlcNAcylated GRASP55 forms puncta outside of the Golgi area, which co-localize with autophagosomes and late endosomes/lysosomes. GRASP55 depletion reduces autophagic flux and results in autophagosome accumulation, while expression of an O-GlcNAcylation-deficient mutant of GRASP55 accelerates autophagic flux. Biochemically, GRASP55 interacts with LC3-II on the autophagosomes and LAMP2 on late endosomes/lysosomes and functions as a bridge between LC3-II and LAMP2 for autophagosome and lysosome fusion; this function is negatively regulated by GRASP55 O-GlcNAcylation. Therefore, GRASP55 senses glucose levels through O-GlcNAcylation and acts as a tether to facilitate autophagosome maturation.
Mannose receptor (MR, CD206) is an endocytic receptor on microphages and dendritic cells. It recognizes multiple ligands and plays important roles in regulating immune responses and maintaining glycoprotein homeostasis. However, the structure and functional mechanism of MR remain unclear. Here we determine the crystal structures of the N-terminal fragments of MR and reveal the potential binding mode of collagen on the fibronectin II domain. The SAXS and other biophysical data suggest that MR adopts an extended conformation at physiological pH and undergoes conformational changes as pH decreases, resulting in a compact conformation in an acidic environment. Moreover, biochemical data show that MR binds to collagen in a Ca2+-enhanced manner at physiological pH, whereas Ca2+ has no effect on the binding at acidic pH. These results provide a model for the dynamic mechanism of MR regarding its ligand binding and release during the recycling between cell surface and endosomes.
Most eukaryotic mRNAs are polyadenylated in the nucleus, and the poly(A)-tail is required for efficient mRNA export and translation. However, mechanisms governing mRNA transport remain unclear. Here, we report that the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 acts as an energy sensor and negatively regulates poly(A)RNA transport via deacetylating a poly(A)-binding protein, PABP1. Upon energy starvation, SIRT1 interacts with and deacetylates PABP1 and deactivates its poly(A)RNA binding, leading to nuclear accumulation of PABP1 and poly(A)RNA and thus facilitating eukaryotic cells to attenuate protein synthesis and energy consumption to adapt to energy stress. Moreover, AMPK-directed SIRT1 phosphorylation is required for energy starvation-induced PABP1-SIRT1 association, PABP1 deacetylation, and poly(A)RNA nuclear retention. In addition, the SIRT1-PABP1 association is not specific to energy starvation but represents a common stress response. These observations provide insights into dynamic modulation of eukaryotic mRNA transport and translation, suggesting that the poly(A)-tail also provides a basis for eukaryotes to effectively shut down mature mRNA transport and thereby tailor protein synthesis to maintain energy homeostasis under stress conditions.