X
Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

beta-Actin (AC-15) antibody

RRID:AB_1119529

Antibody ID

AB_1119529

Target Antigen

beta-Actin (AC-15) canine, chicken/bird, mouse, feline, plant, porcine, c elegans/worm, hamster, xenopus/amphibian, amoeba/protozoa, bacteria/archaea, bovine, drosophila/arthropod, other mammalian, rabbit, sheep, human, non-human primate, rat, guinea pig, other invertebrate, reptile, donkey, goat, horse, mollusc, broad species

Proper Citation

(Santa Cruz Biotechnology Cat# sc-69879, RRID:AB_1119529)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

validation status unknown check with seller; recommendations: WB, IP, IF; Western Blot; Immunoprecipitation; Immunofluorescence

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

Santa Cruz Biotechnology

Dynamics of PARKIN-Dependent Mitochondrial Ubiquitylation in Induced Neurons and Model Systems Revealed by Digital Snapshot Proteomics.

  • Ordureau A
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Flux through kinase and ubiquitin-driven signaling systems depends on the modification kinetics, stoichiometry, primary site specificity, and target abundance within the pathway, yet we rarely understand these parameters and their spatial organization within cells. Here we develop temporal digital snapshots of ubiquitin signaling on the mitochondrial outer membrane in embryonic stem cell-derived neurons, and we model HeLa cell systems upon activation of the PINK1 kinase and PARKIN ubiquitin ligase by proteomic counting of ubiquitylation and phosphorylation events. We define the kinetics and site specificity of PARKIN-dependent target ubiquitylation, and we demonstrate the power of this approach to quantify pathway modulators and to mechanistically define the role of PARKIN UBL phosphorylation in pathway activation in induced neurons. Finally, through modulation of pS65-Ub on mitochondria, we demonstrate that Ub hyper-phosphorylation is inhibitory to mitophagy receptor recruitment, indicating that pS65-Ub stoichiometry in vivo is optimized to coordinate PARKIN recruitment via pS65-Ub and mitophagy receptors via unphosphorylated chains.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/I004815/1(United Kingdom)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K01 DK098285()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM067945()

The Amaryllidaceae Alkaloid Haemanthamine Binds the Eukaryotic Ribosome to Repress Cancer Cell Growth.

  • Pellegrino S
  • Structure
  • 2018 Mar 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alkaloids isolated from the Amaryllidaceae plants have potential as therapeutics for treating human diseases. Haemanthamine has been studied as a novel anticancer agent due to its ability to overcome cancer cell resistance to apoptosis. Biochemical experiments have suggested that hemanthamine targets the ribosome. However, a structural characterization of its mechanism has been missing. Here we present the 3.1 Å resolution X-ray structure of haemanthamine bound to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 80S ribosome. This structure reveals that haemanthamine targets the A-site cleft on the large ribosomal subunit rearranging rRNA to halt the elongation phase of translation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that haemanthamine and other Amaryllidaceae alkaloids also inhibit specifically ribosome biogenesis, triggering nucleolar stress response and leading to p53 stabilization in cancer cells. Together with a computer-aided interpretation of existing structure-activity relationships of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids congeners, we provide a rationale for designing molecules with enhanced potencies and reduced toxicities.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK071909(United States)

Alteration of sphingolipid metabolism as a putative mechanism underlying LPS-induced BBB disruption.

  • Vutukuri R
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Oct 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Septic encephalopathy with confusion and agitation occurs early during sepsis and contributes to the severity of the disease. A decrease in the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) blood levels has been shown in patients and in animal models of sepsis. The lipid mediator S1P is known to be involved in endothelial barrier function in a context-dependent manner. We utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected mice as a model for septic encephalopathy and first performed tracer permeability assays to assess the blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in vivo. At time points corresponding to the BBB breakdown post LPS injection, we aimed to characterize the regulation of the sphingolipid signaling pathway at the BBB during sepsis. We measured sphingolipid concentrations in blood, in mouse brain microvessels (MBMVs), and brain tissue. We also analyzed the expression of S1P receptors, transporters, and metabolizing enzymes in MBMVs and brain tissue. Primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (MBMECs) were isolated to evaluate the effects of LPS on transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) as a measure of permeability in vitro. We observed a relevant decrease in S1P levels after LPS injection in all three compartments (blood, MBMVs, brain tissue) that was accompanied by an increased expression of the S1P receptor type 1 and of sphingosine kinase 1 on one hand and of the S1P degrading enzymes lipid phosphate phosphatase 1 (LPP1) and S1P phosphatase 1 on the other hand, as well as a down-regulation of sphingosine kinase 2. Application of LPS to a monolayer of primary MBMECs did not alter TEER, but serum from LPS-treated mice lead to a breakdown of the barrier compared to serum from vehicle-treated mice. We observed profound alterations of the sphingolipid metabolism at the BBB after LPS injection that point toward a therapeutic potential of drugs interfering with this pathway as novel approach for the detrimental overwhelming immune response in sepsis. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 115. Cover Image for this Issue: doi. 10.1111/jnc.14161.

Up-regulation of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Expression by Hedgehog Ligand Contributes to the Conversion of Cortisol Into Cortisone.

  • Zhu H
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The cortisol-inactivating enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) that catalyzes the intracellular inactivation of glucocorticoids plays a pivotal role in human pregnant maintenance and normal fetal development. Given the fact that the main components of Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway are predominantly expressed in syncytial layer of human placental villi where 11β-HSD2 is robustly expressed, in the present study, we have investigated the potential roles and underlying mechanisms of HH signaling in 11β-HSD2 expression. Activation of HH signaling by a variety of approaches robustly induced 11β-HSD2 expression as well as the 11β-HSD2 activity, whereas suppression of HH signaling significantly attenuated 11β-HSD2 expression as well as the 11β-HSD2 activity in both human primary cytotrophoblasts and trophoblast-like BeWo cells. Moreover, among glioma-associated oncogene (GLI) family transcriptional factors in HH signaling, knockdown of GLI2 but not GLI1 and GLI3 significantly attenuated HH-induced 11β-HSD2 expression and activity, and overexpression of GLI2 activator alone was sufficient to induce 11β-HSD2 expression and activity. Finally, GLI2 not only directly bound to the promoter region of gene hsd11b2 to transactivate hsd11b2 but also formed a heterodimer with RNA polymerase II, an enzyme that catalyzes the transcription of DNA to synthesize mRNAs, resulting in up-regulation of hsd11b2 gene transcription. Taken together, the present study has uncovered a hitherto uncharacterized role of HH/GLI2 signaling in 11β-HSD2 regulation, implicating that HH signaling through GLI2 could be required for the human pregnant maintenance and fetal development.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM076507(United States)

Ribonucleotide Reductase Requires Subunit Switching in Hypoxia to Maintain DNA Replication.

  • Foskolou IP
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cells exposed to hypoxia experience replication stress but do not accumulate DNA damage, suggesting sustained DNA replication. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is the only enzyme capable of de novo synthesis of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs). However, oxygen is an essential cofactor for mammalian RNR (RRM1/RRM2 and RRM1/RRM2B), leading us to question the source of dNTPs in hypoxia. Here, we show that the RRM1/RRM2B enzyme is capable of retaining activity in hypoxia and therefore is favored over RRM1/RRM2 in order to preserve ongoing replication and avoid the accumulation of DNA damage. We found two distinct mechanisms by which RRM2B maintains hypoxic activity and identified responsible residues in RRM2B. The importance of RRM2B in the response to tumor hypoxia is further illustrated by correlation of its expression with a hypoxic signature in patient samples and its roles in tumor growth and radioresistance. Our data provide mechanistic insight into RNR biology, highlighting RRM2B as a hypoxic-specific, anti-cancer therapeutic target.

Wnt5a inhibits K(+) currents in hippocampal synapses through nitric oxide production.

  • Parodi J
  • Mol. Cell. Neurosci.
  • 2015 Sep 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hippocampal synapses play a key role in memory and learning processes by inducing long-term potentiation and depression. Wnt signaling is essential in the development and maintenance of synapses via several mechanisms. We have previously found that Wnt5a induces the production of nitric oxide (NO), which modulates NMDA receptor expression in the postsynaptic regions of hippocampal neurons. Here, we report that Wnt5a selectively inhibits a voltage-gated K(+) current (Kv current) and increases synaptic activity in hippocampal slices. Further supporting a specific role for Wnt5a, the soluble Frizzled receptor protein (sFRP-2; a functional Wnt antagonist) fully inhibits the effects of Wnt5a. We additionally show that these responses to Wnt5a are mediated by activation of a ROR2 receptor and increased NO production because they are suppressed by the shRNA-mediated knockdown of ROR2 and by 7-nitroindazole, a specific inhibitor of neuronal NOS. Together, our results show that Wnt5a increases NO production by acting on ROR2 receptors, which in turn inhibit Kv currents. These results reveal a novel mechanism by which Wnt5a may regulate the excitability of hippocampal neurons.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA190174(United States)

Androgens inhibit aromatase expression through DAX-1: insights into the molecular link between hormone balance and Leydig cancer development.

  • Maris P
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Apr 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Leydig cell tumors (LCTs) of the testis are steroid-secreting tumors associated with various steroid biosynthetic abnormalities and endocrine dysfunctions. Despite their overall rarity, LCTs are still of substantial interest owing to the paucity of information regarding their exact nature and malignant potential. In the present study, we disclose the ability of androgens to inhibit Leydig tumor cell proliferation by opposing to self-sufficient in situ estrogen production. In rat Leydig tumor cells, R2C, androgen treatment significantly decreases the expression and the enzymatic activity of cytocrome P450 aromatase, responsible for the local conversion of androgens into estrogens. This inhibitory effect relies on androgen receptor (AR) activation and involves negative regulation of the CYP19 gene transcriptional activity through the nuclear orphan receptor DAX-1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1). Ligand-activated AR up-regulates the expression of DAX-1 and promotes its increased recruitment within the steroidogenic factor-1 site-containing region of the aromatase proximal promoter II in association with the nuclear receptor corepressor. The biological relevance in LCTs of the newly highlighted functional interplay between AR, DAX-1, and aromatase is underlined by our in vivo observations, revealing a marked down-regulation of AR and DAX-1 expression and a strong increase in aromatase levels in testes tissues from old Fischer rats with spontaneously developed Leydig cell neoplasia, compared with normal testes tissues from younger animals. In elucidating a mechanism by which androgens modulate the growth of Leydig tumor cells, our finding support the hypothesis that maintaining the adequate balance between androgen and estrogens may represent the key for blocking estrogen-secreting Leydigioma development, opening new prospects for therapeutic intervention.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS47484(United States)

Regulation of GLUT transporters by flavonoids in androgen-sensitive and -insensitive prostate cancer cells.

  • Gonzalez-Menendez P
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Sep 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cancer cells show different metabolic requirements from normal cells. In prostate cancer, particularly, glycolytic metabolism differs in androgen-responsive and nonresponsive cells. In addition, some natural compounds with antiproliferative activities are able to modify glucose entry into cells by either modulating glucose transporter (GLUT) expression or by altering glucose binding. The aim of this work was to study the regulation of some GLUTs (GLUT1 and GLUT4) in both androgen-sensitive (LNCaP) and -insensitive (PC-3) prostate cancer cells by 4 structurally different flavonoids (ie, genistein, phloretin, apigenin, and daidzein). Glucose uptake was measured using nonradiolabeled 2-deoxyglucose. The evaluation of protein levels as well as subcellular distribution of GLUT1/4 were analyzed by Western blot and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Androgen-insensitive LNCaP-R and androgen-sensitive PC-3-AR cells were used to study the effect of androgen signaling. Additionally, a docking simulation was employed to compare interactions between flavonoids and XylE, a bacterial homolog of GLUT1 to -4. Results show for the first time the presence of functionally relevant GLUT4 in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, differences in GLUT1 and GLUT4 levels and glucose uptake were found, without differences on subcellular distribution, after incubation with flavonoids. Docking simulation showed that all compounds interact with the same location of transporters. More importantly, differences between androgen-sensitive and -insensitive prostate cancer cells were found in both GLUT protein levels and glucose uptake. Thus, phenotypic characteristics of prostate cancer cells are responsible for the different effects of these flavonoids in glucose uptake and in GLUT expression rather than their structural differences, with the most effective in reducing cell growth being the highest in modifying glucose uptake and GLUT levels.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA030161(United States)

Hyperplasia and cellularity changes in IGF-1-overexpressing skeletal muscle of crucian carp.

  • Li D
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The zebrafish skeletal muscle-specific promoter mylz2 was used to cause crucian carp overexpression of the zebrafish IGF-1 cDNA. In stable transgenic germline F1 progenies, a 5-fold increase in the level of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle was observed. Evident skeletal muscle hyperplasia was observed in the transgenic fish through histologic analysis. By analyzing the RNA sequencing transcriptome of the skeletal muscle of IGF-1 transgenic fish and nontransgenic control fish at 15 months of age, 10 966 transcripts with significant expression levels were identified with definite gene descriptions based on the corresponding zebrafish genome information. Based on the results of our RNA sequencing transcriptome profiling analysis and the results of the real-time quantitative PCR analysis performed to confirm the skeletal muscle transcriptomics analysis, several pathways, including IGF-1 signaling, aerobic metabolism, and protein degradation, were found to be activated in the IGF-1-overexpressing transgenic fish. Intriguingly, our transcriptional expression and protein assays indicated that the overexpression of IGF-1 stimulated a significant shift in the myofiber type toward a more oxidative slow muscle type. Although the body weight was surprisingly decreased by IGF-1 transgenic expression, significantly higher oxygen consumption rates were measured in IGF-1-overexpressing transgenic fish compared with their nontransgenic control fish. These results indicate that the sustained overexpression of IGF-1 in crucian carp skeletal muscle promotes myofiber hyperplasia and cellularity changes, which elicit alterations in the body energy metabolism and skeletal muscle growth.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG015819(United States)

The regulatory role of the adrenergic agonists phenylephrine and isoproterenol on fetal hemoglobin expression and erythroid differentiation.

  • Mei Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Dec 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

It has been reported that various endocrine hormones exert prominent effects on erythropoiesis. We conducted experiments to identify the mechanisms involved in the regulatory functions of adrenergic signaling on erythroid differentiation and the expression of hemoglobin genes. The reactivation of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) expression is also an important therapeutic option in patients with hemoglobin disorders. We determined that the adrenergic agonists phenylephrine (PE) and isoproterenol (ISO) can induce the production of β-hemoglobin embryonic 1 (hbbe1) mRNA and protein in adult zebrafish erythrocytes. Elevated levels of HbF mRNA and protein were also observed in human K562 cells after the adrenergic agonist treatments. In addition, elevated levels of histone acetylation were observed in both the PE- and the ISO-treated K562 cells. Additionally, our data further indicate that the induction effects of the adrenergic agonists on HbF synthesis and erythroid differentiation in K562 cells are mainly mediated by the p38 MAPK/cAMP response element binding pathway. In summary, the present study identifies the role of the adrenergic agonists PE and ISO on p38 MAPK and ERK signaling for the stimulation of HbF production and erythroid differentiation.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - U01 AA020942(United States)