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mCherry antibody [1C51]


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

mCherry antibody [1C51]

Proper Citation

(Abcam Cat# ab125096, RRID:AB_11133266)


monoclonal antibody


validation status unknown, seller recommendations provided in 2012:2a;2a ICC/IF, WB; Immunofluorescence; Western Blot; Immunocytochemistry

Host Organism




Brain Circuits Mediating Opposing Effects on Emotion and Pain.

  • Cai YQ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jul 11

Literature context:


The amygdala is important for processing emotion, including negative emotion such as anxiety and depression induced by chronic pain. Although remarkable progress has been achieved in recent years on amygdala regulation of both negative (fear) and positive (reward) behavioral responses, our current understanding is still limited regarding how the amygdala processes and integrates these negative and positive emotion responses within the amygdala circuits. In this study with optogenetic stimulation of specific brain circuits, we investigated how amygdala circuits regulate negative and positive emotion behaviors, using pain as an emotional assay in male rats. We report here that activation of the excitatory pathway from the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) that relays peripheral pain signals to the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) is sufficient to cause behaviors of negative emotion including anxiety, depression, and aversion in normal rats. In strong contrast, activation of the excitatory pathway from basolateral amygdala (BLA) that conveys processed corticolimbic signals to CeA dramatically opposes these behaviors of negative emotion, reducing anxiety and depression, and induces behavior of reward. Surprisingly, activating the PBN-CeA pathway to simulate pain signals does not change pain sensitivity itself, but activating the BLA-CeA pathway inhibits basal and sensitized pain. These findings demonstrate that the pain signal conveyed through the PBN-CeA pathway is sufficient to drive negative emotion and that the corticolimbic signal via the BLA-CeA pathway counteracts the negative emotion, suggesting a top-down brain mechanism for cognitive control of negative emotion under stressful environmental conditions such as pain.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT It remains unclear how the amygdala circuits integrate both negative and positive emotional responses and the brain circuits that link peripheral pain to negative emotion are largely unknown. Using optogenetic stimulation, this study shows that the excitatory projection from the parabrachial nucleus to the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) is sufficient to drive behaviors of negative emotion including anxiety, depression, and aversion in rats. Conversely, activation of the excitatory projection from basolateral amygdala to CeA counteracts each of these behaviors of negative emotion. Thus, this study identifies a brain pathway that mediates pain-driven negative emotion and a brain pathway that counteracts these emotion behaviors in a top-down mechanism for brain control of negative emotion.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R01 DE025943(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007270(United States)

SHRED Is a Regulatory Cascade that Reprograms Ubr1 Substrate Specificity for Enhanced Protein Quality Control during Stress.

  • Szoradi T
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 21

Literature context:


When faced with proteotoxic stress, cells mount adaptive responses to eliminate aberrant proteins. Adaptive responses increase the expression of protein folding and degradation factors to enhance the cellular quality control machinery. However, it is unclear whether and how this augmented machinery acquires new activities during stress. Here, we uncover a regulatory cascade in budding yeast that consists of the hydrophilin protein Roq1/Yjl144w, the HtrA-type protease Ynm3/Nma111, and the ubiquitin ligase Ubr1. Various stresses stimulate ROQ1 transcription. The Roq1 protein is cleaved by Ynm3. Cleaved Roq1 interacts with Ubr1, transforming its substrate specificity. Altered substrate recognition by Ubr1 accelerates proteasomal degradation of misfolded as well as native proteins at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and in the cytosol. We term this pathway stress-induced homeostatically regulated protein degradation (SHRED) and propose that it promotes physiological adaptation by reprogramming a key component of the quality control machinery.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

Proteasome storage granules protect proteasomes from autophagic degradation upon carbon starvation.

  • Marshall RS
  • Elife
  • 2018 Apr 6

Literature context:


26S proteasome abundance is tightly regulated at multiple levels, including the elimination of excess or inactive particles by autophagy. In yeast, this proteaphagy occurs upon nitrogen starvation but not carbon starvation, which instead stimulates the rapid sequestration of proteasomes into cytoplasmic puncta termed proteasome storage granules (PSGs). Here, we show that PSGs help protect proteasomes from autophagic degradation. Both the core protease and regulatory particle sub-complexes are sequestered separately into PSGs via pathways dependent on the accessory proteins Blm10 and Spg5, respectively. Modulating PSG formation, either by perturbing cellular energy status or pH, or by genetically eliminating factors required for granule assembly, not only influences the rate of proteasome degradation, but also impacts cell viability upon recovery from carbon starvation. PSG formation and concomitant protection against proteaphagy also occurs in Arabidopsis, suggesting that PSGs represent an evolutionarily conserved cache of proteasomes that can be rapidly re-mobilized based on energy availability.

Funding information:
  • National Institutes of Health - R01-GM124452-01A1()
  • National Science Foundation - IOS-1329956()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - DE020817(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM124452()
  • U.S. Department of Energy - DE-FG02-88ER13968()

Validation of a yeast malate dehydrogenase 2 (Mdh2) antibody tested for use in western blots.

  • Gabay-Maskit S
  • F1000Res
  • 2018 Mar 24

Literature context:


Malate dehydrogenases (Mdhs) reversibly convert malate to oxaloacetate and serve as important enzymes in several metabolic pathways. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae there are three Mdh isozymes, localized to different compartments in the cell. In order to identify specifically the Mdh2 isozyme, GenScript USA produced three different antibodies that we further tested by western blot. All three antibodies recognized the S. cerevisiae Mdh2 with different background and specificity properties. One of the antibodies had a relatively low background and high specificity and thus can be used for specific identification of Mdh2 in various experimental settings.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH013043(United States)

Organelle Specific O-Glycosylation Drives MMP14 Activation, Tumor Growth, and Metastasis.

  • Nguyen AT
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Nov 13

Literature context:


Cancers grow within tissues through molecular mechanisms still unclear. Invasiveness correlates with perturbed O-glycosylation, a covalent modification of cell-surface proteins. Here, we show that, in human and mouse liver cancers, initiation of O-glycosylation by the GALNT glycosyl-transferases increases and shifts from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In a mouse liver cancer model, expressing an ER-targeted GALNT1 (ER-G1) massively increased tumor expansion, with median survival reduced from 23 to 10 weeks. In vitro cell growth was unaffected, but ER-G1 strongly enabled matrix degradation and tissue invasion. Unlike its Golgi-localized counterpart, ER-G1 glycosylates the matrix metalloproteinase MMP14, a process required for tumor expansion. Together, our results indicate that GALNTs strongly promote liver tumor growth after relocating to the ER.

Elucidation of the anti-autophagy mechanism of the Legionella effector RavZ using semisynthetic LC3 proteins.

  • Yang A
  • Elife
  • 2017 Apr 11

Literature context:


Autophagy is a conserved cellular process involved in the elimination of proteins and organelles. It is also used to combat infection with pathogenic microbes. The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila manipulates autophagy by delivering the effector protein RavZ to deconjugate Atg8/LC3 proteins coupled to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on autophagosomal membranes. To understand how RavZ recognizes and deconjugates LC3-PE, we prepared semisynthetic LC3 proteins and elucidated the structures of the RavZ:LC3 interaction. Semisynthetic LC3 proteins allowed the analysis of structure-function relationships. RavZ extracts LC3-PE from the membrane before deconjugation. RavZ initially recognizes the LC3 molecule on membranes via its N-terminal LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif. The RavZ α3 helix is involved in extraction of the PE moiety and docking of the acyl chains into the lipid-binding site of RavZ that is related in structure to that of the phospholipid transfer protein Sec14. Thus, Legionella has evolved a novel mechanism to specifically evade host autophagy.

A conserved bacterial protein induces pancreatic beta cell expansion during zebrafish development.

  • Hill JH
  • Elife
  • 2016 Dec 13

Literature context:


Resident microbes play important roles in the development of the gastrointestinal tract, but their influence on other digestive organs is less well explored. Using the gnotobiotic zebrafish, we discovered that the normal expansion of the pancreatic β cell population during early larval development requires the intestinal microbiota and that specific bacterial members can restore normal β cell numbers. These bacteria share a gene that encodes a previously undescribed protein, named herein BefA (β Cell Expansion Factor A), which is sufficient to induce β cell proliferation in developing zebrafish larvae. Homologs of BefA are present in several human-associated bacterial species, and we show that they have conserved capacity to stimulate β cell proliferation in larval zebrafish. Our findings highlight a role for the microbiota in early pancreatic β cell development and suggest a possible basis for the association between low diversity childhood fecal microbiota and increased diabetes risk.

A New DREADD Facilitates the Multiplexed Chemogenetic Interrogation of Behavior.

  • Vardy E
  • Neuron
  • 2015 May 20

Literature context:


DREADDs are chemogenetic tools widely used to remotely control cellular signaling, neuronal activity, and behavior. Here we used a structure-based approach to develop a new Gi-coupled DREADD using the kappa-opioid receptor as a template (KORD) that is activated by the pharmacologically inert ligand salvinorin B (SALB). Activation of virally expressed KORD in several neuronal contexts robustly attenuated neuronal activity and modified behaviors. Additionally, co-expression of the KORD and the Gq-coupled M3-DREADD within the same neuronal population facilitated the sequential and bidirectional remote control of behavior. The availability of DREADDs activated by different ligands provides enhanced opportunities for investigating diverse physiological systems using multiplexed chemogenetic actuators.