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Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG (H L)-HRP Conjugate antibody

RRID:AB_11125142

The Balance of PI3K and ERK Signaling Is Dysregulated in Prolactinoma and Modulated by Dopamine.

  • Roof AK
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Prolactin-secreting adenomas, or prolactinomas, cause hypogonadism, osteoporosis, and infertility. Although dopamine agonists (DAs) are used clinically to treat prolactinoma and reduce prolactin secretion via cAMP inhibition, the precise mechanism by which DAs inhibit lactotrope proliferation has not been defined. In this study, we report that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signals through AKT and mTOR to drive proliferation of pituitary somatolactotrope GH4T2 cells. We demonstrate that the DA cabergoline reduces activity of the mTOR effector s6K and diminishes GH4T2 cell proliferation primarily via activation of the long isoform of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). Dysfunctional D2R-mediated signaling and/or downregulated D2R expression is thought be the primary mechanism of DA resistance, which is observed in 10% to 20% of prolactinoma tumors. Dopamine-mediated D2R activation results in ERK stimulation and PI3K inhibition, suggesting that these two pathways act in an inverse manner to maintain lactotrope homeostasis. In this study, we found that ERK1/2-mediated prolactin transcription is inhibited by PI3K/CDK4-driven cell cycle progression, emphasizing that the ERK and PI3K signaling pathways oppose one another in lactotrope cells under homeostatic conditions. Lastly, we show that both ERK1/2 and AKT are activated in prolactinoma, demonstrating that the balance of ERK and AKT is dysregulated in human prolactinoma. Our findings reveal a potential use for dual pharmacological inhibitors of ERK and AKT as an alternative treatment strategy for DA-resistant prolactinomas.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY020889-02(United States)

Early-Ethanol Exposure Induced Region-Specific Changes in Metabolic Proteins in the Rat Brain: A Proteomics Study.

  • Swart PC
  • J. Mol. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

In utero exposure to alcohol has been shown to cause a spectrum of cognitive and behavioral deficits. This study aimed to explore the long-term effects of early-ethanol exposure on proteins in the brain. Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to 12% ethanol (4 g/kg/day i.p.) or volume-controlled saline during the third human trimester equivalent (P4-P9). At P31, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) proteins were analyzed by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Early-ethanol exposure increased the capacity for metabolism of NADH and oxidative phosphorylation, as shown by an upregulation of NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone, 1 alpha subcomplex 9) while simultaneously decreasing the capacity to protect against oxidative stress in the PFC. Early-ethanol exposure decreased the capacity for ATP synthesis (> 2-fold down regulation of ATP synthase) and increased glycogen synthesis in the DH (> 2-fold decrease in glycogen synthase kinase-3β). The effects of early-ethanol exposure on glucose metabolism and ATP production appeared to be region specific. In addition, early-ethanol exposure decreased structural proteins in both the PFC and DH. A greater number of proteins were altered in the DH than in the PFC, indicating that the DH may be more susceptible to the effects of early-ethanol exposure. These proteomic profiles provide valuable insight into the long-term molecular changes in the brain induced by early-ethanol exposure.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - P41 EB002027(United States)

Distinct Activities of Glycolytic Enzymes Identify Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients with a more Aggressive Course and Resistance to Chemo-Immunotherapy.

  • Gdynia G
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2018 Jun 10

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Abstract:

A higher capacity to grow under hypoxic conditions can lead to a more aggressive behavior of tumor cells. Determining tumor activity under hypoxia may identify chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with aggressive clinical course and predict response to chemo-immunotherapy (CIT). A metabolic score was generated by determining pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, key enzymes of glycolysis, ex vivo in primary CLL samples under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. This score was further correlated with clinical endpoints and response to CIT in 96 CLL patients. 45 patients were classified as metabolic high risk (HR), 51 as low risk (LR). Treatment-free survival (TFS) was significantly shorter in HR patients (median 394 vs 723 days, p = .021). 15 HR patients and 14 LR patients received CIT after sample acquisition. HR patients had a significantly shorter progression-free survival after treatment compared to LR patients (median 216 days vs not reached, p = .008). Multivariate analysis evaluating age, IGHV, TP53 deletion or mutation and 11q22-23 deletion besides the capacity of tumor cells to grow under severe hypoxic conditions identified the metabolic profile as the strongest independent risk factor for shorter TFS (hazard ratio 2.37, p = .011). The metabolic risk can provide prognostic and predictive information complementary to genetic biomarkers and identify patients who might benefit from alternative treatment approaches.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM086663(United States)

Visualization of ligand-induced transmembrane signaling in the full-length human insulin receptor.

  • Gutmann T
  • J. Cell Biol.
  • 2018 May 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Insulin receptor (IR) signaling plays a critical role in the regulation of metabolism and growth in multicellular organisms. IRs are unique among receptor tyrosine kinases in that they exist exclusively as covalent (αβ)2 homodimers at the cell surface. Transmembrane signaling by the IR can therefore not be based on ligand-induced dimerization as such but must involve structural changes within the existing receptor dimer. In this study, using glycosylated full-length human IR reconstituted into lipid nanodiscs, we show by single-particle electron microscopy that insulin binding to the dimeric receptor converts its ectodomain from an inverted U-shaped conformation to a T-shaped conformation. This structural rearrangement of the ectodomain propagates to the transmembrane domains, which are well separated in the inactive conformation but come close together upon insulin binding, facilitating autophosphorylation of the cytoplasmic kinase domains.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01CA155413(United States)

Differential toxicity of TDP-43 isoforms depends on their sub-mitochondrial localization in neuronal cells.

  • Salvatori I
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 May 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is an RNA binding protein and a major component of protein aggregates found in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and several other neurodegenerative diseases. TDP-43 exists as a full length protein and as two shorter forms of 25 and 35 kDa. Full length mutant TDP-43s found in ALS patients re-localize from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and in part to mitochondria, where they exert a toxic role associated with neurodegeneration. However, induction of mitochondrial damage by TDP-43 fragments is yet to be clarified. In this work, we show that the mitochondrial 35 kDa truncated form of TDP-43 is restricted to the intermembrane space while the full length forms also localise in the mitochondrial matrix in cultured neuronal NSC-34 cells. Interestingly, the full length forms clearly affect mitochondrial metabolism and morphology, possibly via their ability to inhibit the expression of Complex I subunits encoded by the mitochondrial-transcribed mRNAs, while the 35 kDa form does not. In the light of the known differential contribution of the full length and short isoforms to generate toxic aggregates, we propose that the presence of full length TDP-43s in the matrix is a primary cause of mitochondrial damage. This in turn may cause oxidative stress inducing toxic oligomers formation, in which short TDP-43 forms play a major role. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL108186(United States)

Systematic Characterization of Stress-Induced RNA Granulation.

  • Namkoong S
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Upon stress, cytoplasmic mRNA is sequestered to insoluble ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, such as the stress granule (SG). Partially due to the belief that translationally suppressed mRNAs are recruited to SGs in bulk, stress-induced dynamic redistribution of mRNA has not been thoroughly characterized. Here, we report that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress targets only a small subset of translationally suppressed mRNAs into the insoluble RNP granule fraction (RG). This subset, characterized by extended length and adenylate-uridylate (AU)-rich motifs, is highly enriched with genes critical for cell survival and proliferation. This pattern of RG targeting was conserved for two other stress types, heat shock and arsenite toxicity, which induce distinct responses in the total cytoplasmic transcriptome. Nevertheless, stress-specific RG-targeting motifs, such as guanylate-cytidylate (GC)-rich motifs in heat shock, were also identified. Previously underappreciated, transcriptome profiling in the RG may contribute to understanding human diseases associated with RNP dysfunction, such as cancer and neurodegeneration.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI043477(United States)

Activation of the Notch Signaling Pathway In Vivo Elicits Changes in CSL Nuclear Dynamics.

  • Gomez-Lamarca MJ
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 12

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Abstract:

A key feature of Notch signaling is that it directs immediate changes in transcription via the DNA-binding factor CSL, switching it from repression to activation. How Notch generates both a sensitive and accurate response-in the absence of any amplification step-remains to be elucidated. To address this question, we developed real-time analysis of CSL dynamics including single-molecule tracking in vivo. In Notch-OFF nuclei, a small proportion of CSL molecules transiently binds DNA, while in Notch-ON conditions CSL recruitment increases dramatically at target loci, where complexes have longer dwell times conferred by the Notch co-activator Mastermind. Surprisingly, recruitment of CSL-related corepressors also increases in Notch-ON conditions, revealing that Notch induces cooperative or "assisted" loading by promoting local increase in chromatin accessibility. Thus, in vivo Notch activity triggers changes in CSL dwell times and chromatin accessibility, which we propose confer sensitivity to small input changes and facilitate timely shut-down.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - CA084179(United Kingdom)
  • Wellcome Trust - R01 CA178974()

Remote Coupled Drastic β-Barrel to β-Sheet Transition of the Protein Translocation Motor.

  • Furukawa A
  • Structure
  • 2018 Mar 6

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Abstract:

The membrane protein SecDF, belonging to the RND superfamily, enhances protein translocation at the extracytoplasmic side using a proton gradient. Here, we report the crystal structure of SecDF in a form we named Super-membrane-facing (Super F) form, demonstrating a β-barrel architecture instead of the previously reported β-sheet structure. Through this structural insight and supporting results of an in vivo crosslinking experiment, we propose a remote coupling model in which a structural change of the transmembrane region drives a functional, extracytoplasmic conformational transition.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - P50MH103222(United States)

The Response of Prostate Smooth Muscle Cells to Testosterone Is Determined by the Subcellular Distribution of the Androgen Receptor.

  • Peinetti N
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Androgen signaling in prostate smooth muscle cells (pSMCs) is critical for the maintenance of prostate homeostasis, the alterations of which are a central aspect in the development of pathological conditions. Testosterone can act through the classic androgen receptor (AR) in the cytoplasm, eliciting genomic signaling, or through different types of receptors located at the plasma membrane for nongenomic signaling. We aimed to find evidence of nongenomic testosterone-signaling mechanisms in pSMCs and their participation in cell proliferation, differentiation, and the modulation of the response to lipopolysaccharide. We demonstrated that pSMCs can respond to testosterone by a rapid activation of ERK1/2 and Akt. Furthermore, a pool of ARs localized at the cell surface of pSMCs is responsible for a nongenomic testosterone-induced increase in cell proliferation. Through membrane receptor stimulation, testosterone favors a muscle phenotype, indicated by an increase in smooth muscle markers. We also showed that the anti-inflammatory effects of testosterone, capable of attenuating lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory actions, are promoted only by receptors located inside the cell. We postulate that testosterone might perform prohomeostatic effects through intracellular-initiated mechanisms by modulating cell proliferation and inflammation, whereas some pathological, hyperproliferative actions would be induced by membrane-initiated nongenomic signaling in pSMCs.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA AG000741-09(United States)

Overexpression of the Histone Dimethyltransferase G9a in Nucleus Accumbens Shell Increases Cocaine Self-Administration, Stress-Induced Reinstatement, and Anxiety.

  • Anderson EM
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jan 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Repeated exposure to cocaine induces lasting epigenetic changes in neurons that promote the development and persistence of addiction. One epigenetic alteration involves reductions in levels of the histone dimethyltransferase G9a in nucleus accumbens (NAc) after chronic cocaine administration. This reduction in G9a may enhance cocaine reward because overexpressing G9a in the NAc decreases cocaine-conditioned place preference. Therefore, we hypothesized that HSV-mediated G9a overexpression in the NAc shell (NAcSh) would attenuate cocaine self-administration (SA) and cocaine-seeking behavior. Instead, we found that G9a overexpression, and the resulting increase in histone 3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2), increases sensitivity to cocaine reinforcement and enhances motivation for cocaine in self-administering male rats. Moreover, when G9a overexpression is limited to the initial 15 d of cocaine SA training, it produces an enduring postexpression enhancement in cocaine SA and prolonged (over 5 weeks) increases in reinstatement of cocaine seeking induced by foot-shock stress, but in the absence of continued global elevations in H3K9me2. The increase in stress-induced reinstatement is paralleled by heightened anxiety measures, suggesting that countering the cocaine-induced decreases in endogenous G9a with ectopic G9a overexpression leads to lasting anxiogenic effects. Finally, we found an enduring reduction in phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein levels in the NAcSh that could account for the increased anxiety. These data demonstrate a novel role for G9a in promoting comorbid cocaine addiction and anxiety and suggest that increased epigenetic repression of transcription through H3K9 during cocaine use can have long-lasting and unexpected negative consequences on behavior.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cocaine addiction is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is detrimental to society and currently has no effective treatments. The difficulty in treating drug addiction is compounded by the high comorbidity with other psychiatric illnesses, including anxiety disorders. Here, we demonstrate that G9a, an epigenetic repressor of gene expression, acting in the nucleus accumbens, a brain reward region, is capable of increasing both addiction- and anxiety-like behaviors in rats. These findings are intriguing because repeated cocaine exposure decreases G9a in this region and thereby enhances expression of certain addiction-promoting genes. However, our results suggest that countering this cocaine-induced decrease in G9a activity actually exacerbates addiction and sensitivity to relapse under stressful situations.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI51622(United States)
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P01 DA008227()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - T32 DA007290()

Cells Escape an Operational Mitotic Checkpoint through a Stochastic Process.

  • Bonaiuti P
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Jan 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Improperly attached chromosomes activate the mitotic checkpoint that arrests cell division before anaphase. Cells can maintain an arrest for several hours but eventually will resume proliferation, a process we refer to as adaptation. Whether adapting cells bypass an active block or whether the block has to be removed to resume proliferation is not clear. Likewise, it is not known whether all cells of a genetically homogeneous population are equally capable to adapt. Here, we show that the mitotic checkpoint is operational when yeast cells adapt and that each cell has the same propensity to adapt. Our results are consistent with a model of the mitotic checkpoint where adaptation is driven by random fluctuations of APC/CCdc20, the molecular species inhibited by the checkpoint. Our data provide a quantitative framework for understanding how cells overcome a constant stimulus that halts cell cycle progression.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01-AI041158(United States)

PTEN Regulates PI(3,4)P2 Signaling Downstream of Class I PI3K.

  • Malek M
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

The PI3K signaling pathway regulates cell growth and movement and is heavily mutated in cancer. Class I PI3Ks synthesize the lipid messenger PI(3,4,5)P3. PI(3,4,5)P3 can be dephosphorylated by 3- or 5-phosphatases, the latter producing PI(3,4)P2. The PTEN tumor suppressor is thought to function primarily as a PI(3,4,5)P3 3-phosphatase, limiting activation of this pathway. Here we show that PTEN also functions as a PI(3,4)P2 3-phosphatase, both in vitro and in vivo. PTEN is a major PI(3,4)P2 phosphatase in Mcf10a cytosol, and loss of PTEN and INPP4B, a known PI(3,4)P2 4-phosphatase, leads to synergistic accumulation of PI(3,4)P2, which correlated with increased invadopodia in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated cells. PTEN deletion increased PI(3,4)P2 levels in a mouse model of prostate cancer, and it inversely correlated with PI(3,4)P2 levels across several EGF-stimulated prostate and breast cancer lines. These results point to a role for PI(3,4)P2 in the phenotype caused by loss-of-function mutations or deletions in PTEN.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS037462(United States)

Suppression of galactocerebrosidase premature termination codon and rescue of galactocerebrosidase activity in twitcher cells.

  • Luddi A
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Nov 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Krabbe's disease (KD) is a degenerative lysosomal storage disease resulting from deficiency of β-galactocerebrosidase activity. Over 100 mutations are known to cause the disease, and these usually occur in compound heterozygote patterns. In affected patients, nonsense mutations leading to a nonfunctional enzyme are often found associated with other mutations. The twitcher mouse is a naturally occurring model of KD, containing in β-galactocerebrosidase a premature stop codon, W339X. Recent studies have shown that selected compounds may induce the ribosomal bypass of premature stop codons without affecting the normal termination codons. The rescue of β-galactocerebrosidase activity induced by treatment with premature termination codon (PTC) 124, a well-characterized compound known to induce ribosomal read-through, was investigated on oligodendrocytes prepared from twitcher mice and on human fibroblasts from patients bearing nonsense mutations. The effectiveness of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) inhibitor 1 (NMDI1), a newly identified inhibitor of NMD, was also tested. Incubation of these cell lines with PTC124 and NMDI1 increased the levels of mRNA and rescued galactocerebrosidase enzymatic activity in a dose-dependent manner. The low but sustained expression of β-galactocerebrosidase in oligodendrocytes was sufficient to improve the morphology of the differentiated cells. Our in vitro approach provides the basis for further investigation of ribosomal read-through as an alternative therapeutic strategy to ameliorate the quality of life in selected KD patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lithium improves cell viability in psychosine-treated MO3.13 human oligodendrocyte cell line via autophagy activation.

  • Del Grosso A
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Nov 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD) is a rare, rapidly progressing childhood leukodystrophy triggered by deficit of the lysosomal enzyme galactosylceramidase (GALC) and characterized by the accumulation of galactosylsphingosine (psychosine; PSY) in the nervous system. PSY is a cytotoxic sphingolipid, which leads to widespread degeneration of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, causing demyelination. Here we report on autophagy in the human oligodendrocyte cell line MO3.13 treated with PSY and exploitation of Li as an autophagy modulator to rescue cell viability. We demonstrate that PSY causes upregulation of the autophagic flux at the level of autophagosome and autolysosome formation and LC3-II expression. We show that pretreatment with Li, a drug clinically used to treat bipolar disorders, can further stimulate autophagy, improving cell tolerance to PSY. This Li protective effect is found not to be linked to reduction of PSY-induced oxidative stress and might not stem from a reduction of PSY accumulation. These data provide novel information on the intracellular pathways activated during PSY-induced toxicity and suggest the autophagy pathway as a promising novel therapeutic target for ameliorating the GLD phenotype. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH093445(United States)

The X-Linked Autism Protein KIAA2022/KIDLIA Regulates Neurite Outgrowth via N-Cadherin and δ-Catenin Signaling.

  • Gilbert J
  • eNeuro
  • 2017 Oct 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Our previous work showed that loss of the KIAA2022 gene protein results in intellectual disability with language impairment and autistic behavior (KIDLIA, also referred to as XPN). However, the cellular and molecular alterations resulting from a loss of function of KIDLIA and its role in autism with severe intellectual disability remain unknown. Here, we show that KIDLIA plays a key role in neuron migration and morphogenesis. We found that KIDLIA is distributed exclusively in the nucleus. In the developing rat brain, it is expressed only in the cortical plate and subplate region but not in the intermediate or ventricular zone. Using in utero electroporation, we found that short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of KIDLIA leads to altered neuron migration and a reduction in dendritic growth and disorganized apical dendrite projections in layer II/III mouse cortical neurons. Consistent with this, in cultured rat neurons, a loss of KIDLIA expression also leads to suppression of dendritic growth and branching. At the molecular level, we found that KIDLIA suppression leads to an increase in cell-surface N-cadherin and an elevated association of N-cadherin with δ-catenin, resulting in depletion of free δ-catenin in the cytosolic compartment. The reduced availability of cytosolic δ-catenin leads to elevated RhoA activity and reduced actin dynamics at the dendritic growth cone. Furthermore, in neurons with KIDLIA knockdown, overexpression of δ-catenin or inhibition of RhoA rescues actin dynamics, dendritic growth, and branching. These findings provide the first evidence on the role of the novel protein KIDLIA in neurodevelopment and autism with severe intellectual disability.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - K01 DA029044(United States)

An Oxidative Central Metabolism Enables Salmonella to Utilize Microbiota-Derived Succinate.

  • Spiga L
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Sep 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mucosal inflammatory response induced by Salmonella serovar Typhimurium creates a favorable niche for this gut pathogen. Conventional wisdom holds that S. Typhimurium undergoes an incomplete tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in the anaerobic mammalian gut. One change during S. Typhimurium-induced inflammation is the production of oxidized compounds by infiltrating neutrophils. We show that inflammation-derived electron acceptors induce a complete, oxidative TCA cycle in S. Typhimurium, allowing the bacteria to compete with the microbiota for colonization. A complete TCA cycle facilitates utilization of the microbiota-derived fermentation product succinate as a carbon source. S. Typhimurium succinate utilization genes contribute to efficient colonization in conventionally raised mice, but provide no growth advantage in germ-free mice. Mono-association of gnotobiotic mice with Bacteroides, a major succinate producer, restores succinate utilization in S. Typhimurium. Thus, oxidative central metabolism enables S. Typhimurium to utilize a variety of carbon sources, including microbiota-derived succinate.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI118807()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI103248()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI128151()

Muscle Directs Diurnal Energy Homeostasis through a Myokine-Dependent Hormone Module in Drosophila.

  • Zhao X
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Jul 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inter-tissue communication is critical to control organismal energy homeostasis in response to temporal changes in feeding and activity or external challenges. Muscle is emerging as a key mediator of this homeostatic control through consumption of lipids, carbohydrates, and amino acids, as well as governing systemic signaling networks. However, it remains less clear how energy substrate usage tissues, such as muscle, communicate with energy substrate storage tissues in order to adapt with diurnal changes in energy supply and demand. Using Drosophila, we show here that muscle plays a crucial physiological role in promoting systemic synthesis and accumulation of lipids in fat storage tissues, which subsequently impacts diurnal changes in circulating lipid levels. Our data reveal that the metabolic transcription factor Foxo governs expression of the cytokine unpaired 2 (Upd2) in skeletal muscle, which acts as a myokine to control glucagon-like adipokinetic hormone (AKH) secretion from specialized neuroendocrine cells. Circulating AKH levels in turn regulate lipid homeostasis in fat body/adipose and the intestine. Our data also reveal that this novel myokine-dependent hormone module is critical to maintain diurnal rhythms in circulating lipids. This tissue crosstalk provides a putative mechanism that allows muscle to integrate autonomous energy demand with systemic energy storage and turnover. Together, these findings reveal a diurnal inter-tissue signaling network between muscle and fat storage tissues that constitutes an ancestral mechanism governing systemic energy homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK108930()

Attenuating Staphylococcus aureus Virulence by Targeting Flotillin Protein Scaffold Activity.

  • Koch G
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Scaffold proteins are ubiquitous chaperones that bind proteins and facilitate physical interaction of multi-enzyme complexes. Here we used a biochemical approach to dissect the scaffold activity of the flotillin-homolog protein FloA of the multi-drug-resistant human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. We show that FloA promotes oligomerization of membrane protein complexes, such as the membrane-associated RNase Rny, which forms part of the RNA-degradation machinery called the degradosome. Cells lacking FloA had reduced Rny function and a consequent increase in the targeted sRNA transcripts that negatively regulate S. aureus toxin expression. Small molecules that altered FloA oligomerization also reduced Rny function and decreased the virulence potential of S. aureus in vitro, as well as in vivo, using invertebrate and murine infection models. Our results suggest that flotillin assists in the assembly of protein complexes involved in S. aureus virulence, and could thus be an attractive target for the development of new antimicrobial therapies.

PP2A Controls Genome Integrity by Integrating Nutrient-Sensing and Metabolic Pathways with the DNA Damage Response.

  • Ferrari E
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mec1ATR mediates the DNA damage response (DDR), integrating chromosomal signals and mechanical stimuli. We show that the PP2A phosphatases, ceramide-activated enzymes, couple cell metabolism with the DDR. Using genomic screens, metabolic analysis, and genetic and pharmacological studies, we found that PP2A attenuates the DDR and that three metabolic circuits influence the DDR by modulating PP2A activity. Irc21, a putative cytochrome b5 reductase that promotes the condensation reaction generating dihydroceramides (DHCs), and Ppm1, a PP2A methyltransferase, counteract the DDR by activating PP2A; conversely, the nutrient-sensing TORC1-Tap42 axis sustains DDR activation by inhibiting PP2A. Loss-of-function mutations in IRC21, PPM1, and PP2A and hyperactive tap42 alleles rescue mec1 mutants. Ceramides synergize with rapamycin, a TORC1 inhibitor, in counteracting the DDR. Hence, PP2A integrates nutrient-sensing and metabolic pathways to attenuate the Mec1ATR response. Our observations imply that metabolic changes affect genome integrity and may help with exploiting therapeutic options and repositioning known drugs.

Wild-Type Monomeric α-Synuclein Can Impair Vesicle Endocytosis and Synaptic Fidelity via Tubulin Polymerization at the Calyx of Held.

  • Eguchi K
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jun 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

α-Synuclein is a presynaptic protein the function of which has yet to be identified, but its neuronal content increases in patients of synucleinopathies including Parkinson's disease. Chronic overexpression of α-synuclein reportedly expresses various phenotypes of synaptic dysfunction, but the primary target of its toxicity has not been determined. To investigate this, we acutely loaded human recombinant α-synuclein or its pathological mutants in their monomeric forms into the calyces of Held presynaptic terminals in slices from auditorily mature and immature rats of either sex. Membrane capacitance measurements revealed significant and specific inhibitory effects of WT monomeric α-synuclein on vesicle endocytosis throughout development. However, the α-synuclein A53T mutant affected vesicle endocytosis only at immature calyces, whereas the A30P mutant had no effect throughout. The endocytic impairment by WT α-synuclein was rescued by intraterminal coloading of the microtubule (MT) polymerization blocker nocodazole. Furthermore, it was reversibly rescued by presynaptically loaded photostatin-1, a photoswitcheable inhibitor of MT polymerization, in a light-wavelength-dependent manner. In contrast, endocytic inhibition by the A53T mutant at immature calyces was not rescued by nocodazole. Functionally, presynaptically loaded WT α-synuclein had no effect on basal synaptic transmission evoked at a low frequency, but significantly attenuated exocytosis and impaired the fidelity of neurotransmission during prolonged high-frequency stimulation. We conclude that monomeric WT α-synuclein primarily inhibits vesicle endocytosis via MT overassembly, thereby impairing high-frequency neurotransmission.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Abnormal α-synuclein abundance is associated with synucleinopathies including Parkinson's disease, but neither the primary target of α-synuclein toxicity nor its mechanism is identified. Here, we loaded monomeric α-synuclein directly into mammalian glutamatergic nerve terminals and found that it primarily inhibits vesicle endocytosis and subsequently impairs exocytosis and neurotransmission fidelity during prolonged high-frequency stimulation. Such α-synuclein toxicity could be rescued by blocking microtubule polymerization, suggesting that microtubule overassembly underlies the toxicity of acutely elevated α-synuclein in the nerve terminal.

Dopamine neuronal loss contributes to memory and reward dysfunction in a model of Alzheimer's disease.

  • Nobili A
  • Nat Commun
  • 2017 Apr 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alterations of the dopaminergic (DAergic) system are frequently reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and are commonly linked to cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms. However, the cause of DAergic system dysfunction in AD remains to be elucidated. We investigated alterations of the midbrain DAergic system in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD, overexpressing a mutated human amyloid precursor protein (APPswe). Here, we found an age-dependent DAergic neuron loss in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) at pre-plaque stages, although substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) DAergic neurons were intact. The selective VTA DAergic neuron degeneration results in lower DA outflow in the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. The progression of DAergic cell death correlates with impairments in CA1 synaptic plasticity, memory performance and food reward processing. We conclude that in this mouse model of AD, degeneration of VTA DAergic neurons at pre-plaque stages contributes to memory deficits and dysfunction of reward processing.

Development of an in vitro method to estimate the sensitization induction level of contact allergens.

  • Galbiati V
  • Toxicol. Lett.
  • 2017 Apr 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

No standardized in vitro methods to assess potency of skin sensitizers are available. Recently, we standardized a procedure which combines the epidermal equivalent potency assay with assessment of IL-18 to provide a single test for identification and classification of skin sensitizers. This current study aimed to extend tested chemicals, and to provide a simple in vitro method for estimation of the expected sensitization induction level interpolating in vitro EC50 and IL-18 SI2 values to predict LLNA EC3 and/or human NOEL from standards curves generated using reference contact allergens. Reconstituted human epidermis was challenged with 14 chemicals not previously tested benzoquinone, chlorpromazine, chloramine T, benzyl salicylate, diethyl maleate, dihydroeugenol, 2,4-dichloronitrobenzene, benzyl cinnamate, imidazolidinyl urea, and limonene as contact sensitizers while benzyl alcohol, isopropanol, dimethyl isophthalate and 4-aminobenzoic acid as non-sensitizers in the LLNA. Where for benzyl salicylate and benzyl cinnamate no sensitization was observed in human predictive studies, positive responses to benzyl alcohol and dimethyl isophthalate were reported. The proposed method correlates better with human data, correctly predicting substances incorrectly classified by LLNA. With the exception of benzoquinone (interference with both MTT and IL-18 ELISA), and chloramine T (underestimated in the interpolation), a good estimation of LLNA EC3 and in vivo available human NOEL values was obtained.

Inhibitor of ppGalNAc-T3-mediated O-glycosylation blocks cancer cell invasiveness and lowers FGF23 levels.

  • Song L
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Small molecule inhibitors of site-specific O-glycosylation by the polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (ppGalNAc-T) family are currently unavailable but hold promise as therapeutics, especially if selective against individual ppGalNAc-T isozymes. To identify a compound targeting the ppGalNAc-T3 isozyme, we screened libraries to find compounds that act on a cell-based fluorescence sensor of ppGalNAc-T3 but not on a sensor of ppGalNAc-T2. This identified a hit that subsequent in vitro analysis showed directly binds and inhibits purified ppGalNAc-T3 with no detectable activity against either ppGalNAc-T2 or ppGalNAc-T6. Remarkably, the inhibitor was active in two medically relevant contexts. In cell culture, it opposed increased cancer cell invasiveness driven by upregulated ppGalNAc-T3 suggesting the inhibitor might be anti-metastatic. In cells and mice, it blocked ppGalNAc-T3-mediated glycan-masking of FGF23 thereby increasing its cleavage, a possible treatment of chronic kidney disease. These findings establish a pharmacological approach for the ppGalNAc-transferase family and suggest that targeting specific ppGalNAc-transferases will yield new therapeutics.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R21 DE026714(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P20 GM103648(United States)

Control of immune ligands by members of a cytomegalovirus gene expansion suppresses natural killer cell activation.

  • Fielding CA
  • Elife
  • 2017 Feb 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US12 family consists of ten sequentially arranged genes (US12-21) with poorly characterized function. We now identify novel natural killer (NK) cell evasion functions for four members: US12, US14, US18 and US20. Using a systematic multiplexed proteomics approach to quantify ~1300 cell surface and ~7200 whole cell proteins, we demonstrate that the US12 family selectively targets plasma membrane proteins and plays key roles in regulating NK ligands, adhesion molecules and cytokine receptors. US18 and US20 work in concert to suppress cell surface expression of the critical NKp30 ligand B7-H6 thus inhibiting NK cell activation. The US12 family is therefore identified as a major new hub of immune regulation.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_UU_12014/3()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K01 DK098285()

DNA methylation directs genomic localization of Mbd2 and Mbd3 in embryonic stem cells.

  • Hainer SJ
  • Elife
  • 2016 Nov 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cytosine methylation is an epigenetic and regulatory mark that functions in part through recruitment of chromatin remodeling complexes containing methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins. Two MBD proteins, Mbd2 and Mbd3, were previously shown to bind methylated or hydroxymethylated DNA, respectively; however, both of these findings have been disputed. Here, we investigated this controversy using experimental approaches and re-analysis of published data and find no evidence for methylation-independent functions of Mbd2 or Mbd3. We show that chromatin localization of Mbd2 and Mbd3 is highly overlapping and, unexpectedly, we find Mbd2 and Mbd3 are interdependent for chromatin association. Further investigation reveals that both proteins are required for normal levels of cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation in murine embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, Mbd2 and Mbd3 regulate overlapping sets of genes that are also regulated by DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation factors. These findings reveal an interdependent regulatory mechanism mediated by the DNA methylation machinery and its readers.

Toxic PR Poly-Dipeptides Encoded by the C9orf72 Repeat Expansion Target LC Domain Polymers.

  • Lin Y
  • Cell
  • 2016 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Two complementary approaches were used in search of the intracellular targets of the toxic PR poly-dipeptide encoded by the repeat sequences expanded in the C9orf72 form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The top categories of PRn-bound proteins include constituents of non-membrane invested cellular organelles and intermediate filaments. PRn targets are enriched for the inclusion of low complexity (LC) sequences. Evidence is presented indicating that LC sequences represent the direct target of PRn binding and that interaction between the PRn poly-dipeptide and LC domains is polymer-dependent. These studies indicate that PRn-mediated toxicity may result from broad impediments to the dynamics of cell structure and information flow from gene to message to protein.

Portable, On-Demand Biomolecular Manufacturing.

  • Pardee K
  • Cell
  • 2016 Sep 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Synthetic biology uses living cells as molecular foundries for the biosynthesis of drugs, therapeutic proteins, and other commodities. However, the need for specialized equipment and refrigeration for production and distribution poses a challenge for the delivery of these technologies to the field and to low-resource areas. Here, we present a portable platform that provides the means for on-site, on-demand manufacturing of therapeutics and biomolecules. This flexible system is based on reaction pellets composed of freeze-dried, cell-free transcription and translation machinery, which can be easily hydrated and utilized for biosynthesis through the addition of DNA encoding the desired output. We demonstrate this approach with the manufacture and functional validation of antimicrobial peptides and vaccines and present combinatorial methods for the production of antibody conjugates and small molecules. This synthetic biology platform resolves important practical limitations in the production and distribution of therapeutics and molecular tools, both to the developed and developing world.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U24 NS050606(United States)

Proteomic Analysis of Unbounded Cellular Compartments: Synaptic Clefts.

  • Loh KH
  • Cell
  • 2016 Aug 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cellular compartments that cannot be biochemically isolated are challenging to characterize. Here we demonstrate the proteomic characterization of the synaptic clefts that exist at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Normal brain function relies on the careful balance of these opposing neural connections, and understanding how this balance is achieved relies on knowledge of their protein compositions. Using a spatially restricted enzymatic tagging strategy, we mapped the proteomes of two of the most common excitatory and inhibitory synaptic clefts in living neurons. These proteomes reveal dozens of synaptic candidates and assign numerous known synaptic proteins to a specific cleft type. The molecular differentiation of each cleft allowed us to identify Mdga2 as a potential specificity factor influencing Neuroligin-2's recruitment of presynaptic neurotransmitters at inhibitory synapses.

β-Arrestin 2 is a mediator of GnRH-(1-5) signaling in immortalized GnRH neurons.

  • Larco DO
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Dec 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have previously demonstrated that the cleavage product of the full-length GnRH, GnRH-(1-5), is biologically active, binds G protein-coupled receptor 173 (GPR173), and inhibits the migration of cells in the immortalized GnRH-secreting GN11 cell. In this study, we attempted to characterize the GnRH-(1-5) intracellular signaling mechanism. To determine whether the signaling pathway mediating GnRH-(1-5) regulation of migration involves a G protein-dependent mechanism, cells were treated with a generic G protein antagonist in the presence and absence of GnRH-(1-5), and a wound-healing assay was conducted to measure migration. G Protein antagonist 2 treatment abolished the GnRH-(1-5) inhibition of migration, indicating that the mechanism of GnRH-(1-5) is G protein coupled. To identify the potential Gα-subunit recruited by GnRH-(1-5) binding GPR173, we measured the second messengers cAMP and inositol triphosphate levels. GnRH-(1-5) treatment did not alter cAMP levels relative to cells treated with vehicle or forskolin, suggesting that GnRH-(1-5) does not couple to the Gαs or Gαi subunits. Similarly, inositol triphosphate levels remained unchanged with GnRH-(1-5) treatment, indicating a mechanism not mediated by the Gαq/11 subunit. Therefore, we also examined whether GnRH-(1-5) activating GPR173 deviated from the canonical G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway by coupling to β-arrestin 1/2 to regulate migration. Our coimmunoprecipitation studies indicate that GnRH-(1-5) induces the rapid interaction between GPR173 and β-arrestin 2 in GN11 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this association recruits phosphatase and tensin homolog to mediate the downstream action of GnRH-(1-5). These findings suggest that the GnRH-(1-5) mechanism deviates from the canonical G protein-coupled receptor pathway to regulate cell migration in immortalized GnRH neurons.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21 CA190775(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - HD 21350(United States)

Growth hormone is necessary for the p53-mediated, obesity-induced insulin resistance in male C57BL/6J x CBA mice.

  • Bogazzi F
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Nov 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Insulin resistance is a key marker of both obesity and GH excess. The purpose of the study was to assess the role of GH on p53-mediated insulin resistance of male mice with obesity due to a high-fat diet. C57BL/6J × CBA male mice fed on a high-fat diet (Obe) were studied; male mice fed a normal diet (Lean) or transgenic mice for bovine GH under the same genetic background (Acro) served as controls. The convergence of p53 and GH pathways was evaluated by Western blot. Obe mice had insulin resistance, which was sustained by a selective increased expression of p53 in adipose tissue. Normal insulin sensitivity was restored, and adipose p53 expression normalized when the GH pathway was blocked. Only the adipose p53 expression was sensitive to the GH blockage, which occurred through the p38 pathway. Adipose tissue of Obe mice had a coordinate overexpression of suppressors of cytokine signal 1-3 and signal transducers and activators of transcription-1, -3, and -5b, not different from that of Acro mice, suggesting an increased sensitivity of adipose tissue to GH. On the contrary, Lean mice were unaffected by changes of GH action. GH seems to be necessary for the increased adipose p53 expression and for insulin resistance of obese mice.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - RM1 HG006193(United States)

ERα-targeted therapy in ovarian cancer cells by a novel estradiol-platinum(II) hybrid.

  • Brasseur K
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

As we previously showed, we have synthesized a new family of 17β-estradiol-platinum(II) hybrids. Earlier studies revealed the VP-128 hybrid to show high efficiency compared with cisplatin toward hormone-dependent breast cancer cells. In the present research, we have studied the antitumor activity of VP-128 in vitro and in vivo against ovarian cancer. In nude mice with ovarian xenografts, VP-128 displayed selective activity toward hormone-dependent tumors and showed higher efficiency than cisplatin to inhibit tumor growth. Similarly, in vitro, transient transfection of estrogen receptor (ER)-α in ERα-negative A2780 cells increased their sensitivity to VP-128-induced apoptosis, confirming the selectivity of VP-128 toward hormone-dependent tumor cells. In agreement, Western blot analysis revealed that VP-128 induced higher caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage compared with cisplatin. The activation of caspase-independent apoptosis was also observed in ERα-negative A2780 cells, in which VP-128 rapidly induced the translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor to the nucleus. Conversely, subcellular localization of apoptosis-inducing factor was not modified in ERα-positive Ovcar-3 cells. We also discovered that VP-128 induces autophagy in ovarian cancer cells because of the formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) and increase of Light Chain 3B-II protein responsible for the formation of autophagosomes; pathways related to autophagy (AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin) were also down-regulated, supporting this mechanism. Finally, the inhibition of autophagy using chloroquine increased VP-128 efficiency, indicating a possible combination therapy. Altogether these results highlight the beneficial value of VP-128 for the treatment of hormone-dependent ovarian cancers and provide preliminary proof of concept for the efficient targeting of ERα- by 17β-estradiol-Pt(II)-linked chemotherapeutic hybrids in these tumors.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK079310(United States)

Concanavalin-A induces granulosa cell death and inhibits FSH-mediated follicular growth and ovarian maturation in female rats.

  • Velasquez EV
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Reproductive success stems from a finely regulated balance between follicular maturation and atresia, in which the role of carbohydrate structure is poorly understood. Here, we describe for the first time a fraction of purified recombinant human FSH that is capable of bringing about the cell death of granulosa cells and preventing follicular maturation in a rat model. Further analysis by mass spectrometry revealed the presence of the lectin Concanavalin-A (Con-A) within this fraction of recombinant FSH. Using both the fractionated FSH and Con-A, the observed cell death was predominantly located to the granulosa cells. Ex vivo culture of rat follicles demonstrated that follicle degeneration occurred and resulted in the release of a denuded and deteriorated oocyte. Moreover, in vivo experiments confirmed an increase in atresia and a corresponding reduction confined to follicle in early antral stage. As a mechanism of action, Con-A reduces ovarian proliferation, Von Willebrand staining, and angiogenesis. Based on the observation that Con-A may induce granulosa cell death followed by follicle death, our results further demonstrate that follicular carbohydrate moiety is changing under the influence of FSH, which may allow a carbohydrate-binding lectin to increase granulosa cell death. The physiological consequences of circulating lectin-like molecules remain to be determined. However, our results suggest a potential exploitation of carbohydrate binding in fertility and ovarian cancer treatment. This work may shed light on a key role of carbohydrates in the still obscure physiological process of follicular selection and atresia.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK084352(United States)