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Monoclonal Anti-GAPDH antibody produced in mouse

RRID:AB_1078991

Antibody ID

AB_1078991

Target Antigen

GAPDH antibody produced in mouse canine, bovine, mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, chicken/bird, other mammalian, human, non-human primate, rat, chicken, human, turkey, mouse, bovine, canine, mink, monkey, hamster, rabbit

Proper Citation

(Sigma-Aldrich Cat# G8795, RRID:AB_1078991)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Vendor recommendations: IgM; IgM Other; Immunocytochemistry; Western Blot; ELISA; immunoblotting: 0.025-0.05 mug/mL

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

Sigma-Aldrich

PARP1-dependent recruitment of the FBXL10-RNF68-RNF2 ubiquitin ligase to sites of DNA damage controls H2A.Z loading.

  • Rona G
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jul 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mammalian FBXL10-RNF68-RNF2 ubiquitin ligase complex (FRRUC) mono-ubiquitylates H2A at Lys119 to repress transcription in unstressed cells. We found that the FRRUC is rapidly and transiently recruited to sites of DNA damage in a PARP1- and TIMELESS-dependent manner to promote mono-ubiquitylation of H2A at Lys119, a local decrease of H2A levels, and an increase of H2A.Z incorporation. Both the FRRUC and H2A.Z promote transcriptional repression, double strand break signaling, and homologous recombination repair (HRR). All these events require both the presence and activity of the FRRUC. Moreover, the FRRUC and its activity are required for the proper recruitment of BMI1-RNF2 and MEL18-RNF2, two other ubiquitin ligases that mono-ubiquitylate Lys119 in H2A upon genotoxic stress. Notably, whereas H2A.Z is not required for H2A mono-ubiquitylation, impairment of the latter results in the inhibition of H2A.Z incorporation. We propose that the recruitment of the FRRUC represents an early and critical regulatory step in HRR.

Funding information:
  • American Cancer Society - ACS 130304-RSG-16-241-01-DMC()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01- GM057691()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01-CA076584()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01-GM057587()
  • National Institutes of Health - R21-CA187612()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - ES07784(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM057587()
  • The Rosztoczy Foundation - Fellowship()

mTORC1 Promotes Metabolic Reprogramming by the Suppression of GSK3-Dependent Foxk1 Phosphorylation.

  • He L
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1)-signaling system plays a critical role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis by sensing and integrating multiple extracellular and intracellular cues. Therefore, uncovering the effectors of mTORC1 signaling is pivotal to understanding its pathophysiological effects. Here we report that the transcription factor forkhead/winged helix family k1 (Foxk1) is a mediator of mTORC1-regulated gene expression. Surprisingly, Foxk1 phosphorylation is increased upon mTORC1 suppression, which elicits a 14-3-3 interaction, a reduction of DNA binding, and nuclear exclusion. Mechanistically, this occurs by mTORC1-dependent suppression of nuclear signaling by the Foxk1 kinase, Gsk3. This pathway then regulates the expression of multiple genes associated with glycolysis and downstream anabolic pathways directly modulated by Foxk1 and/or by Foxk1-regulated expression of Hif-1α. Thus, Foxk1 mediates mTORC1-driven metabolic rewiring, and it is likely to be critical for metabolic diseases where improper mTORC1 signaling plays an important role.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL121266()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P41 GM103533(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM051405()

Targeting p38α Increases DNA Damage, Chromosome Instability, and the Anti-tumoral Response to Taxanes in Breast Cancer Cells.

  • Cánovas B
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women. Here we report a role for the protein kinase p38α in coordinating the DNA damage response and limiting chromosome instability during breast tumor progression, and identify the DNA repair regulator CtIP as a p38α substrate. Accordingly, decreased p38α signaling results in impaired ATR activation and homologous recombination repair, with concomitant increases in replication stress, DNA damage, and chromosome instability, leading to cancer cell death and tumor regression. Moreover, we show that pharmacological inhibition of p38α potentiates the effects of taxanes by boosting chromosome instability in murine models and patient-derived xenografts, suggesting the potential interest of combining p38α inhibitors with chemotherapeutic drugs that induce chromosome instability.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM068812(United States)

Intracellular Proteolysis of Progranulin Generates Stable, Lysosomal Granulins that Are Haploinsufficient in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia Caused by GRN Mutations.

  • Holler CJ
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Homozygous or heterozygous mutations in the GRN gene, encoding progranulin (PGRN), cause neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) or frontotemporal dementia (FTD), respectively. NCL and FTD are characterized by lysosome dysfunction and neurodegeneration, indicating PGRN is important for lysosome homeostasis in the brain. PGRN is trafficked to the lysosome where its functional role is unknown. PGRN can be cleaved into seven 6-kDa proteins called granulins (GRNs); however, little is known about how GRNs are produced or if levels of GRNs are altered in FTD-GRN mutation carriers. Here, we report the identification and characterization of antibodies that reliably detect several human GRNs by immunoblot and immunocytochemistry. Using these tools, we find that endogenous GRNs are present within multiple cell lines and are constitutively produced. Further, extracellular PGRN is endocytosed and rapidly processed into stable GRNs within lysosomes. Processing of PGRN into GRNs is conserved between humans and mice and is modulated by sortilin expression and mediated by cysteine proteases (i.e. cathpesin L). Induced lysosome dysfunction caused by alkalizing agents or increased expression of transmembrane protein 106B (TMEM106B) inhibit processing of PGRN into GRNs. Finally, we find that multiple GRNs are haploinsufficient in primary fibroblasts and cortical brain tissue from FTD-GRN patients. Taken together, our findings raise the interesting possibility that GRNs carry out critical lysosomal functions and that loss of GRNs should be explored as an initiating factor in lysosomal dysfunction and neurodegeneration caused by GRN mutations.

The Amaryllidaceae Alkaloid Haemanthamine Binds the Eukaryotic Ribosome to Repress Cancer Cell Growth.

  • Pellegrino S
  • Structure
  • 2018 Mar 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alkaloids isolated from the Amaryllidaceae plants have potential as therapeutics for treating human diseases. Haemanthamine has been studied as a novel anticancer agent due to its ability to overcome cancer cell resistance to apoptosis. Biochemical experiments have suggested that hemanthamine targets the ribosome. However, a structural characterization of its mechanism has been missing. Here we present the 3.1 Å resolution X-ray structure of haemanthamine bound to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 80S ribosome. This structure reveals that haemanthamine targets the A-site cleft on the large ribosomal subunit rearranging rRNA to halt the elongation phase of translation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that haemanthamine and other Amaryllidaceae alkaloids also inhibit specifically ribosome biogenesis, triggering nucleolar stress response and leading to p53 stabilization in cancer cells. Together with a computer-aided interpretation of existing structure-activity relationships of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids congeners, we provide a rationale for designing molecules with enhanced potencies and reduced toxicities.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK071909(United States)

c-RAF Ablation Induces Regression of Advanced Kras/Trp53 Mutant Lung Adenocarcinomas by a Mechanism Independent of MAPK Signaling.

  • Sanclemente M
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Feb 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

A quarter of all solid tumors harbor KRAS oncogenes. Yet, no selective drugs have been approved to treat these malignancies. Genetic interrogation of the MAPK pathway revealed that systemic ablation of MEK or ERK kinases in adult mice prevent tumor development but are unacceptably toxic. Here, we demonstrate that ablation of c-RAF expression in advanced tumors driven by KrasG12V/Trp53 mutations leads to significant tumor regression with no detectable appearance of resistance mechanisms. Tumor regression results from massive apoptosis. Importantly, systemic abrogation of c-RAF expression does not inhibit canonical MAPK signaling, hence, resulting in limited toxicities. These results are of significant relevance for the design of therapeutic strategies to treat K-RAS mutant cancers.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL076604(United States)

As Extracellular Glutamine Levels Decline, Asparagine Becomes an Essential Amino Acid.

  • Pavlova NN
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Feb 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

When mammalian cells are deprived of glutamine, exogenous asparagine rescues cell survival and growth. Here we report that this rescue results from use of asparagine in protein synthesis. All mammalian cell lines tested lacked cytosolic asparaginase activity and could not utilize asparagine to produce other amino acids or biosynthetic intermediates. Instead, most glutamine-deprived cell lines are capable of sufficient glutamine synthesis to maintain essential amino acid uptake and production of glutamine-dependent biosynthetic precursors, with the exception of asparagine. While experimental introduction of cytosolic asparaginase could enhance the synthesis of glutamine and increase tricarboxylic acid cycle anaplerosis and the synthesis of nucleotide precursors, cytosolic asparaginase suppressed the growth and survival of cells in glutamine-depleted medium in vitro and severely compromised the in vivo growth of tumor xenografts. These results suggest that the lack of asparaginase activity represents an evolutionary adaptation to allow mammalian cells to survive pathophysiologic variations in extracellular glutamine.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA008748()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI091457(United States)

Post-transcriptional Regulation of De Novo Lipogenesis by mTORC1-S6K1-SRPK2 Signaling.

  • Lee G
  • Cell
  • 2017 Dec 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

mTORC1 is a signal integrator and master regulator of cellular anabolic processes linked to cell growth and survival. Here, we demonstrate that mTORC1 promotes lipid biogenesis via SRPK2, a key regulator of RNA-binding SR proteins. mTORC1-activated S6K1 phosphorylates SRPK2 at Ser494, which primes Ser497 phosphorylation by CK1. These phosphorylation events promote SRPK2 nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of SR proteins. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals that lipid biosynthetic enzymes are among the downstream targets of mTORC1-SRPK2 signaling. Mechanistically, SRPK2 promotes SR protein binding to U1-70K to induce splicing of lipogenic pre-mRNAs. Inhibition of this signaling pathway leads to intron retention of lipogenic genes, which triggers nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of SRPK2 blunts de novo lipid synthesis, thereby suppressing cell growth. These results thus reveal a novel role of mTORC1-SRPK2 signaling in post-transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism and demonstrate that SRPK2 is a potential therapeutic target for mTORC1-driven metabolic disorders.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL074894(United States)

Activation of Ras-ERK Signaling and GSK-3 by Amyloid Precursor Protein and Amyloid Beta Facilitates Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's Disease.

  • Kirouac L
  • eNeuro
  • 2017 Oct 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is widely accepted that amyloid β (Aβ) generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP) oligomerizes and fibrillizes to form neuritic plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet little is known about the contribution of APP to intracellular signaling events preceding AD pathogenesis. The data presented here demonstrate that APP expression and neuronal exposure to oligomeric Aβ42 enhance Ras/ERK signaling cascade and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) activation. We find that RNA interference (RNAi)-directed knockdown of APP in B103 rat neuroblastoma cells expressing APP inhibits Ras-ERK signaling and GSK-3 activation, indicating that APP acts upstream of these signal transduction events. Both ERK and GSK-3 are known to induce hyperphosphorylation of tau and APP at Thr668, and our findings suggest that aberrant signaling by APP facilitates these events. Supporting this notion, analysis of human AD brain samples showed increased expression of Ras, activation of GSK-3, and phosphorylation of APP and tau, which correlated with Aβ levels in the AD brains. Furthermore, treatment of primary rat neurons with Aβ recapitulated these events and showed enhanced Ras-ERK signaling, GSK-3 activation, upregulation of cyclin D1, and phosphorylation of APP and tau. The finding that Aβ induces Thr668 phosphorylation on APP, which enhances APP proteolysis and Aβ generation, denotes a vicious feedforward mechanism by which APP and Aβ promote tau hyperphosphorylation and neurodegeneration in AD. Based on these results, we hypothesize that aberrant proliferative signaling by APP plays a fundamental role in AD neurodegeneration and that inhibition of this would impede cell cycle deregulation and neurodegeneration observed in AD.

Activity-Dependent Gating of Parvalbumin Interneuron Function by the Perineuronal Net Protein Brevican.

  • Favuzzi E
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Activity-dependent neuronal plasticity is a fundamental mechanism through which the nervous system adapts to sensory experience. Several lines of evidence suggest that parvalbumin (PV+) interneurons are essential in this process, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the influence of experience on interneuron plasticity remain poorly understood. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) enwrapping PV+ cells are long-standing candidates for playing such a role, yet their precise contribution has remained elusive. We show that the PNN protein Brevican is a critical regulator of interneuron plasticity. We find that Brevican simultaneously controls cellular and synaptic forms of plasticity in PV+ cells by regulating the localization of potassium channels and AMPA receptors, respectively. By modulating Brevican levels, experience introduces precise molecular and cellular modifications in PV+ cells that are required for learning and memory. These findings uncover a molecular program through which a PNN protein facilitates appropriate behavioral responses to experience by dynamically gating PV+ interneuron function.

MLL/WDR5 Complex Regulates Kif2A Localization to Ensure Chromosome Congression and Proper Spindle Assembly during Mitosis.

  • Ali A
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL), along with multisubunit (WDR5, RbBP5, ASH2L, and DPY30) complex catalyzes the trimethylation of H3K4, leading to gene activation. Here, we characterize a chromatin-independent role for MLL during mitosis. MLL and WDR5 localize to the mitotic spindle apparatus, and loss of function of MLL complex by RNAi results in defects in chromosome congression and compromised spindle formation. We report interaction of MLL complex with several kinesin and dynein motors. We further show that the MLL complex associates with Kif2A, a member of the Kinesin-13 family of microtubule depolymerase, and regulates the spindle localization of Kif2A during mitosis. We have identified a conserved WDR5 interaction (Win) motif, so far unique to the MLL family, in Kif2A. The Win motif of Kif2A engages in direct interactions with WDR5 for its spindle localization. Our findings highlight a non-canonical mitotic function of MLL complex, which may have a direct impact on chromosomal stability, frequently compromised in cancer.

Agenesis of the corpus callosum in Nogo receptor deficient mice.

  • Yoo SW
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest fiber tract in the mammalian brain, linking the bilateral cerebral hemispheres. CC development depends on the proper balance of axon growth cone attractive and repellent cues leading axons to the midline and then directing them to the contralateral hemisphere. Imbalance of these cues results in CC agenesis or dysgenesis. Nogo receptors (NgR1, NgR2, and NgR3) are growth cone directive molecules known for inhibiting axon regeneration after injury. We report that mice lacking Nogo receptors (NgR123-null mice) display complete CC agenesis due to axon misdirection evidenced by ectopic axons including cortical Probst bundles. Because glia and glial-derived growth cone repellent factors (especially the diffusible factor Slit2) are required for CC development, their distribution was studied. Compared with wild-type mice, NgR123-null mice had a sharp increase in the glial marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and in Slit2 at the glial wedge and indusium griseum, midline structures required for CC formation. NgR123-null mice displayed reduced motor coordination and hyperactivity. These data are consistent with the hypotheses that Nogo receptors are membrane-bound growth cone repellent factors required for migration of axons across the midline at the CC, and that their absence results directly or indirectly in midline gliosis, increased Slit2, and complete CC agenesis. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:291-301, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL117986(United States)

Essential Role of IGFIR in the Onset of Male Brown Fat Thermogenic Function: Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis by Differential Organ-Specific Insulin Sensitivity.

  • Viana-Huete V
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Aug 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Brown fat is a thermogenic tissue that generates heat to maintain body temperature in cold environments and dissipate excess energy in response to overfeeding. We have addressed the role of the IGFIR in the brown fat development and function. Mice lacking IGFIR exhibited normal brown adipose tissue/body weight in knockout (KO) vs control mice. However, lack of IGFIR decreased uncoupling protein 1 expression in interscapular brown fat and beige cells in inguinal fat. More importantly, the lack of IGFIR resulted in an impaired cold acclimation. No differences in the total fat volume were found in the KO vs control mice. Epididymal fat showed larger adipocytes but with a lower number of adipocytes in KO vs control mice at age 12 months. In addition, KO mice showed a sustained moderate hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia upon time and hepatic insulin insensitivity associated with lipid accumulation, with the outcome of a global insulin resistance. In addition, we found that the expression of uncoupling protein 3 in the skeletal muscle was decreased and its expression was increased in the heart in parallel with the expression of beta-2 adrenergic receptors. Upon nonobesogenic high-fat diet, we found a severe insulin resistance in the liver and in the skeletal muscle, but unchanged insulin sensitivity in the heart. In conclusion, our data suggest that IGFIR it is not an essential growth factor in the brown fat development in the presence of the IR and very high plasma levels of IGF-I, but it is indispensable for full brown fat functionality.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - 5K01NS085071-03(United States)

Induction of neural differentiation in rat C6 glioma cells with taxol.

  • Chao CC
  • Brain Behav
  • 2015 Dec 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is a common and aggressive type of primary brain tumor. Several anticancer drugs affect GBM (glioblastoma multiforme) cells on cell growth and morphology. Taxol is one of the widely used antineoplastic drugs against many types of solid tumors, such as breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers. However, the effect of taxol on GBM cells remains unclear and requires further investigation. METHODS: Survival rate of C6 glioma cells under different taxol concentrations was quantified. To clarify the differentiation patterns of rat C6 glioma cells under taxol challenge, survived glioma cells were characterized by immunocytochemical, molecular biological, and cell biological approaches. RESULTS: After taxol treatment, not only cell death but also morphological changes, including cell elongation, cellular processes thinning, irregular shapes, and fragmented nucleation or micronuclei, occurred in the survived C6 cells. Neural differentiation markers NFL (for neurons), β III-tubulin (for neurons), GFAP (for astrocytes), and CNPase (for oligodendrocytes) were detected in the taxol-treated C6 cells. Quantitative analysis suggested a significant increase in the percentage of neural differentiated cells. The results exhibited that taxol may trigger neural differentiation in C6 glioma cells. Increased expression of neural differentiation markers in C6 cells after taxol treatment suggest that some anticancer drugs could be applied to elimination of the malignant cancer cells as well as changing proliferation and differentiation status of tumor cells.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 098362/Z/12/Z(United Kingdom)

The role of exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP 2-mediated calreticulin expression in the decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells.

  • Kusama K
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jan 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) accompanied by the production of prolactin (PRL) and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) 1 and rounded-cell morphology is indispensable for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated cAMP signaling is known to be crucial for decidualization. We previously reported that activation of a cAMP mediator, called Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) promotes cAMP analog- or ovarian steroid-induced decidualization in cultured human ESCs. In addition, small interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of the EPAC subtypes, EPAC1 or EPAC2, or knock-down of Rap1, a downstream factor of EPAC signaling, blocked functional and morphological decidualization of ESCs. However, factors downstream of EPAC2 other than Rap1 have not been determined. The present study was undertaken to identify additional downstream targets of EPAC2 associated with decidualization. Using proteomic analysis, we identified calreticulin (CRT) as a potential target of EPAC2. Knock-down of CRT expression in cultured ESCs significantly inhibited PKA-selective cAMP analog- or PKA-selective cAMP analog plus EPAC-selective cAMP analog-induced PRL and IGFBP1 expression. Furthermore, CRT knock-down suppressed the ovarian steroid-stimulated PRL and IGFBP1 expression and morphological differentiation, and silencing of EPAC2 or CRT significantly increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity with enhanced p21 expression and decreased p53 expression. These results suggest that EPAC2 and CRT are associated with cellular senescence in ESCs. In conclusion, we demonstrate here that EPAC2-mediated CRT expression is essential for the functional and morphological differentiation of ESCs into decidual cells. Furthermore, both EPAC2 and CRT might prevent ESCs from undergoing abnormal cellular senescence during decidualization.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS042225(United States)

Müller cells express the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in the vervet monkey retina.

  • Bouskila J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The presence of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) has been largely documented in the rodent and primate retinae in recent years. There is, however, some controversy concerning the presence of the CB2 receptor (CB2R) within the central nervous system. Only recently, CB2R has been found in the rodent retina, but its presence in the primate retina has not yet been demonstrated. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to characterize the distribution patterns of CB2R in the monkey retina and compare this distribution with that previously reported for CB1R and 2) to resolve the controversy on the presence of CB2R in the neural component of the retina. We therefore thoroughly examined the cellular localization of CB2R in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabeus) retina, using confocal microscopy. Our results demonstrate that CB2R, like CB1R, is present throughout the retinal layers, but with striking dissimilarities. Double labeling of CB2R and glutamine synthetase shows that CB2R is restricted to Müller cell processes, extending from the internal limiting membrane, with very low staining, to the external limiting membrane, with heavy labeling. We conclude that CB2R is indeed present in the retina but exclusively in the retinal glia, whereas CB1R is expressed only in the neuroretina. These results extend our knowledge on the expression and distribution of cannabinoid receptors in the monkey retina, although further experiments are still needed to clarify their role in retinal functions.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM081084(United States)

Cannabinoid receptor type 1 expression during postnatal development of the rat retina.

  • Zabouri N
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) participates in developmental processes in the central nervous system (CNS). The rodent retina represents an interesting and valuable model for studying CNS development, because it contains well-identified cell types with clearly established and distinct developmental timelines. Very little is known about the distribution or function of CB1R in the developing retina. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of CB1R in the rat retina during all stages of postnatal development. Western blots were performed on retinal tissue at different time points between P1 and adulthood. In order to identify the cells expressing the receptor and the age at which this expression started, immunohistochemical co-staining was carried out for CB1R and markers of the different cell types comprising the retina. CB1R was already present at P1 in various cell types, i.e., ganglion, amacrine, horizontal, and mitotic cells. In the course of development, it appeared in cone photoreceptors and bipolar cells. For some cell types (bipolar, Müller, and some amacrine cells), CB1R was transiently expressed, suggesting a potential role of this receptor in developmental processes, such as migration, morphological changes, sub-identity acquisition, and patterned retinal spontaneous activity. Our results also indicated that CB1R is largely expressed in the adult retina (cone photoreceptors and horizontal, most amacrine, and retinal ganglion cells), and may therefore contribute to retinal functions. Overall these results indicate that, as shown in other structures of the brain, CB1R could play an instrumental role in the development and function of the retina.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH076136(United States)