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Pan-Shank scaffold protein antibody

RRID:AB_10672418

Antibody ID

AB_10672418

Target Antigen

Pan-Shank scaffold protein null

Proper Citation

(UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility Cat# 75-089, RRID:AB_10672418)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Originating manufacturer of this product. Applications: IB, ICC, IHC, IP, WB. Validation status: IF or IB (Pass), IB in brain (Pass), IHC in brain (Pass), KO (ND).

Clone ID

N23B/49

Host Organism

mouse

Casein kinase 2 phosphorylates GluA1 and regulates its surface expression.

  • Lussier MP
  • Eur. J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Controlling the density of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) at synapses is essential for regulating the strength of excitatory neurotransmission. In particular, the phosphorylation of AMPARs is important for defining both synaptic expression and intracellular routing of receptors. Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification known to regulate many cellular events and the C-termini of glutamate receptors are important targets. Recently, the first intracellular loop1 region of the GluA1 subunit of AMPARs was reported to regulate synaptic targeting through phosphorylation of S567 by Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Intriguingly, the loop1 region of all four AMPAR subunits contains many putative phosphorylation sites (S/T/Y), leaving the possibility that other kinases may regulate AMPAR surface expression via phosphorylation of the loop regions. To explore this hypothesis, we used in vitro phosphorylation assays with a small panel of purified kinases and found that casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylates the GluA1 and GluA2 loop1 regions, but not GluA3 or GluA4. Interestingly, when we reduced the endogenous expression of CK2 using a specific short hairpin RNA against the regulatory subunit CK2β, we detected a reduction of GluA1 surface expression, whereas GluA2 was unchanged. Furthermore, we identified S579 of GluA1 as a substrate of CK2, and the expression of GluA1 phosphodeficient mutants in hippocampal neurons displayed reduced surface expression. Therefore, our study identifies CK2 as a regulator of GluA1 surface expression by phosphorylating the intracellular loop1 region.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS-23805(United States)

Homer is concentrated at the postsynaptic density and does not redistribute after acute synaptic stimulation.

  • Tao-Cheng JH
  • Neuroscience
  • 2014 Apr 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Homer is a postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold protein that is involved in synaptic plasticity, calcium signaling and neurological disorders. Here, we use pre-embedding immunogold electron microscopy to illustrate the differential localization of three Homer gene products (Homer 1, 2, and 3) in different regions of the mouse brain. In cross-sectioned PSDs, Homer occupies a layer ∼30-100nm from the postsynaptic membrane lying just beyond the dense material that defines the PSD core (∼30-nm-thick). Homer is evenly distributed within the PSD area along the lateral axis, but not at the peri-PSD locations within 60nm from the edge of the PSD, where type I-metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and 5) are concentrated. This distribution of Homer matches that of Shank, another major PSD scaffold protein, but differs from those of other two major binding partners of Homer, type I mGluR and IP3 receptors. Many PSD proteins rapidly redistribute upon acute (2min) stimulation. To determine whether Homer distribution is affected by acute stimulation, we examined its distribution in dissociated hippocampal cultures under different conditions. Both the pattern and density of label for Homer 1, the isoform that is ubiquitous in hippocampus, remained unchanged under high K(+) depolarization (90mM for 2-5min), N-methyl-d-asparic acid (NMDA) treatment (50μM for 2min), and calcium-free conditions (EGTA at 1mM for 2min). In contrast, Shank and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) accumulate at the PSD upon NMDA treatment, and CaMKII is excluded from the PSD complex under low calcium conditions.

Funding information:
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR000004(United States)

Neuroligin1 drives synaptic and behavioral maturation through intracellular interactions.

  • Hoy JL
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2013 May 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

In vitro studies suggest that the intracellular C terminus of Neuroligin1 (NL1) could play a central role in the maturation of excitatory synapses. However, it is unknown how this activity affects synapses in vivo, and whether it may impact the development of complex behaviors. To determine how NL1 influences the state of glutamatergic synapses in vivo, we compared the synaptic and behavioral phenotypes of mice overexpressing a full-length version of NL1 (NL1FL) with mice overexpressing a version missing part of the intracellular domain (NL1ΔC). We show that overexpression of full-length NL1 yielded an increase in the proportion of synapses with mature characteristics and impaired learning and flexibility. In contrast, the overexpression of NL1ΔC increased the number of excitatory postsynaptic structures and led to enhanced flexibility in mnemonic and social behaviors. Transient overexpression of NL1FL revealed that elevated levels are not necessary to maintain synaptic and behavioral states altered earlier in development. In contrast, overexpression of NL1FL in the fully mature adult was able to impair normal learning behavior after 1 month of expression. These results provide the first evidence that NL1 significantly impacts key developmental processes that permanently shape circuit function and behavior, as well as the function of fully developed neural circuits. Overall, these manipulations of NL1 function illuminate the significance of NL1 intracellular signaling in vivo, and enhance our understanding of the factors that gate the maturation of glutamatergic synapses and complex behavior. This has significant implications for our ability to address disorders such as autism spectrum disorders.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - WT077008(United Kingdom)

The novel synaptogenic protein Farp1 links postsynaptic cytoskeletal dynamics and transsynaptic organization.

  • Cheadle L
  • J. Cell Biol.
  • 2012 Dec 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Synaptic adhesion organizes synapses, yet the signaling pathways that drive and integrate synapse development remain incompletely understood. We screened for regulators of these processes by proteomically analyzing synaptic membranes lacking the synaptogenic adhesion molecule SynCAM 1. This identified FERM, Rho/ArhGEF, and Pleckstrin domain protein 1 (Farp1) as strongly reduced in SynCAM 1 knockout mice. Farp1 regulates dendritic filopodial dynamics in immature neurons, indicating roles in synapse formation. Later in development, Farp1 is postsynaptic and its 4.1 protein/ezrin/radixin/moesin (FERM) domain binds SynCAM 1, assembling a synaptic complex. Farp1 increases synapse number and modulates spine morphology, and SynCAM 1 requires Farp1 for promoting spines. In turn, SynCAM 1 loss reduces the ability of Farp1 to elevate spine density. Mechanistically, Farp1 activates the GTPase Rac1 in spines downstream of SynCAM 1 clustering, and promotes F-actin assembly. Farp1 furthermore triggers a retrograde signal regulating active zone composition via SynCAM 1. These results reveal a postsynaptic signaling pathway that engages transsynaptic interactions to coordinate synapse development.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - HG01436(United States)

Preso1 dynamically regulates group I metabotropic glutamate receptors.

  • Hu JH
  • Nat. Neurosci.
  • 2012 Sep 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), including mGluR1 and mGluR5, are G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are expressed at excitatory synapses in brain and spinal cord. GPCRs are often negatively regulated by specific G protein–coupled receptor kinases and subsequent binding of arrestin-like molecules. Here we demonstrate an alternative mechanism in which group I mGluRs are negatively regulated by proline-directed kinases that phosphorylate the binding site for the adaptor protein Homer, and thereby enhance mGluR–Homer binding to reduce signaling. This mechanism is dependent on a multidomain scaffolding protein, Preso1, that binds mGluR, Homer and proline-directed kinases and that is required for their phosphorylation of mGluR at the Homer binding site. Genetic ablation of Preso1 prevents dynamic phosphorylation of mGluR5, and Preso1(−/−) mice exhibit sustained, mGluR5-dependent inflammatory pain that is linked to enhanced mGluR signaling. Preso1 creates a microdomain for proline-directed kinases with broad substrate specificity to phosphorylate mGluR and to mediate negative regulation.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS069861(United States)

CDKL5 ensures excitatory synapse stability by reinforcing NGL-1-PSD95 interaction in the postsynaptic compartment and is impaired in patient iPSC-derived neurons.

  • Ricciardi S
  • Nat. Cell Biol.
  • 2012 Sep 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations of the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) and netrin-G1 (NTNG1) genes cause a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with clinical features that are closely related to Rett syndrome, including intellectual disability, early-onset intractable epilepsy and autism. We report here that CDKL5 is localized at excitatory synapses and contributes to correct dendritic spine structure and synapse activity. To exert this role, CDKL5 binds and phosphorylates the cell adhesion molecule NGL-1. This phosphorylation event ensures a stable association between NGL-1 and PSD95. Accordingly, phospho-mutant NGL-1 is unable to induce synaptic contacts whereas its phospho-mimetic form binds PSD95 more efficiently and partially rescues the CDKL5-specific spine defects. Interestingly, similarly to rodent neurons, iPSC-derived neurons from patients with CDKL5 mutations exhibit aberrant dendritic spines, thus suggesting a common function of CDKL5 in mice and humans.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 076113(United Kingdom)

The neuropeptide PACAP38 induces dendritic spine remodeling through ADAM10-N-cadherin signaling pathway.

  • Gardoni F
  • J. Cell. Sci.
  • 2012 Mar 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP38) has been implicated in the induction of synaptic plasticity at the excitatory glutamatergic synapse. In particular, recent studies have shown that it is involved in the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor activation. Here we demonstrate the effect of PACAP38 on the modulation of dendritic spine morphology through a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10)-N-cadherin-AMPA receptor signaling pathway. Treatment of primary hippocampal neurons with PACAP38 induced an accumulation of ADAM10 at the postsynaptic membrane. This event led to a significant decrease of dendritic spine head width and to a concomitant reduction of GluR1 colocalization with postsynaptic markers. The PACAP38-induced effect on dendritic spine head width was prevented by either treatment with the ADAM10-specific inhibitor or transfection of a cleavage-defective N-cadherin construct mutated in the ADAM10 cleavage site. Overall, our findings reveal that PACAP38 is involved in the modulation of dendritic spine morphology in hippocampal neurons, and assign to the ADAM10-N-cadherin signaling pathway a crucial role in this modification of the excitatory glutamatergic synapse.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 260602(International)
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01 GM077620(United States)

Activity dependent protein degradation is critical for the formation and stability of fear memory in the amygdala.

  • Jarome TJ
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2012 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system [UPS] plays a critical role in some forms of synaptic plasticity. However, its role in memory formation in the amygdala, a site critical for the formation of fear memories, currently remains unknown. Here we provide the first evidence that protein degradation through the UPS is critically engaged at amygdala synapses during memory formation and retrieval. Fear conditioning results in NMDA-dependent increases in degradation-specific polyubiquitination in the amygdala, targeting proteins involved in translational control and synaptic structure and blocking the degradation of these proteins significantly impairs long-term memory. Furthermore, retrieval of fear memory results in a second wave of NMDA-dependent polyubiquitination that targets proteins involved in translational silencing and synaptic structure and is critical for memory updating following recall. These results indicate that UPS-mediated protein degradation is a major regulator of synaptic plasticity necessary for the formation and stability of long-term memories at amygdala synapses.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL117986(United States)

SAP97-mediated local trafficking is altered in Alzheimer disease patients' hippocampus.

  • Marcello E
  • Neurobiol. Aging
  • 2012 Feb 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Synapse-asssociated protein-97 (SAP97) is responsible for the trafficking of both glutamate receptor subunits, GluR1 and NR2A, and α-secretase ADAM10 to the synaptic membrane. Here we evaluate the trafficking capability of SAP97 in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients' brain. We analyzed autoptic hippocampus and superior frontal gyrus, respectively as an affected and a less affected area, from 6 AD patients (Braak 4) and 6 healthy controls. In hippocampus, but not in superior frontal gyrus, of AD patients, ADAM10 and GluR1 synaptic membrane levels are altered while NR2A localization is not affected. Both immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays demonstrated that SAP97 failed to correctly couple to ADAM10 and GluR1, but not to NR2A. These findings not only indicate SAP97 as a point of convergence between amyloid cascade and synaptic failure in AD, but also allow a different interpretation of AD which can be now perceived as synaptic trafficking defect pathology.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/E011586/1(United Kingdom)
  • NIDA NIH HHS - U54-DA-021519(United States)

Importance of Shank3 protein in regulating metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) expression and signaling at synapses.

  • Verpelli C
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2011 Oct 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Shank3/PROSAP2 gene mutations are associated with cognitive impairment ranging from mental retardation to autism. Shank3 is a large scaffold postsynaptic density protein implicated in dendritic spines and synapse formation; however, its specific functions have not been clearly demonstrated. We have used RNAi to knockdown Shank3 expression in neuronal cultures and showed that this treatment specifically reduced the synaptic expression of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), but did not affect the expression of other major synaptic proteins. The functional consequence of Shank3 RNAi knockdown was impaired signaling via mGluR5, as shown by reduction in ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation induced by stimulation with (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) as the agonist of mGluR5 receptors, impaired mGluR5-dependent synaptic plasticity (DHPG-induced long-term depression), and impaired mGluR5-dependent modulation of neural network activity. We also found morphological abnormalities in the structure of synapses (spine number, width, and length) and impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission, as shown by reduction in the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC). Notably, pharmacological augmentation of mGluR5 activity using 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-benzamide as the positive allosteric modulator of these receptors restored mGluR5-dependent signaling (DHPG-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2) and normalized the frequency of mEPSCs in Shank3-knocked down neurons. These data demonstrate that a deficit in mGluR5-mediated intracellular signaling in Shank3 knockdown neurons can be compensated by 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-benzamide; this raises the possibility that pharmacological augmentation of mGluR5 activity represents a possible new therapeutic approach for patients with Shank3 mutations.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01-HG004885(United States)

Lateral assembly of the immunoglobulin protein SynCAM 1 controls its adhesive function and instructs synapse formation.

  • Fogel AI
  • EMBO J.
  • 2011 Sep 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Synapses are specialized adhesion sites between neurons that are connected by protein complexes spanning the synaptic cleft. These trans-synaptic interactions can organize synapse formation, but their macromolecular properties and effects on synaptic morphology remain incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that the synaptic cell adhesion molecule SynCAM 1 self-assembles laterally via its extracellular, membrane-proximal immunoglobulin (Ig) domains 2 and 3. This cis oligomerization generates SynCAM oligomers with increased adhesive capacity and instructs the interactions of this molecule across the nascent and mature synaptic cleft. In immature neurons, cis assembly promotes the adhesive clustering of SynCAM 1 at new axo-dendritic contacts. Interfering with the lateral self-assembly of SynCAM 1 in differentiating neurons strongly impairs its synaptogenic activity. At later stages, the lateral oligomerization of SynCAM 1 restricts synaptic size, indicating that this adhesion molecule contributes to the structural organization of synapses. These results support that lateral interactions assemble SynCAM complexes within the synaptic cleft to promote synapse induction and modulate their structure. These findings provide novel insights into synapse development and the adhesive mechanisms of Ig superfamily members.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY012135(United States)

Long-distance control of synapse assembly by target-derived NGF.

  • Sharma N
  • Neuron
  • 2010 Aug 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

We report a role for long-distance retrograde neurotrophin signaling in the establishment of synapses in the sympathetic nervous system. Target-derived NGF is both necessary and sufficient for formation of postsynaptic specializations on dendrites of sympathetic neurons. This, in turn, is a prerequisite for formation of presynaptic specializations, but not preganglionic axonal ingrowth from the spinal cord into sympathetic ganglia. We also find that NGF-TrkA signaling endosomes travel from distal axons to cell bodies and dendrites where they promote PSD clustering. Furthermore, the p75 neurotrophin receptor restricts PSD formation, suggesting an important role for antagonistic NGF-TrkA and p75 signaling pathways during retrograde control of synapse establishment. Thus, in addition to defining the appropriate number of sympathetic neurons that survive the period of developmental cell death, target-derived NGF also exerts control over the degree of connectivity between the spinal cord and sympathetic ganglia through retrograde control of synapse assembly.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U54 HG004555(United States)

The planar polarity protein Scribble1 is essential for neuronal plasticity and brain function.

  • Moreau MM
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2010 Jul 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Scribble (Scrib) is a key regulator of apicobasal polarity, presynaptic architecture, and short-term synaptic plasticity in Drosophila. In mammals, its homolog Scrib1 has been implicated in cancer, neural tube closure, and planar cell polarity (PCP), but its specific role in the developing and adult nervous system is unclear. Here, we used the circletail mutant, a mouse model for PCP defects, to show that Scrib1 is located in spines where it influences actin cytoskeleton and spine morphing. In the hippocampus of these mutants, we observed an increased synapse pruning associated with an increased number of enlarged spines and postsynaptic density, and a decreased number of perforated synapses. This phenotype was associated with a mislocalization of the signaling pathway downstream of Scrib1, leading to an overall activation of Rac1 and defects in actin dynamic reorganization. Finally, Scrib1-deficient mice exhibit enhanced learning and memory abilities and impaired social behavior, two features relevant to autistic spectrum disorders. Our data identify Scrib1 as a crucial regulator of brain development and spine morphology, and suggest that Scrib1(crc/+) mice might be a model for studying synaptic dysfunction and human psychiatric disorders.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01HG003362(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - G0802377(United Kingdom)