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Pan-Neurofascin antibody


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Pan-Neurofascin null

Proper Citation

(UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility Cat# 75-027, RRID:AB_10672370)


monoclonal antibody


Originating manufacturer of this product. Applications: IB, ICC, IHC, IP, WB. Validation status: IF or IB (Pass), IB in brain (Pass), IHC in brain (Pass), KO (ND).

Clone ID


Host Organism


Early Nodal and Paranodal Disruption in Autoimmune Optic Neuritis.

  • Stojic A
  • J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Disturbances in the nodes of Ranvier are an early phenomenon in many CNS disorders, including the autoimmune demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Using an animal model of optic neuritis, a common early symptom of MS, we have investigated nodal and paranodal compartments in the optic nerve during disease progression. Both nodes and paranodes, as identified by immunohistochemistry against sodium channels (Nav) and Caspr, respectively, were observed to increase in length during the late induction phase of the disease, prior to onset of the demyelination and immune cell infiltration characteristic of optic neuritis. These changes were correlated with both axonal stress and microglial/macrophage activation, and were most apparent in the vicinity of the retrobulbar optic nerve head, the unmyelinated region of the optic nerve where retinal ganglion cell axons exit the retina. Using intravitreal glutamate injection as a model of a primary retinal insult, we demonstrate that this can induce similar nodal and paranodal changes. This may suggest that onset of neurodegeneration in the absence of demyelination, as reported in several studies into the nonaffected eyes of MS patients, may give rise to subtle disturbances in the axo-glial junction.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM0557226(United States)

αII Spectrin Forms a Periodic Cytoskeleton at the Axon Initial Segment and Is Required for Nervous System Function.

  • Huang CY
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Nov 22

Literature context:


Spectrins form a submembranous cytoskeleton proposed to confer strength and flexibility to neurons and to participate in ion channel clustering at axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. Neuronal spectrin cytoskeletons consist of diverse β subunits and αII spectrin. Although αII spectrin is found in neurons in both axonal and somatodendritic domains, using proteomics, biochemistry, and superresolution microscopy, we show that αII and βIV spectrin interact and form a periodic AIS cytoskeleton. To determine the role of spectrins in the nervous system, we generated Sptan1f/f mice for deletion of CNS αII spectrin. We analyzed αII spectrin-deficient mice of both sexes and found that loss of αII spectrin causes profound reductions in all β spectrins. αII spectrin-deficient mice die before 1 month of age and have disrupted AIS and many other neurological impairments including seizures, disrupted cortical lamination, and widespread neurodegeneration. These results demonstrate the importance of the spectrin cytoskeleton both at the AIS and throughout the nervous system.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spectrin cytoskeletons play diverse roles in neurons, including assembly of excitable domains such as the axon initial segment (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. However, the molecular composition and structure of these cytoskeletons remain poorly understood. Here, we show that αII spectrin partners with βIV spectrin to form a periodic cytoskeleton at the AIS. Using a new αII spectrin conditional knock-out mouse, we show that αII spectrin is required for AIS assembly, neuronal excitability, cortical lamination, and to protect against neurodegeneration. These results demonstrate the broad importance of spectrin cytoskeletons for nervous system function and development and have important implications for nervous system injuries and diseases because disruption of the spectrin cytoskeleton is a common molecular pathology.

High-capacity peptide-centric platform to decode the proteomic response to brain injury.

  • Cortes DF
  • Electrophoresis
  • 2012 Dec 20

Literature context:


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a progressive disease process underlain by dynamic and interactive biochemical mechanisms; thus, large-scale and unbiased assessments are needed to fully understand its highly complex pathobiology. Here, we report on a new high-capacity label-free proteomic platform to evaluate the post-TBI neuroproteome. Six orthogonal separation stages and data-independent MS were employed, affording reproducible quantitative assessment on 18 651 peptides across biological replicates. From these data 3587 peptides were statistically responsive to TBI of which 18% were post-translationally modified. Results revealed as many as 484 proteins in the post-TBI neuroproteome, which was fully nine times the number determined from our prior study of focal cortical injury. Yet, these data were generated using 25 times less brain tissue per animal relative to former methodology, permitting greater anatomical specificity and proper biological replication for increased statistical power. Exemplified by these data, we discuss benefits of peptide-centric differential analysis to more accurately infer novel biological findings testable in future hypothesis-driven research. The high-capacity label-free proteomic platform is designed for multi-factor studies aimed at expanding our knowledge on the molecular underpinnings of TBI and to develop better diagnostics and therapeutics.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U19 AI067152(United States)

IκBα is not required for axon initial segment assembly.

  • Buffington SA
  • Mol. Cell. Neurosci.
  • 2012 May 26

Literature context:


The inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα) protein is an important regulator of the transcription factor NF-κB. In neurons, IκBα has been shown to play a role in neurite outgrowth and cell survival. Recently, a phosphorylated form of IκBα (pIκBα Ser32/36) was reported to be highly enriched at the axon initial segment (AIS) and was proposed to function upstream of ankyrinG in AIS assembly, including ion channel recruitment. However, we report here that the AIS clustering of ankyrinG and Na(+) channels in the brains of IκBα knockout (Nfkbia(-/-)) mice is comparable to that in wild-type littermates. Furthermore, we found that multiple phospho-specific antibodies against pIκBα Ser32/36 non-specifically label AIS in Nfkbia(-/-) cortex and AIS in dissociated Nfkbia(-/-) hippocampal neurons. With the exception of ankyrinG, shRNA-mediated knockdown of known AIS proteins in cultured hippocampal neurons did not eliminate the AIS labeling with pIκBα antibodies. Instead, the pIκBα antibodies cross-react with a phosphorylated epitope of a protein associated with the microtubule-based AIS cytoskeleton that is not integrated into the AIS membrane complex organized by ankyrinG. Our results indicate that pIκBα is neither enriched at the AIS nor required for AIS assembly.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - P50 MH106934(United States)

Alterations in intrinsic membrane properties and the axon initial segment in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome.

  • Kaphzan H
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2011 Nov 30

Literature context:


The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of action potential initiation in neurons. Recent studies have demonstrated activity-dependent regulation of the AIS, including homeostatic changes in AIS length, membrane excitability, and the localization of voltage-gated Na(+) channels. The neurodevelopmental disorder Angelman syndrome (AS) is usually caused by the deletion of small portions of the maternal copy of chromosome 15, which includes the UBE3A gene. A mouse model of AS has been generated and these mice exhibit multiple neurological abnormalities similar to those observed in humans. We examined intrinsic properties of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal area CA1 from AS model mice and observed alterations in resting membrane potential, threshold potential, and action potential amplitude. The altered intrinsic properties in the AS mice were correlated with significant increases in the expression of the α1 subunit of Na/K-ATPase (α1-NaKA), the Na(+) channel NaV1.6, and the AIS anchoring protein ankyrin-G, as well as an increase in length of the AIS. These findings are the first evidence for pathology of intrinsic membrane properties and AIS-specific changes in AS, a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with autism.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083898(United States)

Acrolein induces myelin damage in mammalian spinal cord.

  • Shi Y
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2011 May 13

Literature context:


Myelin damage can lead to the loss of axonal conduction and paralysis in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Here, we show that acrolein, a lipid peroxidation product, can cause significant myelin damage in isolated guinea pig spinal cord segments. Acrolein-mediated myelin damage is particularly conspicuous in the paranodal region in both a calcium dependent (nodal lengthening) and a calcium-independent manner (paranodal myelin splitting). In addition, paranodal protein complexes can dissociate with acrolein incubation. Degraded myelin basic protein is also detected at the paranodal region. Acrolein-induced exposure and redistribution of paranodal potassium channels and the resulting axonal conduction failure can be partially reversed by 4-AP, a potassium channel blocker. From this data, it is clear that acrolein is capable of inflicting myelin damage as well as axonal degeneration, and may represent an important factor in the pathogenesis in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury.

Funding information:
  • NLM NIH HHS - 5 U54 LM008748(United States)

Molecular identity of dendritic voltage-gated sodium channels.

  • Lorincz A
  • Science
  • 2010 May 14

Literature context:


Active invasion of the dendritic tree by action potentials (APs) generated in the axon is essential for associative synaptic plasticity and neuronal ensemble formation. In cortical pyramidal cells (PCs), this AP back-propagation is supported by dendritic voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channels, whose molecular identity is unknown. Using a highly sensitive electron microscopic immunogold technique, we revealed the presence of the Nav1.6 subunit in hippocampal CA1 PC proximal and distal dendrites. Here, the subunit density is lower by a factor of 35 to 80 than that found in axon initial segments. A gradual decrease in Nav1.6 density along the proximodistal axis of the dendritic tree was also detected without any labeling in dendritic spines. Our results reveal the characteristic subcellular distribution of the Nav1.6 subunit, identifying this molecule as a key substrate enabling dendritic excitability.

Funding information:
  • Department of Health - (United Kingdom)

Proteomic analysis of optic nerve lipid rafts reveals new paranodal proteins.

  • Ogawa Y
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2009 Nov 15

Literature context:


Neuron-glia interactions at paranodal junctions play important roles in action potential propagation. Among their many functions, they contribute to the passive electrical properties of myelinated nerve fibers and actively regulate the polarized distribution of ion channels along axons. Despite their importance, relatively little is known about the molecules responsible for paranode formation and function. Paranodal junction formation apparently depends on interactions among three cell adhesion molecules: caspr and contactin on the axon and neurofascin 155 (NF-155) on the glial membrane. Using Caspr-null paranodal mutant mice, we demonstrate that loss of paranodal junctions causes failure of NF-155 to partition into lipid rafts, indicating that proteins located at paranodal junctions have biochemical characteristics of lipid raft-associated proteins. Based on this property of paranodal junctions, mass spectrometry of lipid rafts isolated from a pure white matter tract (optic nerve) was used to search for new paranodal proteins. Because we used a relatively crude biochemical preparation, we identified several hundred different proteins. Among these, we found all previously described paranodal proteins. Further analysis based on antibody staining of central and peripheral nerves revealed beta-adducin, septin 2, and sh3p8 as putative paranodal proteins. We describe the localization of these proteins in relation to other markers of nodes, paranodes, and juxtaparanodes in adult and developing nerve fibers. Finally, we describe their distribution in dysmyelinating TremblerJ mice, a model for the peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

Disruption of neurofascin and gliomedin at nodes of Ranvier precedes demyelination in experimental allergic neuritis.

  • Lonigro A
  • Brain
  • 2009 Jan 26

Literature context:


High densities of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels at nodes of Ranvier enable the rapid regeneration and propagation of the action potentials along myelinated axons. In demyelinating pathologies, myelin alterations lead to conduction slowing and even to conduction block. In order to unravel the mechanisms of conduction failure in inflammatory demyelinating diseases, we have examined two models of Guillain-Barré syndrome: the experimental allergic neuritis induced in the Lewis rat by immunization against peripheral myelin (EAN-PM) and against a neuritogenic P2 peptide (EAN-P2). We found that Nav channel clusters were disrupted at EAN-PM nodes. Neurofascin and gliomedin, two cell adhesion molecules involved with aggregating Nav channels at nodes, were selectively affected prior to demyelination in EAN-PM, indicating that degradation of the axo-glial unit initiated node alteration. This was associated with autoantibodies to neurofascin and gliomedin. Node disruption was, however, independent from complement deposition at nodes, and deposits of the terminal complement complex (C5b-9) were found on the external surface of Schwann cells in EAN-PM. In these animals, the paranodal junctions were also affected and Kv1 channels, which are normally juxtaparanodal, were found dispersed at nodes and paranodes. Altogether, these alterations were associated with conduction deficits in EAN-PM ventral spinal roots. EAN-P2 animals also exhibited inflammatory demyelination, but did not show alteration in nodal clusters or autoantibodies. Our results highlighted the complex mechanisms underlying conduction abnormalities in demyelinating disorders, and unraveled neurofascin and gliomedin as two novel immune targets in experimental allergic neuritis.

AnkyrinG is required for maintenance of the axon initial segment and neuronal polarity.

  • Hedstrom KL
  • J. Cell Biol.
  • 2008 Nov 17

Literature context:


The axon initial segment (AIS) functions as both a physiological and physical bridge between somatodendritic and axonal domains. Given its unique molecular composition, location, and physiology, the AIS is thought to maintain neuronal polarity. To identify the molecular basis of this AIS property, we used adenovirus-mediated RNA interference to silence AIS protein expression in polarized neurons. Some AIS proteins are remarkably stable with half-lives of at least 2 wk. However, silencing the expression of the cytoskeletal scaffold ankyrinG (ankG) dismantles the AIS and causes axons to acquire the molecular characteristics of dendrites. Both cytoplasmic- and membrane-associated proteins, which are normally restricted to somatodendritic domains, redistribute into the former axon. Furthermore, spines and postsynaptic densities of excitatory synapses assemble on former axons. Our results demonstrate that the loss of ankG causes axons to acquire the molecular characteristics of dendrites; thus, ankG is required for the maintenance of neuronal polarity and molecular organization of the AIS.

Array tomography: a new tool for imaging the molecular architecture and ultrastructure of neural circuits.

  • Micheva KD
  • Neuron
  • 2007 Jul 5

Literature context:


Many biological functions depend critically upon fine details of tissue molecular architecture that have resisted exploration by existing imaging techniques. This is particularly true for nervous system tissues, where information processing function depends on intricate circuit and synaptic architectures. Here, we describe a new imaging method, called array tomography, which combines and extends superlative features of modern optical fluorescence and electron microscopy methods. Based on methods for constructing and repeatedly staining and imaging ordered arrays of ultrathin (50-200 nm), resin-embedded serial sections on glass microscope slides, array tomography allows for quantitative, high-resolution, large-field volumetric imaging of large numbers of antigens, fluorescent proteins, and ultrastructure in individual tissue specimens. Compared to confocal microscopy, array tomography offers the advantage of better spatial resolution, in particular along the z axis, as well as depth-independent immunofluorescent staining. The application of array tomography can reveal important but previously unseen features of brain molecular architecture.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM084279(United States)

Antibody conjugates with morpholinodoxorubicin and acid-cleavable linkers.

  • Mueller BM
  • Bioconjug. Chem.
  • 1991 Aug 1

Literature context:


Antibody-morpholinodoxorubicin conjugates were prepared for targeted immunotherapy of human melanoma. Spacer molecules that differ in hydrolytic stability were employed between the C-13 of the drug and amino residue of lysine on the monoclonal antibody. Antibody-drug conjugates were made with five structurally different morpholinodoxorubicin derivatives including oxime, phenylhydrazone, (sulfonylphenyl)hydrazone, and acylhydrazone moieties. Hydrolytic stability of the antibody conjugates directly correlated with their in vitro cytotoxicity against melanoma cells. Derivatives or conjugates with the greatest hydrolytic stability showed the least cytotoxicity.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG006677-13(United States)