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GFAP antibody


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

GFAP null

Proper Citation

(UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility Cat# 73-240, RRID:AB_10672298)


monoclonal antibody


Originating manufacturer of this product. Applications: IB, ICC, IHC, KO, WB. Validation status: IF or IB (Pass), IB in brain (Pass), IHC in brain (Pass), KO (Pass).

Clone ID


Host Organism


Down-regulation of NTPDase2 and ADP-sensitive P2 Purinoceptors Correlate with Severity of Symptoms during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

  • Jakovljevic M
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2017 Nov 23

Literature context: NIH NeuroMab Facility (73-240), RRID:AB_10672298 Nestin Mouse, mc 1:100 (IF) Sig


The present study explores tissue and cellular distribution of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2 (NTPDase2) and the gene and protein expression in rat spinal cord during the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Given that NTPDase2 hydrolyzes ATP with a transient accumulation of ADP, the expression of ADP-sensitive P2 purinoceptors was analyzed as well. The autoimmune disease was actively induced in Dark Agouti female rats and the changes were analyzed 10, 15 and 29 days after the induction. These selected time points correspond to the onset ( Eo ), peak ( Ep ) and recovery ( Er ) from EAE. In control animals, NTPDase2 was confined in the white matter, in most of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive (ir) astrocytes and in a considerable number of nestin-ir cells, while the other cell types were immunonegative. Immunoreactivity corresponding to NTPDase2 decreased significantly at Eo and Ep and then returned to the baseline levels at Er . The preservation of the proportion of GFAP single-labeled and GFAP/NTPDase2 double-labeled elements along the course of EAE indicated that changes in NTPDase2-ir occurred at fibrous astrocytes that typically express NTPDase2 in normal conditions. Significant downregulation of P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptor proteins at Eo and several-fold induction of P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptor proteins at Ep and/or Er were observed implying that the pathophysiological process in EAE may be linked to ADP signaling. Cell-surface expression of NTPDase2, NTPDase1/CD39 and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN/CD73) was analyzed in CD4+ T cells of a draining lymph node by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The induction of EAE was associated with a transient decrease in a number of CD4+ NTPDase2+ T cells in a draining lymph node, whereas the recovery was characterized by an increase in NTPDase2+ cells in both CD4+ and CD4- cell populations. The opposite was found for NTPDase1/CD39+ and eN/CD73+ cells, which slightly increased in number with progression of the disease, particularly in CD4- cells, and then decreased in the recovery. Finally, CD4+ NTPDase2+ cells were never observed in the spinal cord parenchyma. Taken together, our results suggest that the process of neuroinflammation in EAE may be associated with altered ADP signaling.

ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4 Differentially Stimulate APP Transcription and Aβ Secretion.

  • Huang YA
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jan 26

Literature context: # 75-240; RRID:AB_10672298 Anti-β-Act


Human apolipoprotein E (ApoE) apolipoprotein is primarily expressed in three isoforms (ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4) that differ only by two residues. ApoE4 constitutes the most important genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), ApoE3 is neutral, and ApoE2 is protective. How ApoE isoforms influence AD pathogenesis, however, remains unclear. Using ES-cell-derived human neurons, we show that ApoE secreted by glia stimulates neuronal Aβ production with an ApoE4 > ApoE3 > ApoE2 potency rank order. We demonstrate that ApoE binding to ApoE receptors activates dual leucine-zipper kinase (DLK), a MAP-kinase kinase kinase that then activates MKK7 and ERK1/2 MAP kinases. Activated ERK1/2 induces cFos phosphorylation, stimulating the transcription factor AP-1, which in turn enhances transcription of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and thereby increases amyloid-β levels. This molecular mechanism also regulates APP transcription in mice in vivo. Our data describe a novel signal transduction pathway in neurons whereby ApoE activates a non-canonical MAP kinase cascade that enhances APP transcription and amyloid-β synthesis.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - RF1 AG048131()

Increased neuronal expression of neurokinin-1 receptor and stimulus-evoked internalization of the receptor in the rostral ventromedial medulla of the rat after peripheral inflammatory injury.

  • Hamity MV
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Sep 1

Literature context:


This study examined possible mechanisms by which Substance P (Sub P) assumes a pronociceptive role in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) under conditions of peripheral inflammatory injury, in this case produced by intraplantar (ipl) injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). In saline- and CFA-treated rats, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) immunoreactivity was localized to neurons in the RVM. Four days after ipl injection of CFA, the number of NK1R-immunoreactive neurons in the RVM was increased by 30%, and there was a concomitant increase in NK1R-immunoreactive processes in CFA-treated rats. Although NK1R immunoreactivity was increased, tachykinin-1 receptor (Tacr1) mRNA was not increased in the RVM of CFA-treated rats. To assess changes in Sub P release, the number of RVM neurons that exhibited NK1R internalization was examined in saline- and CFA-treated rats following noxious heat stimulation of the hind paws. Only CFA-treated rats that experienced noxious heat stimulation exhibited a significant increase in the number of neurons showing NK1R internalization. These data suggest that tonic Sub P release is not increased as a simple consequence of peripheral inflammation, but that phasic or evoked release of Sub P in the RVM is increased in response to noxious peripheral stimulation in a persistent inflammatory state. These data support the proposal that an upregulation of the NK1R in the RVM, as well as enhanced release of Sub P following noxious stimulation, underlie the pronociceptive role of Sub P under conditions of persistent inflammatory injury.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21 CA190775(United States)

Mutant astrocytes differentiated from Rett syndrome patients-specific iPSCs have adverse effects on wild-type neurons.

  • Williams EC
  • Hum. Mol. Genet.
  • 2014 Jun 1

Literature context:


The disease mechanism of Rett syndrome (RTT) is not well understood. Studies in RTT mouse models have suggested a non-cell-autonomous role for astrocytes in RTT pathogenesis. However, it is not clear whether this is also true for human RTT astrocytes. To establish an in vitro human RTT model, we previously generated isogenic induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from several RTT patients carrying different disease-causing mutations. Here, we show that these RTT iPSC lines can be efficiently differentiated into astroglial progenitors and glial fibrillary acidic protein-expressing (GFAP(+)) astrocytes that maintain isogenic status, that mutant RTT astrocytes carrying three different RTT mutations and their conditioned media have adverse effects on the morphology and function of wild-type neurons and that the glial effect on neuronal morphology is independent of the intrinsic neuronal deficit in mutant neurons. Moreover, we show that both insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and GPE (a peptide containing the first 3 amino acids of IGF-1) are able to partially rescue the neuronal deficits caused by mutant RTT astrocytes. Our findings confirm the critical glial contribution to RTT pathology, reveal potential cellular targets of IGF-1 therapy and further validate patient-specific iPSCs and their derivatives as valuable tools to study RTT disease mechanism.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - (United Kingdom)

Quantitative proteomic profiling reveals novel region-specific markers in the adult mouse brain.

  • Dagley LF
  • Proteomics
  • 2014 Feb 4

Literature context:


Despite major advances in neuroscience, a comprehensive understanding of the structural and functional components of the adult brain compartments remains to be fully elucidated at a quantitative molecular level. Indeed, over half of the soluble- and membrane-annotated proteins are currently unmapped within online digital brain atlases. In this study, two complementary approaches were used to assess the unique repertoire of proteins enriched within select regions of the adult mouse CNS, including the brain stem, cerebellum, and remaining brain hemispheres. Of the 1200 proteins visualized by 2D-DIGE, approximately 150 (including cytosolic and membrane proteins) were found to exhibit statistically significant changes in relative abundance thus representing putative region-specific brain markers. In addition to using a high-precision (18) O-labeling strategy for the quantitative LC-MS/MS mapping of membrane proteins isolated from myelin-enriched fractions, we have identified over 1000 proteins that have yet to be described in any other mammalian myelin proteome. A comparison of our myelin proteome was made to an existing transcriptome database containing mRNA abundance profiles during oligodendrocyte differentiation and has confirmed statistically significant abundance changes for ∼500 of these newly mapped proteins, thus revealing new roles in oligodendrocyte and myelin biology. These data offer a resource for the neuroscience community studying the molecular basis for specialized neuronal activities in the CNS and myelin-related disorders. The MS proteomics data associated with this manuscript have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PXD000327 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000327).

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01-NS060120(United States)

Dysfunctional astrocytic and synaptic regulation of hypothalamic glutamatergic transmission in a mouse model of early-life adversity: relevance to neurosteroids and programming of the stress response.

  • Gunn BG
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Dec 11

Literature context:


Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (5α3α-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5α3α-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR δ subunit (δ(0/0)) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, δ(0/0) offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of δ(0/0) pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress neurocircuitry.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 280032(International)

Deficits in adult neurogenesis, contextual fear conditioning, and spatial learning in a Gfap mutant mouse model of Alexander disease.

  • Hagemann TL
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Nov 20

Literature context:


Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the major intermediate filament of mature astrocytes in the mammalian CNS. Dominant gain of function mutations in GFAP lead to the fatal neurodegenerative disorder, Alexander disease (AxD), which is characterized by cytoplasmic protein aggregates known as Rosenthal fibers along with variable degrees of leukodystrophy and intellectual disability. The mechanisms by which mutant GFAP leads to these pleiotropic effects are unknown. In addition to astrocytes, GFAP is also expressed in other cell types, particularly neural stem cells that form the reservoir supporting adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Here, we show that mouse models of AxD exhibit significant pathology in GFAP-positive radial glia-like cells in the dentate gyrus, and suffer from deficits in adult neurogenesis. In addition, they display impairments in contextual learning and spatial memory. This is the first demonstration of cognitive phenotypes in a model of primary astrocyte disease.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - U54 GM088491(United States)

Reciprocal connectivity between mitral cells and external plexiform layer interneurons in the mouse olfactory bulb.

  • Huang L
  • Front Neural Circuits
  • 2013 Mar 5

Literature context:


Proper brain function relies on exquisite balance between excitation and inhibition, where inhibitory circuits play fundamental roles toward sculpting principle neuron output and information processing. In prominent models of olfactory bulb circuitry, inhibition of mitral cells by local interneurons sharpens odor tuning and provides contrast enhancement. Mitral cell inhibition occurs at both mitral cell apical dendrites and deep-layer dendrodendritic synapses between granule cells, the most abundant population of inhibitory interneurons in the olfactory bulb. However, it remains unclear whether other local interneurons make inhibitory connections onto mitral cells. Here, we report a novel circuitry with strong and reciprocal connectivity between a subpopulation of previously uncharacterized Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH)-expressing interneurons located in the external plexiform layer (EPL), and mitral cells. Using cell type-specific genetic manipulations, imaging, optogenetic stimulation, and electrophysiological recordings, we reveal that CRH-expressing EPL interneurons strongly inhibit mitral cell firing, and that they are reciprocally excited by fast glutamatergic mitral cell input. These findings functionally identify a novel subpopulation of olfactory bulb interneurons that show reciprocal connectivity with mitral cells, uncovering a previously unknown, and potentially critical player in olfactory bulb circuitry that may influence lateral interactions and/or facilitate odor processing.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - UL1RR024150(United States)

Direct conversion of fibroblasts to neurons by reprogramming PTB-regulated microRNA circuits.

  • Xue Y
  • Cell
  • 2013 Jan 17

Literature context:


The induction of pluripotency or trans-differentiation of one cell type to another can be accomplished with cell-lineage-specific transcription factors. Here, we report that repression of a single RNA binding polypyrimidine-tract-binding (PTB) protein, which occurs during normal brain development via the action of miR-124, is sufficient to induce trans-differentiation of fibroblasts into functional neurons. Besides its traditional role in regulated splicing, we show that PTB has a previously undocumented function in the regulation of microRNA functions, suppressing or enhancing microRNA targeting by competitive binding on target mRNA or altering local RNA secondary structure. A key event during neuronal induction is the relief of PTB-mediated blockage of microRNA action on multiple components of the REST complex, thereby derepressing a large array of neuronal genes, including miR-124 and multiple neuronal-specific transcription factors, in nonneuronal cells. This converts a negative feedback loop to a positive one to elicit cellular reprogramming to the neuronal lineage.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - R24 RR021346(United States)

Monoacylglycerol lipase is a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease.

  • Chen R
  • Cell Rep
  • 2012 Nov 29

Literature context:


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia among older people. There are no effective medications currently available to prevent and treat AD and halt disease progression. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is the primary enzyme metabolizing the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the brain. We show here that inactivation of MAGL robustly suppressed production and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) associated with reduced expression of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) in a mouse model of AD. MAGL inhibition also prevented neuroinflammation, decreased neurodegeneration, maintained integrity of hippocampal synaptic structure and function, and improved long-term synaptic plasticity, spatial learning, and memory in AD animals. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects produced by MAGL inhibition remain to be determined, our results suggest that MAGL, which regulates endocannabinoid and prostaglandin signaling, contributes to pathogenesis and neuropathology of AD, and thus is a promising therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of AD.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM070923(United States)

Pain in experimental autoimmune encephalitis: a comparative study between different mouse models.

  • Lu J
  • J Neuroinflammation
  • 2012 Oct 6

Literature context:


BACKGROUND: Pain can be one of the most severe symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) and develops with varying levels and time courses. MS-related pain is difficult to treat, since very little is known about the mechanisms underlying its development. Animal models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mimic many aspects of MS and are well-suited to study underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Yet, to date very little is known about the sensory abnormalities in different EAE models. We therefore aimed to thoroughly characterize pain behavior of the hindpaw in SJL and C57BL/6 mice immunized with PLP139-151 peptide or MOG35-55 peptide respectively. Moreover, we studied the activity of pain-related molecules and plasticity-related genes in the spinal cord and investigated functional changes in the peripheral nerves using electrophysiology. METHODS: We analyzed thermal and mechanical sensitivity of the hindpaw in both EAE models during the whole disease course. Qualitative and quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of pain-related molecules and plasticity-related genes was performed on spinal cord sections at different timepoints during the disease course. Moreover, we investigated functional changes in the peripheral nerves using electrophysiology. RESULTS: Mice in both EAE models developed thermal hyperalgesia during the chronic phase of the disease. However, whereas SJL mice developed marked mechanical allodynia over the chronic phase of the disease, C57BL/6 mice developed only minor mechanical allodynia over the onset and peak phase of the disease. Interestingly, the magnitude of glial changes in the spinal cord was stronger in SJL mice than in C57BL/6 mice and their time course matched the temporal profile of mechanical hypersensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Diverse EAE models bearing genetic, clinical and histopathological heterogeneity, show different profiles of sensory and pathological changes and thereby enable studying the mechanistic basis and the diversity of changes in pain perception that are associated with distinct types of MS.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 250342(International)
  • Wellcome Trust - (United Kingdom)

Benefits and pitfalls of secondary antibodies: why choosing the right secondary is of primary importance.

  • Manning CF
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2012 Jun 7

Literature context:


Simultaneous labeling of multiple targets in a single sample, or multiplexing, is a powerful approach to directly compare the amount, localization and/or molecular properties of different targets in the same sample. Here we highlight the robust reliability of the simultaneous use of multiple mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of different immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses in a wide variety of multiplexing applications employing anti-mouse IgG subclass-specific secondary antibodies (2°Abs). We also describe the unexpected finding that IgG subclass-specific 2°Abs are superior to general anti-mouse IgG 2 °Abs in every tested application in which mouse mAbs were used. This was due to a detection bias of general anti-mouse IgG-specific 2°Abs against mAbs of the most common mouse IgG subclass, IgG1, and to a lesser extent IgG2b mAbs. Thus, when using any of numerous mouse mAbs available through commercial and non-profit sources, for cleaner and more robust results each mAb should be detected with its respective IgG subclass-specific 2°Ab and not a general anti-mouse IgG-specific 2°Ab.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P40-RR17072(United States)