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Kv4.2 potassium channel antibody

RRID:AB_10672254

Antibody ID

AB_10672254

Target Antigen

Kv4.2 potassium channel null

Vendor

UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility Go To Vendor

Cat Num

73-016

Proper Citation

(UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility Cat# 73-016, RRID:AB_10672254)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Clone ID

K57/1

Host Organism

mouse

Comments

Originating manufacturer of this product. Applications: IB, ICC, IHC, IP, KO, WB. Validation status: IF or IB (Pass), IB in brain (Pass), IHC in brain (Pass), KO (Pass).

Somatodendritic ion channel expression in substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons across postnatal development.

  • Dufour MA
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2014 Aug 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) are involved in the control of movement, sleep, reward, learning, and nervous system disorders and disease. To date, a thorough characterization of the ion channel phenotype of this important neuronal population is lacking. Using immunohistochemistry, we analyzed the somatodendritic expression of voltage-gated ion channel subunits that are involved in pacemaking activity in SNc dopaminergic neurons in 6-, 21-, and 40-day-old rats. Our results demonstrate that the same complement of somatodendritic ion channels is present in SNc dopaminergic neurons from P6 to P40. The major developmental changes were an increase in the dendritic range of the immunolabeling for the HCN, T-type calcium, Kv4.3, delayed rectifier, and SK channels. Our study sheds light on the ion channel subunits that contribute to the somatodendritic delayed rectifier (Kv1.3, Kv2.1, Kv3.2, Kv3.3), A-type (Kv4.3) and calcium-activated SK (SK1, SK2, SK3) potassium currents, IH (mainly HCN2, HCN4), and the L- (Cav1.2, Cav1.3) and T-type (mainly Cav3.1, Cav3.3) calcium currents in SNc dopaminergic neurons. Finally, no robust differences in voltage-gated ion channel immunolabeling were observed across the population of SNc dopaminergic neurons for each age examined, suggesting that differing levels of individual ion channels are unlikely to distinguish between specific subpopulations of SNc dopaminergic neurons. This is significant in light of previous studies suggesting that age- or region-associated variations in the expression profile of voltage-gated ion channels in SNc dopaminergic neurons may underlie their vulnerability to dysfunction and disease.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM37432(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01MH61469(United States)

Specific sorting and post-Golgi trafficking of dendritic potassium channels in living neurons.

  • Jensen CS
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2014 Apr 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Proper membrane localization of ion channels is essential for the function of neuronal cells. Particularly, the computational ability of dendrites depends on the localization of different ion channels in specific subcompartments. However, the molecular mechanisms that control ion channel localization in distinct dendritic subcompartments are largely unknown. Here, we developed a quantitative live cell imaging method to analyze protein sorting and post-Golgi vesicular trafficking. We focused on two dendritic voltage-gated potassium channels that exhibit distinct localizations: Kv2.1 in proximal dendrites and Kv4.2 in distal dendrites. Our results show that Kv2.1 and Kv4.2 channels are sorted into two distinct populations of vesicles at the Golgi apparatus. The targeting of Kv2.1 and Kv4.2 vesicles occurred by distinct mechanisms as evidenced by their requirement for specific peptide motifs, cytoskeletal elements, and motor proteins. By live cell and super-resolution imaging, we identified a novel trafficking machinery important for the localization of Kv2.1 channels. Particularly, we identified non-muscle myosin II as an important factor in Kv2.1 trafficking. These findings reveal that the sorting of ion channels at the Golgi apparatus and their subsequent trafficking by unique molecular mechanisms are crucial for their specific localizations within dendrites.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH059950(United States)

The absence of insulin signaling in the heart induces changes in potassium channel expression and ventricular repolarization.

  • Lopez-Izquierdo A
  • Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
  • 2014 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus increases the risk for cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, and sudden death. The wide array of neurohumoral changes associated with diabetes pose a challenge to understanding the roles of specific pathways that alter cardiac function. Here, we use a mouse model with cardiomyocyte-restricted deletion of insulin receptors (CIRKO, cardiac-specific insulin receptor knockout) to study the specific effects of impaired cardiac insulin signaling on ventricular repolarization, independent of the generalized metabolic derangements associated with diabetes. Impaired insulin action caused a reduction in mRNA and protein expression of several key K(+) channels that dominate ventricular repolarization. Specifically, components of transient outward K(+) current fast component (Ito,fast; Kv4.2 and KChiP2) were reduced, consistent with a reduction in the amplitude of Ito,fast in isolated left ventricular CIRKO myocytes, compared with littermate controls. The reduction in Ito,fast resulted in ventricular action potential prolongation and prolongation of the QT interval on the surface ECG. These results support the notion that the lack of insulin signaling in the heart is sufficient to cause the repolarization abnormalities described in other animal models of diabetes.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U54 CA121852(United States)

Butyrate-induced colonic hypersensitivity is mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in rat dorsal root ganglia.

  • Xu D
  • Gut
  • 2013 Oct 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Increased faecal butyrate levels have been reported in irritable bowel syndrome. Rectal instillation of sodium butyrate (NaB) increases visceral sensitivity in rats by an unknown mechanism. We seek to examine the signal transduction pathways responsible for the enhanced neuronal excitability in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) following NaB enemas and demonstrate that this is responsible for the colonic hypersensitivity reported in this animal model. DESIGN: Colorectal distention (CRD) studies were performed in rats treated with NaB rectal instillation with/without intrathecal or intravenous administration of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase inhibitor U0126. Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry studies elucidated intracellular signalling pathways that modulate IA. Patch-clamp recordings were performed on isolated DRG neurons treated with NaB, with/without U0126. RESULTS: Visceromotor responses (VMR) were markedly enhanced in NaB-treated rats. Western blot analysis of DRG neurons from NaB-treated rats showed a 2.2-fold increase in phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pEKR1/2) and 1.9-fold increase in phosphorylated voltage-gated potassium channel subunit 4.2 (pKv4.2). Intrathecal or intravenous administration of U0126 reduced VMR to CRD in NaB-treated rats and prevented increases in pERK1/2 and pKv4.2. Patch-clamp recordings of isolated DRG neurons showed that NaB caused a reduction in IA to 48.9%±1.4% of control and an increase in neuronal excitability, accompanied by a twofold increase in pERK1/2 and pKv4.2. Concurrent U0126 administration prevented these changes. CONCLUSIONS: Visceral hypersensitivity induced by colonic NaB treatment is mediated by activation of the MAP kinase-ERK1/2 pathway, which phosphorylates Kv4.2. This results in a reduction in IA and an enhancement of DRG neuronal excitability.

Funding information:
  • None - HHSN267200700014C(None)

Kv4.2 potassium channels segregate to extrasynaptic domains and influence intrasynaptic NMDA receptor NR2B subunit expression.

  • Kaufmann WA
  • Brain Struct Funct
  • 2013 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurons of the intercalated cell clusters (ITCs) represent an important relay site for information flow within amygdala nuclei. These neurons receive mainly glutamatergic inputs from the basolateral amygdala at their dendritic domains and provide feed-forward inhibition to the central nucleus. Voltage-gated potassium channels type-4.2 (Kv4.2) are main players in dendritic signal processing and integration providing a key component of the A currents. In this study, the subcellular localization and distribution of the Kv4.2 was studied in ITC neurons by means of light- and electron microscopy, and compared to other types of central principal neurons. Several ultrastructural immunolocalization techniques were applied including pre-embedding techniques and, most importantly, SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica labeling. We found Kv4.2 densely expressed in somato-dendritic domains of ITC neurons where they show a differential distribution pattern as revealed by nearest neighbor analysis. Comparing ITC neurons with hippocampal pyramidal and cerebellar granule cells, a cell type- and domain-dependent organization in Kv4.2 distribution was observed. Kv4.2 subunits were localized to extrasynaptic sites where they were found to influence intrasynaptic NMDA receptor subunit expression. In samples of Kv4.2 knockout mice, the frequency of NR1-positive synapses containing the NR2B subunit was significantly increased. This indicates a strong, yet indirect effect of Kv4.2 on the synaptic content of NMDA receptor subtypes, and a likely role in synaptic plasticity at ITC neurons.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - R01AG036039(United Kingdom)

Neuregulin-1/ErbB4 signaling regulates Kv4.2-mediated transient outward K+ current through the Akt/mTOR pathway.

  • Yao JJ
  • Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
  • 2013 Jul 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) is a member of a family of neurotrophic factors that is required for the differentiation, migration, and development of neurons. NRG-1 signaling is thought to contribute to both neuronal development and the neuropathology of schizophrenia, which is believed to be a neurodevelopmental disorder. However, few studies have investigated the role of NRG-1 on voltage-gated ion channels. In this study, we report that NRG-1 specifically increases the density of transient outward K(+) currents (IA) in rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) in a time-dependent manner without modifying the activation or inactivation properties of IA channels. The increase in IA density is mediated by increased protein expression of Kv4.2, the main α-subunit of the IA channel, most likely by upregulation of translation. The effect of NRG-1 on IA density and Kv4.2 expression was only significant in immature neurons. Mechanistically, both Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways are required for the increased NRG-1-induced IA density and expression of Kv4.2. Moreover, pharmacological blockade of the ErbB4 receptor reduced the effect of NRG-1 on IA density and Kv4.2 induction. Our data reveal, for the first time, that stimulation of ErbB4 signaling by NRG-1 upregulates the expression of K(+) channel proteins via activation of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and plays an important role in neuronal development and maturation. NRG1 does not acutely change IA and delayed-rectifier outward (IK) of rat CGNs, suggesting that it may not alter excitability of immature neurons by altering potassium channel property.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - RC2 HG005597-01(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK083781(United States)

Dynamic regulation of synaptic maturation state by voltage-gated A-type K+ channels in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons.

  • Kim E
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2012 Oct 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuronal activity is critical for the formation and modification of neural circuits during brain development. In hippocampal CA1 pyramidal dendrites, A-type voltage-gated K(+) currents, formed primarily by Kv4.2 subunits, control excitability. Here we used Kv4.2 knock-out (Kv4.2-KO) mice along with acute in vivo expression of Kv4.2 or its dominant-negative pore mutant to examine the role of Kv4.2 in the development of CA1 synapses. We found that Kv4.2 expression induces synaptic maturation in juvenile WT mice and rescues developmentally delayed synapses in adult Kv4.2-KO mice. In addition, we show that NMDAR subunit composition can be reverted back to the juvenile form in WT adult synapses by functionally downregulating Kv4.2 levels. These results suggest that Kv4.2 regulation of excitability determines synaptic maturation state, which can be bidirectionally adjusted into adulthood.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - HG00376(United States)

Mutant LGI1 inhibits seizure-induced trafficking of Kv4.2 potassium channels.

  • Smith SE
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2012 Feb 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Activity-dependent redistribution of ion channels mediates neuronal circuit plasticity and homeostasis, and could provide pro-epileptic or compensatory anti-epileptic responses to a seizure. Thalamocortical neurons transmit sensory information to the cerebral cortex and through reciprocal corticothalamic connections are intensely activated during a seizure. Therefore, we assessed whether a seizure alters ion channel surface expression and consequent neurophysiologic function of thalamocortical neurons. We report a seizure triggers a rapid (<2h) decrease of excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC)-like current-induced phasic firing associated with increased transient A-type K(+) current. Seizures also rapidly redistributed the A-type K(+) channel subunit Kv4.2 to the neuronal surface implicating a molecular substrate for the increased K(+) current. Glutamate applied in vitro mimicked the effect, suggesting a direct effect of glutamatergic transmission. Importantly, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated-1 (LGI1), a secreted synaptic protein mutated to cause human partial epilepsy, regulated this seizure-induced circuit response. Human epilepsy-associated dominant-negative-truncated mutant LGI1 inhibited the seizure-induced suppression of phasic firing, increase of A-type K(+) current, and recruitment of Kv4.2 surface expression (in vivo and in vitro). The results identify a response of thalamocortical neurons to seizures involving Kv4.2 surface recruitment associated with dampened phasic firing. The results also identify impaired seizure-induced increases of A-type K(+) current as an additional defect produced by the autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy gene mutant that might contribute to the seizure disorder.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS046593(United States)

Regulator of G protein signaling 6 (RGS6) protein ensures coordination of motor movement by modulating GABAB receptor signaling.

  • Maity B
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2012 Feb 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from inhibitory interneurons located within the cerebellar cortex limits the extent of neuronal excitation in part through activation of metabotropic GABA(B) receptors. Stimulation of these receptors triggers a number of downstream signaling events, including activation of GIRK channels by the Gβγ dimer resulting in membrane hyperpolarization and inhibition of neurotransmitter release from presynaptic sites. Here, we identify RGS6, a member of the R7 subfamily of RGS proteins, as a key regulator of GABA(B)R signaling in cerebellum. RGS6 is enriched in the granule cell layer of the cerebellum along with neuronal GIRK channel subunits 1 and 2 where RGS6 forms a complex with known binding partners Gβ(5) and R7BP. Mice lacking RGS6 exhibit abnormal gait and ataxia characterized by impaired rotarod performance improved by treatment with a GABA(B)R antagonist. RGS6(-/-) mice administered baclofen also showed exaggerated motor coordination deficits compared with their wild-type counterparts. Isolated cerebellar neurons natively expressed RGS6, GABA(B)R, and GIRK channel subunits, and cerebellar granule neurons from RGS6(-/-) mice showed a significant delay in the deactivation kinetics of baclofen-induced GIRK channel currents. These results establish RGS6 as a key component of GABA(B)R signaling and represent the first demonstration of an essential role for modulatory actions of RGS proteins in adult cerebellum. Dysregulation of RGS6 expression in human patients could potentially contribute to loss of motor coordination and, thus, pharmacological manipulation of RGS6 levels might represent a viable means to treat patients with ataxias of cerebellar origin.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY012345(United States)

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 regulates excitability and Kv4.2-containing K⁺ channels primarily in excitatory neurons of the spinal dorsal horn.

  • Hu HJ
  • J. Neurophysiol.
  • 2011 Jun 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors play important roles in the modulation of nociception. Previous studies demonstrated that mGlu5 modulates nociceptive plasticity via activation of ERK signaling. We have reported recently that the Kv4.2 K(+) channel subunit underlies A-type currents in spinal cord dorsal horn neurons and that this channel is modulated by mGlu5-ERK signaling. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that modulation of Kv4.2 by mGlu5 occurs in excitatory spinal dorsal horn neurons. With the use of a transgenic mouse strain expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the promoter for the γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), we found that these GABAergic neurons express less Kv4.2-mediated A-type current than non-GAD67-GFP neurons. Furthermore, the mGlu1/5 agonist, (R,S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, had no modulatory effects on A-type currents or neuronal excitability in this subgroup of GABAergic neurons but robustly modulated A-type currents and neuronal excitability in non-GFP-expressing neurons. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that Kv4.2 was highly colocalized with markers of excitatory neurons, such as vesicular glutamate transporter 1/2, PKCγ, and neurokinin 1, in cultured dorsal horn neurons. These results indicate that mGlu5-Kv4.2 signaling is associated with excitatory dorsal horn neurons and suggest that the pronociceptive effects of mGlu5 activation in the spinal cord likely involve enhanced excitability of excitatory neurons.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK065806(United States)

Cortactin is required for N-cadherin regulation of Kv1.5 channel function.

  • Cheng L
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2011 Jun 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The intercalated disc serves as an organizing center for various cell surface components at the termini of the cardiomyocyte, thus ensuring proper mechanoelectrical coupling throughout the myocardium. The cell adhesion molecule, N-cadherin, is an essential component of the intercalated disc. Cardiac-specific deletion of N-cadherin leads to abnormal electrical conduction and sudden arrhythmic death in mice. The mechanisms linking the loss of N-cadherin in the heart and spontaneous malignant ventricular arrhythmias are poorly understood. To investigate whether ion channel remodeling contributes to arrhythmogenesis in N-cadherin conditional knock-out (N-cad CKO) mice, cardiac myocyte excitability and voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv), as well as inwardly rectifying K(+) channel remodeling, were investigated in N-cad CKO cardiomyocytes by whole cell patch clamp recordings. Action potential duration was prolonged in N-cad CKO ventricle myocytes compared with wild type. Relative to wild type, I(K,slow) density was significantly reduced consistent with decreased expression of Kv1.5 and Kv accessory protein, Kcne2, in the N-cad CKO myocytes. The decreased Kv1.5/Kcne2 expression correlated with disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and reduced cortactin at the sarcolemma. Biochemical experiments revealed that cortactin co-immunoprecipitates with Kv1.5. Finally, cortactin was required for N-cadherin-mediated enhancement of Kv1.5 channel activity in a heterologous expression system. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanistic link among the cell adhesion molecule, N-cadherin, the actin-binding scaffold protein, cortactin, and Kv channel remodeling in the heart. These data suggest that in addition to gap junction remodeling, aberrant Kv1.5 channel function contributes to the arrhythmogenic phenotype in N-cad CKO mice.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - K08 AR055688(United States)

Diabetic visceral hypersensitivity is associated with activation of mitogen-activated kinase in rat dorsal root ganglia.

  • Grabauskas G
  • Diabetes
  • 2011 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Diabetic patients often experience visceral hypersensitivity and anorectal dysfunction. We hypothesize that the enhanced excitability of colon projecting dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons observed in diabetes is caused by a decrease in the amplitude of the transient A-type K(+) (I(A)) currents resulting from increased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and reduced opening of K(v)4.2 channels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed patch-clamp recordings of colon projecting DRG neurons from control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats. Western blot analyses and immunocytochemistry studies were used to elucidate the intracellular signaling pathways that modulate the I(A) current. In vivo studies were performed to demonstrate that abnormal MAPK signaling is responsible for the enhanced visceromotor response to colorectal distention in STZ-D rats. RESULTS: Patch-clamp studies demonstrated that I(A) current was diminished in the colon projecting DRG neurons of STZ-D rats. Western blot analysis of STZ-D DRG neurons revealed increases in phosphorylated MAPK and K(V)4.2. In diabetic DRG neurons, increased intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)), protein kinase C (PKC), and MAPK were involved in the regulation of I(A) current through modulation of K(v)4.2. Hypersensitive visceromotor responses to colorectal distention in STZ-D rats were normalized by administration of MAPK inhibitor U0126. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that reduction of the I(A) current in STZ-D DRG neurons is triggered by impaired [Ca(2+)](i) ion homeostasis, and this in turn activates the PKC-MAPK pathways, resulting in decreased opening of the K(v)4.2 channels. Hence, the PKC-MAPK-K(v)4.2 pathways represent a potential therapeutic target for treating visceral hypersensitivity in diabetes.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - U01 HL66678(United States)

Potassium channel expression in adult murine neural progenitor cells.

  • Prüss H
  • Neuroscience
  • 2011 Apr 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are a source of new neurons and glia in the adult brain. Most NPCs reside in the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) and in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, where they contribute to plasticity in the adult brain. To use their potential for repair, it is essential to identify the molecules that regulate their growth, migration and differentiation. Potassium (K+) channels are promising molecule candidates for NPC regulation as they are important components of signal transduction and their diversity is ideal to cover the complex functions required for cell proliferation and differentiation. There is increasing evidence that K+ channels influence cell growth and neurogenesis, however, very little is known regarding K+ channel distribution in NPCs. We therefore explored the expression of a variety of voltage-gated (Kv), inwardly rectifying (Kir) and two-pore (K2P) K+ channels in the SVZ of adult mice and in neurosphere cultures of NPCs during growth and differentiation. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed a differential expression pattern of K+ channels in nestin+ SVZ precursor cells, early SVZ doublecortin+ neurons and (sub)ependymal cells. These findings were confirmed in neurosphere cultures at the protein and mRNA levels. The expression of some K+ channel proteins, such as Kir4.1, Kir6.1, TREK1 or TASK1, suggests a role of K+ channels in the complex regulation of NPC proliferation, maturation and differentiation.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - U24 RR021992(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - R21 EY019401-03(United States)

AKAP79/150 impacts intrinsic excitability of hippocampal neurons through phospho-regulation of A-type K+ channel trafficking.

  • Lin L
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2011 Jan 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Kv4.2, as the primary α-subunit of rapidly inactivating, A-type voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels expressed in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal dendrites, plays a critical role in regulating their excitability. Activity-dependent trafficking of Kv4.2 relies on C-terminal protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation. A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) target PKA to glutamate receptor and ion channel complexes to allow for discrete, local signaling. As part of a previous study, we showed that AKAP79/150 interacts with Kv4.2 complexes and that the two proteins colocalize in hippocampal neurons. However, the nature and functional consequence of their interaction has not been previously explored. Here, we report that the C-terminal domain of Kv4.2 interacts with an internal region of AKAP79/150 that overlaps with its MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase)-binding domain. We show that AKAP79/150-anchored PKA activity controls Kv4.2 surface expression in heterologous cells and hippocampal neurons. Consistent with these findings, disrupting PKA anchoring led to a decrease in neuronal excitability, while preventing dephosphorylation by the phosphatase calcineurin resulted in increased excitability. These results demonstrate that AKAP79/150 provides a platform for dynamic PKA regulation of Kv4.2 expression, fundamentally impacting CA1 excitability.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - U54 GM074898(United States)

Roles of A-type potassium currents in tuning spike frequency and integrating synaptic transmission in noradrenergic neurons of the A7 catecholamine cell group in rats.

  • Min MY
  • Neuroscience
  • 2010 Jul 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

We investigated voltage-dependent K(+) currents (I(K)) in noradrenergic (NAergic) A7 neurons. The I(K) evoked consisted of A-type I(K) (I(A)), which had the characteristics of a low threshold for activation (approximately -50 mV), fast activation/inactivation, and rapid recovery from inactivation. Since the I(A) were blocked by heteropodatoxin-2 (Hptx-2), a specific Kv4 channel blocker, and the NAergic A7 neurons were shown to be reactive with antibodies against Kv4.1/Kv4.3 channel proteins, we conclude that the I(A) evoked in NAergic neurons are mediated by Kv4.1/Kv4.3 channels. I(A) were also evoked using voltage commands of a single action potential (AP), a subthreshold voltage change between two consecutive APs, or excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) activity recorded in current-clamp mode (CCM). Blockade of the I(A) by 4-AP, a broad spectrum I(A) blocker, or by Hptx-2 increased the half-width and spontaneous firing of APs and reduced the amount of synaptic drive needed to elicit APs in CCM, showing that the I(A) play important roles in regulating the shape and firing frequency of APs and in synaptic integration in NAergic A7 neurons. Since these neurons are the principal projection neurons to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, these results also suggest roles for Kv4.1/4.3 channels in descending NAergic pain regulation.

Funding information:
  • OGDP CDC HHS - 1 R36 GD 000075-1(United States)

Inhibition of glutamate transporters couples to Kv4.2 dephosphorylation through activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors.

  • Mulholland PJ
  • Neuroscience
  • 2010 Jan 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Activation of glutamate receptors is known to modulate K(+) channel surface trafficking, phosphorylation, and function, and increasing evidence has implicated K(+) channels in plastic changes in glutamatergic synapses. Kv4.2 channels control the amplitude of back-propagating action potentials and shape postsynaptic responses in hippocampus, and synaptic glutamate receptor activation leads to increased phosphorylation of Kv4.2 channels that is associated with enhanced synaptic plasticity. Thus, we investigated the possibility that activation of extrasynaptic NMDA-type glutamate receptors couples to Kv4.2 channel dephosphorylation. In hippocampal neurons, we found that selective activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors dephosphorylates Kv4.2 channels, and driving synaptic activity increases phosphorylation of Kv4.2. We also observed that Ca(2+) entry through NMDA receptors is necessary for dephosphorylation of Kv4.2 channels. Consistent with a synaptic and extrasynaptic localization at hippocampal synapses, a fraction of Kv4.2 channel clusters was found to localize outside of pre- and postsynaptic markers. Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) regulate ambient extracellular glutamate levels that active extrasynaptic NMDA receptors, and inhibition of glutamate uptake by blocking EAATs with the non-selective transporter inhibitor dl-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA) or the EAAT1/3 selective inhibitor l-serine O-sulfate (SOS) dephosphorylates Kv4.2 channels. These findings in conjunction with previous reports support the interesting possibility that synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors bi-directionally regulate phosphorylation levels of Kv4.2 channels in hippocampus. Moreover, we observed that EAAT activity controls extrasynaptic NMDA receptor modulation of Kv4.2 channel dephosphorylation.

The development of Kv4.2 expression in the retina.

  • Qu J
  • Neurosci. Lett.
  • 2009 Oct 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Throughout the brain, the potassium channel Kv4.2 regulates signal propagation in dendrites and action potential properties in subtypes of neurons. In adult rodents Kv4.2 is expressed predominantly in two bands in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) somas (Klumpp et al. [15]; Pinto and Klumpp [20]), suggesting a role regulating the activity of specific subtypes of RGCs. To understand the role of Kv4.2 in the regulation of the activity of RGCs during development we determined the developmental expression pattern of Kv4.2 immunoreactivity (Kv4.2-IR). At P4-6 Kv4.2-IR appeared diffusely throughout the IPL in cross-sectioned retinas. From postantal day 10 (P10) through adult there was an additional pair of brighter Kv4.2-IR bands between the ChAT bands that had a reticular pattern in flat-mounted retinas. Kv4.2-IR was not present in somas at P4-6, but appeared in ganglion cell layer (GCL) somas beginning at P10. The fraction of somas expressing Kv4.2 in the GCL was about 8% at P10-11, decreased to 5% at P20-21, then increased to 9% in adult retinas. The restriction of Kv4.2 expression to less than 10% of the GCL somas and the specificity of expression in the IPL suggest that Kv4.2 regulates activity in one or a few functional subtypes of RGCs. The pattern of Kv4.2-IR through postnatal development indicates that Kv4.2-mediated currents are important for development in a subset of RGCs, especially around P10 as the bipolar cells mature.

Proteomic analyses of native brain K(V)4.2 channel complexes.

  • Marionneau C
  • Channels (Austin)
  • 2009 Sep 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Somatodendritic A-type (I(A)) voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels are key regulators of neuronal excitability, functioning to control action potential waveforms, repetitive firing and the responses to synaptic inputs. Rapidly activating and inactivating somatodendritic I(A) channels are encoded by K(V)4 alpha subunits and accumulating evidence suggests that these channels function as components of macromolecular protein complexes. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic approaches were developed and exploited here to identify potential components and regulators of native brain K(V)4.2-encoded I(A) channel complexes. Using anti-K(V)4.2 specific antibodies, K(V)4.2 channel complexes were immunoprecipitated from adult wild type mouse brain. Parallel control experiments were performed on brain samples isolated from (K(V)4.2(-/-)) mice harboring a targeted disruption of the KCND2 (K(V)4.2) locus. Three proteomic strategies were employed: an in-gel approach, coupled to one-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem MS (1D-LC-MS/MS), and two in-solution approaches, followed by 1D- or 2D-LC-MS/MS. The targeted in-gel 1D-LC-MS/MS analyses demonstrated the presence of the K(V)4 alpha subunits (K(V)4.2, K(V)4.3 and K(V)4.1) and the K(V)4 accessory, KChIP (KChIP1-4) and DPP (DPP6 and 10), proteins in native brain K(V)4.2 channel complexes. The more comprehensive, in-solution approach, coupled to 2D-LC-MS/MS, also called Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT), revealed that additional regulatory proteins, including the K(V) channel accessory subunit K(V)beta1, are also components of native brain K(V)4.2 channel complexes. Additional biochemical and functional approaches will be required to elucidate the physiological roles of these newly identified K(V)4 interacting proteins.

Kv4 Channels Underlie the Subthreshold-Operating A-type K-current in Nociceptive Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons.

  • Phuket TR
  • Front Mol Neurosci
  • 2009 Aug 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) contains heterogeneous populations of sensory neurons including primary nociceptive neurons and C-fibers implicated in pain signaling. Recent studies have demonstrated DRG hyperexcitability associated with downregulation of A-type K(+) channels; however, the molecular correlate of the corresponding A-type K(+) current (I(A)) has remained hypothetical. Kv4 channels may underlie the I(A) in DRG neurons. We combined electrophysiology, molecular biology (Whole-Tissue and Single-Cell RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry to investigate the molecular basis of the I(A) in acutely dissociated DRG neurons from 7- to 8-day-old rats. Whole-cell recordings demonstrate a robust tetraethylammonium-resistant (20 mM) and 4-aminopyridine-sensitive (5 mM) I(A). Matching Kv4 channel properties, activation and inactivation of this I(A) occur in the subthreshold range of membrane potentials and the rate of recovery from inactivation is rapid and voltage-dependent. Among Kv4 transcripts, the DRG expresses significant levels of Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 mRNAs. Also, single small-medium diameter DRG neurons ( approximately 30 mum) exhibit correlated frequent expression of mRNAs encoding Kv4.1 and Nav1.8, a known nociceptor marker. In contrast, the expressions of Kv1.4 and Kv4.2 mRNAs at the whole-tissue and single-cell levels are relatively low and infrequent. Kv4 protein expression in nociceptive DRG neurons was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which demonstrates colocalization of Kv4.3 and Nav1.8, and negligible expression of Kv4.2. Furthermore, specific dominant-negative suppression and overexpression strategies confirmed the contribution of Kv4 channels to I(A) in DRG neurons. Contrasting the expression patterns of Kv4 channels in the central and peripheral nervous systems, we discuss possible functional roles of these channels in primary sensory neurons.

PPTX, a pentraxin domain-containing protein, interacts with the T1 domain of K v 4.

  • Harvey M
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2009 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Voltage-gated K(+) (K(v)) channels reside as tetramers in the membrane. The events that coordinate folding, trafficking, and tetramerization are mediated by an array of associated proteins and phospholipids whose identification is vital to understanding the dynamic nature of channel expression and activity. An interaction between an A-type K(+) channel, K(v)4.2, and a protein containing a pentraxin domain (PPTX) was demonstrated in the cochlea (Duzhyy et al. [ 2005] J. Biol. Chem. 280:15165-15172). Here, we present results based on fold recognition and homology modeling that revealed the tetramerization (T1) domain of K(v)4.2 as a potential docking site for interacting proteins such as PPTX. By using this model, putative sites were experimentally tested with the yeast two-hybrid system to assay interactions between PPTX and the T1 domain of K(v)4.2 wild type (wt) and mutants (mut). Results showed that amino acid residues 86 and 118 in the T1 domain are essential for interaction, because replacing these negatively charged with neutrally charged amino acids inhibits interactions. Cotransfections of Chinese hamster ovary cells with PPTX and K(v)4.2wt further revealed that PPTX increases K(v)4.2 wt expression in vitro when analyzing total lysates, whereas interactions with K(v)4.2 microt resulted in a decrease. These studies suggest that portions of the T1 domain can act as docking sites for proteins such as PPTX, further underscoring the significance of this domain.

Convergent modulation of Kv4.2 channel alpha subunits by structurally distinct DPPX and KChIP auxiliary subunits.

  • Seikel E
  • Biochemistry
  • 2009 Jun 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Kv4.2 is the major voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channel alpha subunit responsible for the somatodendritic transient or A-type current I(SA) that activates at subthreshold membrane potentials. Stable association of Kv4.2 with diverse auxiliary subunits and reversible Kv4.2 phosphorylation regulate I(SA) function. Two classes of auxiliary subunits play distinct roles in modulating the biophysical properties of Kv4.2: dipeptidyl-peptidase-like type II transmembrane proteins typified by DPPX-S, and cytoplasmic Ca(2+) binding proteins known as K(+) channel interacting proteins (KChIPs). Here, we characterize the convergent roles that DPPX-S and KChIPs play as component subunits of Kv4.2 channel complexes. We coexpressed DPPX-S with Kv4.2 in heterologous cells and found a dramatic redistribution of Kv4.2, releasing it from intracellular retention and allowing plasma membrane expression, as well as altered Kv4.2 phosphorylation, detergent solubility, and stability. These changes are remarkably similar to those obtained upon coexpression of Kv4.2 with the structurally distinct KChIPs1-3 auxiliary subunits. KChIP4a, which negatively affects the impact of other KChIPs on Kv4.2, also inhibits the effects of DPPX-S, consistent with the formation of a ternary complex of Kv4.2, DPPX-S, and KChIPs early in channel biosynthesis. Tandem MS analyses reveal that coexpression with DPPX-S or KChIP2 leads to a pattern of Kv4.2 phosphorylation in heterologous cells similar to that observed in brain, but lacking in cells expressing Kv4.2 alone. In conclusion, transmembrane DPPX-S and cytoplasmic KChIPs, despite having distinct structures and binding sites on Kv4.2, exert similar effects on Kv4.2 trafficking, but distinct effects on Kv4.2 gating.

Rapid, bidirectional remodeling of synaptic NMDA receptor subunit composition by A-type K+ channel activity in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

  • Jung SC
  • Neuron
  • 2008 Nov 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

The transient, A-type K+ current (IA) controls the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neuron dendrites by regulating the back-propagation of action potentials and by shaping synaptic input. Dendritic A-type K+ channels are targeted for modulation during long-term potentiation (LTP) and we have recently shown that activity-dependent internalization of the A-type channel subunit Kv4.2 enhances synaptic currents. However, the effect of changes in IA on the ability to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity (metaplasticity) has not been investigated. Here, we show that altering functional Kv4.2 expression level leads to a rapid, bidirectional remodeling of CA1 synapses. Neurons exhibiting enhanced IA showed a decrease in relative synaptic NR2B/NR2A subunit composition and did not exhibit LTP. Conversely, reducing IA by expression of a Kv4.2 dominant-negative or through genomic knockout of Kv4.2 led to an increased fraction of synaptic NR2B/NR2A and enhanced LTP. Bidirectional synaptic remodeling was mimicked in experiments manipulating intracellular Ca2+ and dependent on spontaneous activation of NMDA receptors and CaMKII activity. Our data suggest that A-type K+ channels are an integral part of a synaptic complex that regulates Ca2+ signaling through spontaneous NMDAR activation to control synaptic NMDAR expression and plasticity.

DPP6 Localization in Brain Supports Function as a Kv4 Channel Associated Protein.

  • Clark BD
  • Front Mol Neurosci
  • 2008 Nov 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

The gene encoding the dipeptidyl peptidase-like protein DPP6 (also known as DPPX) has been associated with human neural disease. However, until recently no function had been found for this protein. It has been proposed that DPP6 is an auxiliary subunit of neuronal Kv4 K(+) channels, the ion channels responsible for the somato-dendritic A-type K(+) current, an ionic current with crucial roles in the regulation of firing frequency, dendritic integration and synaptic plasticity. This view has been supported mainly by studies showing that DPP6 is necessary to generate channels with biophysical properties resembling the native channels in some neurons. However, independent evidence that DPP6 is a component of neuronal Kv4 channels in the brain, and whether this protein has other functions in the CNS is still lacking. We generated antibodies to DPP6 proteins to compare their distribution in brain with that of the Kv4 pore-forming subunits. DPP6 proteins were prominently expressed in neuronal populations expressing Kv4.2 proteins and both types of protein were enriched in the dendrites of these cells, strongly supporting the hypothesis that DPP6 is an associated protein of Kv4 channels in brain neurons. The observed similarity in the cellular and subcellular patterns of expression of both proteins suggests that this is the main function of DPP6 in brain. However, we also found that DPP6 antibodies intensely labeled the hippocampal mossy fiber axons, which lack Kv4 proteins, suggesting that DPP6 proteins may have additional, Kv4-unrelated functions.

Mislocalization of h channel subunits underlies h channelopathy in temporal lobe epilepsy.

  • Shin M
  • Neurobiol. Dis.
  • 2008 Oct 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) begin with status epilepticus (SE) followed by a latency period. Increased hippocampal pyramidal neuron excitability may contribute to seizures in TLE. I(h), mediated by h channels, regulates intrinsic membrane excitability by modulating synaptic integration and dampening dendritic calcium signaling. In a rat model of TLE, we found bidirectional changes in h channel function in CA1 pyramidal neurons. 1-2 d after SE, before onset of spontaneous seizures, physiological parameters dependent upon h channels were augmented and h channel subunit surface expression was increased. 28-30 d following SE, after onset of spontaneous seizures, h channel function in dendrites was reduced, coupled with diminished h channel subunit surface expression and relocalization of subunits from distal dendrites to soma. These results implicate h channel localization as a molecular mechanism influencing CA1 excitability in TLE.

Altered expression and localization of hippocampal A-type potassium channel subunits in the pilocarpine-induced model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

  • Monaghan MM
  • Neuroscience
  • 2008 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Altered ion channel expression and/or function may contribute to the development of certain human epilepsies. In rats, systemic administration of pilocarpine induces a model of human temporal lobe epilepsy, wherein a brief period of status epilepticus (SE) triggers development of spontaneous recurrent seizures that appear after a latency of 2-3 weeks. Here we investigate changes in expression of A-type voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, which control neuronal excitability and regulate action potential propagation and neurotransmitter release, in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of component subunits of somatodendritic (Kv4.2, Kv4.3, KChIPl and KChIP2) and axonal (Kv1.4) A-type Kv channels in hippocampi of pilocarpine-treated rats that entered SE. We found that Kv4.2, Kv4.3 and KChIP2 staining in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus changes from being uniformly distributed across the molecular layer to concentrated in just the outer two-thirds. We also observed a loss of KChIP1 immunoreactive interneurons, and a reduction of Kv4.2 and KChIP2 staining in stratum radiatum of CA1. These changes begin to appear 1 week after pilocarpine treatment and persist or are enhanced at 4 and 12 weeks. As such, these changes in Kv channel distribution parallel the acquisition of recurrent spontaneous seizures as observed in this model. We also found temporal changes in Kv1.4 immunoreactivity matching those in Timm's stain, being expanded in stratum lucidum of CA3 and in the inner third of the dentate molecular layer. Among pilocarpine-treated rats, changes were only observed in those that entered SE. These changes in A-type Kv channel expression may contribute to hyperexcitability of dendrites in the associated hippocampal circuits as observed in previous studies of the effects of pilocarpine-induced SE.

Ternary Kv4.2 channels recapitulate voltage-dependent inactivation kinetics of A-type K+ channels in cerebellar granule neurons.

  • Amarillo Y
  • J. Physiol. (Lond.)
  • 2008 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Kv4 channels mediate most of the somatodendritic subthreshold operating A-type current (I(SA)) in neurons. This current plays essential roles in the regulation of spike timing, repetitive firing, dendritic integration and plasticity. Neuronal Kv4 channels are thought to be ternary complexes of Kv4 pore-forming subunits and two types of accessory proteins, Kv channel interacting proteins (KChIPs) and the dipeptidyl-peptidase-like proteins (DPPLs) DPPX (DPP6) and DPP10. In heterologous cells, ternary Kv4 channels exhibit inactivation that slows down with increasing depolarization. Here, we compared the voltage dependence of the inactivation rate of channels expressed in heterologous mammalian cells by Kv4.2 proteins with that of channels containing Kv4.2 and KChIP1, Kv4.2 and DPPX-S, or Kv4.2, KChIP1 and DPPX-S, and found that the relation between inactivation rate and membrane potential is distinct for these four conditions. Moreover, recordings from native neurons showed that the inactivation kinetics of the I(SA) in cerebellar granule neurons has voltage dependence that is remarkably similar to that of ternary Kv4 channels containing KChIP1 and DPPX-S proteins in heterologous cells. The fact that this complex and unique behaviour (among A-type K(+) currents) is observed in both the native current and the current expressed in heterologous cells by the ternary complex containing Kv4, DPPX and KChIP proteins supports the hypothesis that somatically recorded native Kv4 channels in neurons include both types of accessory protein. Furthermore, quantitative global kinetic modelling showed that preferential closed-state inactivation and a weakly voltage-dependent opening step can explain the slowing of the inactivation rate with increasing depolarization. Therefore, it is likely that preferential closed-state inactivation is the physiological mechanism that regulates the activity of both ternary Kv4 channel complexes and native I(SA)-mediating channels.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31-NS066721(United States)

SAP97 directs the localization of Kv4.2 to spines in hippocampal neurons: regulation by CaMKII.

  • Gardoni F
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2007 Sep 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

The pore-forming alpha-subunit Kv4.2 is a key constituent of the A-type channel and critically involved in the regulation of dendritic excitability and plasticity. Here we show that Kv4.2 is enriched in the postsynaptic density (PSD) fraction and specifically interacts with synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97). This interaction requires an intact C terminus of Kv4.2 and occurs via the PDZ domains of SAP97. Pharmacologically induced translocation of SAP97 to spines also drives Kv4.2 to the PSD, whereas SAP97 lentivirally based RNA interference reduces Kv4.2 in the PSD. In addition, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent SAP97 phosphorylation regulates the subcellular localization of Kv4.2. These results show that SAP97-CaMKII pathway plays an important role for the trafficking of Kv4.2 to dendrites and spines.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC012957(United States)

Regulation of dendritic excitability by activity-dependent trafficking of the A-type K+ channel subunit Kv4.2 in hippocampal neurons.

  • Kim J
  • Neuron
  • 2007 Jun 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Voltage-gated A-type K+ channel Kv4.2 subunits are highly expressed in the dendrites of hippocampal CA1 neurons. However, little is known about the subcellular distribution and trafficking of Kv4.2-containing channels. Here we provide evidence for activity-dependent trafficking of Kv4.2 in hippocampal spines and dendrites. Live imaging and electrophysiological recordings showed that Kv4.2 internalization is induced rapidly upon glutamate receptor stimulation. Kv4.2 internalization was clathrin mediated and required NMDA receptor activation and Ca2+ influx. In dissociated hippocampal neurons, mEPSC amplitude depended on functional Kv4.2 expression level and was enhanced by stimuli that induced Kv4.2 internalization. Long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by brief glycine application resulted in synaptic insertion of GluR1-containing AMPA receptors along with Kv4.2 internalization. We also found evidence of Kv4.2 internalization upon synaptically evoked LTP in CA1 neurons of hippocampal slice cultures. These results present an additional mechanism for synaptic integration and plasticity through the activity-dependent regulation of Kv4.2 channel surface expression.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

Differential expression of I(A) channel subunits Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in mouse visual cortical neurons and synapses.

  • Burkhalter A
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2006 Nov 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

In cortical neurons, pore-forming alpha-subunits of the Kv4 subfamily underlie the fast transient outward K+ current (I(A)). Considerable evidence has accumulated demonstrating specific roles for I(A) channels in the generation of individual action potentials and in the regulation of repetitive firing. Although I(A) channels are thought to play a role in synaptic processing, little is known about the cell type- and synapse-specific distribution of these channels in cortical circuits. Here, we used immunolabeling with specific antibodies against Kv4.2 and Kv4.3, in combination with GABA immunogold staining, to determine the cellular, subcellular, and synaptic localization of Kv4 channels in the primary visual cortex of mice, in which subsets of pyramidal cells express yellow fluorescent protein. The results show that both Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 are concentrated in layer 1, the bottom of layer 2/3, and in layers 4 and 5/6. In all layers, clusters of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 immunoreactivity are evident in the membranes of the somata, dendrites, and spines of pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons. Electron microscopic analyses revealed that Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 clusters in pyramidal cells and interneurons are excluded from putative excitatory synapses, whereas postsynaptic membranes at GABAergic synapses often contain Kv4.2 and Kv4.3. The presence of Kv4 channels at GABAergic synapses would be expected to weaken inhibition during dendritic depolarization by backpropagating action potentials. The extrasynaptic localization of Kv4 channels near excitatory synapses, in contrast, should stabilize synaptic excitation during dendritic depolarization. Thus, the synapse-specific distribution of Kv4 channels functions to optimize dendritic excitation and the association between presynaptic and postsynaptic activity.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U54 HG004555(United States)