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Kv2.1 potassium channel antibody

RRID:AB_10672253

Antibody ID

AB_10672253

Target Antigen

Kv2.1 potassium channel null

Proper Citation

(UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility Cat# 73-014, RRID:AB_10672253)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Originating manufacturer of this product. Applications: IB, ICC, IHC, IP, KO, WB. Validation status: IF or IB (Pass), IB in brain (Pass), IHC in brain (Pass), KO (Pass).

Clone ID

K89/34

Host Organism

mouse

VIP-immunoreactive interneurons within circuits of the mouse basolateral amygdala.

  • Rhomberg T
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 28

Literature context: 75-014 449-3AK-78D Mouse 1:1000 RRID:AB_10672253 Open in a separate window


Abstract:

In cortical structures, principal cell activity is tightly regulated by different GABAergic interneurons (INs). In particular, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-expressing (VIP+) INs innervate preferentially other INs, providing a structural basis for temporal disinhibition of principal cells. However, relatively little is known about VIP+ INs in the amygdaloid basolateral complex (BLA). In this study, we report that VIP+ INs have a variable density in the distinct subdivisions of the mouse BLA. Based on different anatomical, neurochemical and electrophysiological criteria, VIP+ INs could be identified as interneuron-selective INs and basket cells expressing CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Whole-cell recordings of VIP+ interneuron-selective INs revealed 3 different spiking patterns, which did not associate with the expression of calretinin. Genetic targeting combined with optogenetics and in vitro recordings allowed us to identify several types of BLA INs innervated by VIP+ INs, including other interneuron-selective INs, basket and neurogliaform cells. Moreover, light stimulation of VIP+ basket cell axon terminals, characterized by CB1 sensitivity, evoked IPSPs in ∼20% of principal neurons. Finally, we show that VIP+ INs receive a dense innervation from both GABAergic, although only 10% from other VIP+ INs, and distinct glutamatergic inputs, identified by their expression of different vesicular glutamate transporters.In conclusion, our study provides a wide-range analysis of single-cell properties of VIP+ INs in the mouse BLA and of their intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity. Our results reinforce the knowledge that VIP+ INs are structurally and functionally heterogeneous and that this heterogeneity could mediate different roles in amygdala-dependent functions.Significance statement:We provide the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of VIP+ interneurons across the entire mouse BLA, as well as of their morphological and physiological properties. VIP+ interneurons in the neocortex preferentially target other interneurons to form a disinhibitory network that facilitates principal cell firing. Our study is the first to demonstrate the presence of such a disinhibitory circuitry in the BLA. We observed structural and functional heterogeneity of these INs and characterized their input/output connectivity. We also identified several types of BLA interneurons postsynaptic to VIP+ INs, whose inhibition may provide a temporal window for principal cell firing and facilitate associative plasticity, e.g. in fear learning. Disinhibition, thus, is emerging as a general mechanism, not limited to the neocortex.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM055962(United States)

Kv2 Ion Channels Determine the Expression and Localization of the Associated AMIGO-1 Cell Adhesion Molecule in Adult Brain Neurons.

  • Bishop HI
  • Front Mol Neurosci
  • 2018 Feb 7

Literature context: ouse mAb (NeuroMab Cat# 73-014, RRID:AB_10672253) was validated by immunoblot ag


Abstract:

Voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels play important roles in regulating neuronal excitability. Kv channels comprise four principal α subunits, and transmembrane and/or cytoplasmic auxiliary subunits that modify diverse aspects of channel function. AMIGO-1, which mediates homophilic cell adhesion underlying neurite outgrowth and fasciculation during development, has recently been shown to be an auxiliary subunit of adult brain Kv2.1-containing Kv channels. We show that AMIGO-1 is extensively colocalized with both Kv2.1 and its paralog Kv2.2 in brain neurons across diverse mammals, and that in adult brain, there is no apparent population of AMIGO-1 outside of that colocalized with these Kv2 α subunits. AMIGO-1 is coclustered with Kv2 α subunits at specific plasma membrane (PM) sites associated with hypolemmal subsurface cisternae at neuronal ER:PM junctions. This distinct PM clustering of AMIGO-1 is not observed in brain neurons of mice lacking Kv2 α subunit expression. Moreover, in heterologous cells, coexpression of either Kv2.1 or Kv2.2 is sufficient to drive clustering of the otherwise uniformly expressed AMIGO-1. Kv2 α subunit coexpression also increases biosynthetic intracellular trafficking and PM expression of AMIGO-1 in heterologous cells, and analyses of Kv2.1 and Kv2.2 knockout mice show selective loss of AMIGO-1 expression and localization in neurons lacking the respective Kv2 α subunit. Together, these data suggest that in mammalian brain neurons, AMIGO-1 is exclusively associated with Kv2 α subunits, and that Kv2 α subunits are obligatory in determining the correct pattern of AMIGO-1 expression, PM trafficking and clustering.

Reduced sensory synaptic excitation impairs motor neuron function via Kv2.1 in spinal muscular atrophy.

  • Fletcher EV
  • Nat. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Aug 29

Literature context: within aa 837–853; cat #73-014 RRID:AB10672253). For the Kv2.2 immunoreactivit


Abstract:

Behavioral deficits in neurodegenerative diseases are often attributed to the selective dysfunction of vulnerable neurons via cell-autonomous mechanisms. Although vulnerable neurons are embedded in neuronal circuits, the contributions of their synaptic partners to disease process are largely unknown. Here we show that, in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a reduction in proprioceptive synaptic drive leads to motor neuron dysfunction and motor behavior impairments. In SMA mice or after the blockade of proprioceptive synaptic transmission, we observed a decrease in the motor neuron firing that could be explained by the reduction in the expression of the potassium channel Kv2.1 at the surface of motor neurons. Chronically increasing neuronal activity pharmacologically in vivo led to a normalization of Kv2.1 expression and an improvement in motor function. Our results demonstrate a key role of excitatory synaptic drive in shaping the function of motor neurons during development and the contribution of its disruption to a neurodegenerative disease.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS078375()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS079981()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS084185()

Cell Cycle-dependent Changes in Localization and Phosphorylation of the Plasma Membrane Kv2.1 K+ Channel Impact Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Contact Sites in COS-1 Cells.

  • Cobb MM
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2015 Dec 4

Literature context: b K89/34 (RRID:AB_10672253), generate


Abstract:

The plasma membrane (PM) comprises distinct subcellular domains with diverse functions that need to be dynamically coordinated with intracellular events, one of the most impactful being mitosis. The Kv2.1 voltage-gated potassium channel is conditionally localized to large PM clusters that represent specialized PM:endoplasmic reticulum membrane contact sites (PM:ER MCS), and overexpression of Kv2.1 induces more exuberant PM:ER MCS in neurons and in certain heterologous cell types. Localization of Kv2.1 at these contact sites is dynamically regulated by changes in phosphorylation at one or more sites located on its large cytoplasmic C terminus. Here, we show that Kv2.1 expressed in COS-1 cells undergoes dramatic cell cycle-dependent changes in its PM localization, having diffuse localization in interphase cells, and robust clustering during M phase. The mitosis-specific clusters of Kv2.1 are localized to PM:ER MCS, and M phase clustering of Kv2.1 induces more extensive PM:ER MCS. These cell cycle-dependent changes in Kv2.1 localization and the induction of PM:ER MCS are accompanied by increased mitotic Kv2.1 phosphorylation at several C-terminal phosphorylation sites. Phosphorylation of exogenously expressed Kv2.1 is significantly increased upon metaphase arrest in COS-1 and CHO cells, and in a pancreatic β cell line that express endogenous Kv2.1. The M phase clustering of Kv2.1 at PM:ER MCS in COS-1 cells requires the same C-terminal targeting motif needed for conditional Kv2.1 clustering in neurons. The cell cycle-dependent changes in localization and phosphorylation of Kv2.1 were not accompanied by changes in the electrophysiological properties of Kv2.1 expressed in CHO cells. Together, these results provide novel insights into the cell cycle-dependent changes in PM protein localization and phosphorylation.

A novel epileptic encephalopathy mutation in KCNB1 disrupts Kv2.1 ion selectivity, expression, and localization.

  • Thiffault I
  • J. Gen. Physiol.
  • 2015 Nov 27

Literature context: Resource Identifier [RRID]: AB_10672253; anti-GFP N86/38 IgG2a: 1:5 dil


Abstract:

The epileptic encephalopathies are a group of highly heterogeneous genetic disorders. The majority of disease-causing mutations alter genes encoding voltage-gated ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors, or synaptic proteins. We have identified a novel de novo pathogenic K+ channel variant in an idiopathic epileptic encephalopathy family. Here, we report the effects of this mutation on channel function and heterologous expression in cell lines. We present a case report of infantile epileptic encephalopathy in a young girl, and trio-exome sequencing to determine the genetic etiology of her disorder. The patient was heterozygous for a de novo missense variant in the coding region of the KCNB1 gene, c.1133T>C. The variant encodes a V378A mutation in the α subunit of the Kv2.1 voltage-gated K+ channel, which is expressed at high levels in central neurons and is an important regulator of neuronal excitability. We found that expression of the V378A variant results in voltage-activated currents that are sensitive to the selective Kv2 channel blocker guangxitoxin-1E. These voltage-activated Kv2.1 V378A currents were nonselective among monovalent cations. Striking cell background-dependent differences in expression and subcellular localization of the V378A mutation were observed in heterologous cells. Further, coexpression of V378A subunits and wild-type Kv2.1 subunits reciprocally affects their respective trafficking characteristics. A recent study reported epileptic encephalopathy-linked missense variants that render Kv2.1 a tonically activated, nonselective cation channel that is not voltage activated. Our findings strengthen the correlation between mutations that result in loss of Kv2.1 ion selectivity and development of epileptic encephalopathy. However, the strong voltage sensitivity of currents from the V378A mutant indicates that the loss of voltage-sensitive gating seen in all other reported disease mutants is not required for an epileptic encephalopathy phenotype. In addition to electrophysiological differences, we suggest that defects in expression and subcellular localization of Kv2.1 V378A channels could contribute to the pathophysiology of this KCNB1 variant.

Distinct axo-somato-dendritic distributions of three potassium channels in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells.

  • Kirizs T
  • Eur. J. Neurosci.
  • 2015 Jan 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Potassium channels comprise the most diverse family of ion channels and play critical roles in a large variety of physiological and pathological processes. In addition to their molecular diversity, variations in their distributions and densities on the axo-somato-dendritic surface of neurons are key parameters in determining their functional impact. Despite extensive electrophysiological and anatomical investigations, the exact location and densities of most K(+) channels in small subcellular compartments are still unknown. Here we aimed at providing a quantitative surface map of two delayed-rectifier (Kv1.1 and Kv2.1) and one G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying (Kir3.2) K(+) channel subunits on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs). Freeze-fracture replica immunogold labelling was employed to determine the relative densities of these K(+) channel subunits in 18 axo-somato-dendritic compartments. Significant densities of the Kv1.1 subunit were detected on axon initial segments (AISs) and axon terminals, with an approximately eight-fold lower density in the latter compartment. The Kv2.1 subunit was found in somatic, proximal dendritic and AIS plasma membranes at approximately the same densities. This subunit has a non-uniform plasma membrane distribution; Kv2.1 clusters are frequently adjacent to, but never overlap with, GABAergic synapses. A quasi-linear increase in the Kir3.2 subunit density along the dendrites of PCs was detected, showing no significant difference between apical dendritic shafts, oblique dendrites or dendritic spines at the same distance from the soma. Our results demonstrate that each subunit has a unique cell-surface distribution pattern, and predict their differential involvement in synaptic integration and output generation at distinct subcellular compartments.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - NIH P30 HD003352(United States)

Cell type-specific spatial and functional coupling between mammalian brain Kv2.1 K+ channels and ryanodine receptors.

  • Mandikian D
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Oct 15

Literature context: t# 73-014 RRID:AB_10672253) was valid


Abstract:

The Kv2.1 voltage-gated K+ channel is widely expressed throughout mammalian brain, where it contributes to dynamic activity-dependent regulation of intrinsic neuronal excitability. Here we show that somatic plasma membrane Kv2.1 clusters are juxtaposed to clusters of intracellular ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ -release channels in mouse brain neurons, most prominently in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum. Electron microscopy-immunogold labeling shows that in MSNs, plasma membrane Kv2.1 clusters are adjacent to subsurface cisternae, placing Kv2.1 in close proximity to sites of RyR-mediated Ca2+ release. Immunofluorescence labeling in transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein in specific MSN populations reveals the most prominent juxtaposed Kv2.1:RyR clusters in indirect pathway MSNs. Kv2.1 in both direct and indirect pathway MSNs exhibits markedly lower levels of labeling with phosphospecific antibodies directed against the S453, S563, and S603 phosphorylation site compared with levels observed in neocortical neurons, although labeling for Kv2.1 phosphorylation at S563 was significantly lower in indirect pathway MSNs compared with those in the direct pathway. Finally, acute stimulation of RyRs in heterologous cells causes a rapid hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of activation of Kv2.1, typical of Ca2+ /calcineurin-dependent Kv2.1 dephosphorylation. Together, these studies reveal that striatal MSNs are distinct in their expression of clustered Kv2.1 at plasma membrane sites juxtaposed to intracellular RyRs, as well as in Kv2.1 phosphorylation state. Differences in Kv2.1 expression and phosphorylation between MSNs in direct and indirect pathways provide a cell- and circuit-specific mechanism for coupling intracellular Ca2+ release to phosphorylation-dependent regulation of Kv2.1 to dynamically impact intrinsic excitability.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - R24-RR016344(United States)

Somatodendritic ion channel expression in substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons across postnatal development.

  • Dufour MA
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2014 Aug 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) are involved in the control of movement, sleep, reward, learning, and nervous system disorders and disease. To date, a thorough characterization of the ion channel phenotype of this important neuronal population is lacking. Using immunohistochemistry, we analyzed the somatodendritic expression of voltage-gated ion channel subunits that are involved in pacemaking activity in SNc dopaminergic neurons in 6-, 21-, and 40-day-old rats. Our results demonstrate that the same complement of somatodendritic ion channels is present in SNc dopaminergic neurons from P6 to P40. The major developmental changes were an increase in the dendritic range of the immunolabeling for the HCN, T-type calcium, Kv4.3, delayed rectifier, and SK channels. Our study sheds light on the ion channel subunits that contribute to the somatodendritic delayed rectifier (Kv1.3, Kv2.1, Kv3.2, Kv3.3), A-type (Kv4.3) and calcium-activated SK (SK1, SK2, SK3) potassium currents, IH (mainly HCN2, HCN4), and the L- (Cav1.2, Cav1.3) and T-type (mainly Cav3.1, Cav3.3) calcium currents in SNc dopaminergic neurons. Finally, no robust differences in voltage-gated ion channel immunolabeling were observed across the population of SNc dopaminergic neurons for each age examined, suggesting that differing levels of individual ion channels are unlikely to distinguish between specific subpopulations of SNc dopaminergic neurons. This is significant in light of previous studies suggesting that age- or region-associated variations in the expression profile of voltage-gated ion channels in SNc dopaminergic neurons may underlie their vulnerability to dysfunction and disease.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM37432(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01MH61469(United States)

Thalamic neuropeptide mediating the effects of nursing on lactation and maternal motivation.

  • Cservenák M
  • Psychoneuroendocrinology
  • 2014 Jul 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nursing has important physiological and psychological consequences on mothers during the postpartum period. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) may contribute to its effects on prolactin release and maternal motivation. Since TIP39-containing fibers and the receptor for TIP39, the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2 receptor) are abundant in the arcuate nucleus and the medial preoptic area, we antagonized TIP39 action locally to reveal its actions. Mediobasal hypothalamic injection of a virus encoding an antagonist of the PTH2 receptor markedly decreased basal serum prolactin levels and the suckling-induced prolactin release. In contrast, injecting this virus into the preoptic area had no effect on prolactin levels, but did dampen maternal motivation, judged by reduced time in a pup-associated cage during a place preference test. In support of an effect of TIP39 on maternal motivation, we observed that TIP39 containing fibers and terminals had the same distribution within the preoptic area as neurons expressing Fos in response to suckling. Furthermore, TIP39 terminals closely apposed the plasma membrane of 82% of Fos-ir neurons. Retrograde tracer injected into the arcuate nucleus and the medial preoptic area labeled TIP39 neurons in the posterior intralaminar complex of the thalamus (PIL), indicating that these cells but not other groups of TIP39 neurons project to these hypothalamic regions. We also found that TIP39 mRNA levels in the PIL markedly increased around parturition and remained elevated throughout the lactation period, demonstrating the availability of the peptide in postpartum mothers. Furthermore, suckling, but not pup exposure without physical contact, increased Fos expression by PIL TIP39 neurons. These results indicate that suckling activates TIP39 neurons in the PIL that affect prolactin release and maternal motivation via projections to the arcuate nucleus and the preoptic area, respectively.

β(IV)-Spectrin regulates TREK-1 membrane targeting in the heart.

  • Hund TJ
  • Cardiovasc. Res.
  • 2014 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

AIMS: Cardiac function depends on the highly regulated and co-ordinate activity of a large ensemble of potassium channels that control myocyte repolarization. While voltage-gated K(+) channels have been well characterized in the heart, much less is known about regulation and/or targeting of two-pore K(+) channel (K(2P)) family members, despite their potential importance in modulation of heart function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we report a novel molecular pathway for membrane targeting of TREK-1, a mechano-sensitive K(2P) channel regulated by environmental and physical factors including membrane stretch, pH, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g. arachidonic acid). We demonstrate that β(IV)-spectrin, an actin-associated protein, is co-localized with TREK-1 at the myocyte intercalated disc, associates with TREK-1 in the heart, and is required for TREK-1 membrane targeting. Mice expressing β(IV)-spectrin lacking TREK-1 binding (qv(4J)) display aberrant TREK-1 membrane localization, decreased TREK-1 activity, delayed action potential repolarization, and arrhythmia without apparent defects in localization/function of other cardiac potassium channel subunits. Finally, we report abnormal β(IV)-spectrin levels in human heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide new insight into membrane targeting of TREK-1 in the heart and establish a broader role for β(IV)-spectrin in organizing functional membrane domains critical for normal heart function.

Cyclin e1 regulates Kv2.1 channel phosphorylation and localization in neuronal ischemia.

  • Shah NH
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Mar 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Kv2.1 is a major delayed rectifying K(+) channel normally localized to highly phosphorylated somatodendritic clusters in neurons. Excitatory stimuli induce calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation and dispersal of Kv2.1 clusters, with a concomitant hyperpolarizing shift in the channel's activation kinetics. We showed previously that sublethal ischemia, which renders neurons transiently resistant to excitotoxic cell death, can also induce Zn(2+)-dependent changes in Kv2.1 localization and activation kinetics, suggesting that activity-dependent modifications of Kv2.1 may contribute to cellular adaptive responses to injury. Recently, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) was shown to phosphorylate Kv2.1, with pharmacological Cdk5 inhibition being sufficient to decluster channels. In another study, cyclin E1 was found to restrict neuronal Cdk5 kinase activity. We show here that cyclin E1 regulates Kv2.1 cellular localization via inhibition of Cdk5 activity. Expression of cyclin E1 in human embryonic kidney cells prevents Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of Kv2.1, and cyclin E1 overexpression in rat cortical neurons triggers dispersal of Kv2.1 channel clusters. Sublethal ischemia in neurons induces calcineurin-dependent upregulation of cyclin E1 protein expression and cyclin E1-dependent Kv2.1 channel declustering. Importantly, overexpression of cyclin E1 in neurons is sufficient to reduce excitotoxic cell death. These results support a novel role for neuronal cyclin E1 in regulating the phosphorylation status and localization of Kv2.1 channels, a likely component of signaling cascades leading to ischemic preconditioning.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 323183(International)

Voltage-gated membrane currents in neurons involved in odor information processing in snail procerebrum.

  • Pirger Z
  • Brain Struct Funct
  • 2014 Mar 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

The procerebrum (PC) of the snail brain is a critical region for odor discrimination and odor learning. The morphological organization and physiological function of the PC has been intensively investigated in several gastropod species; however, the presence and distribution of ion channels in bursting and non-bursting cells has not yet been described. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify the different ion channels present in PC neurons. Based on whole cell patch-clamp and immunohistochemical experiments, we show that Na(+)-, Ca(2+)-, and K(+)-dependent voltage-gated channels are differentially localized and expressed in the cells of the PC. Different Na-channel subtypes are present in large (10-15 μm) and small (5-8 μm) diameter neurons, which are thought to correspond to the bursting and non-bursting cells, respectively. Here, we show that the bursting neurons possess fast sodium current (I NaT) and NaV1.9-like channels and the non-bursting neurons possess slow sodium current (I NaT) and NaV1.8-like channels in addition to the L-type Ca(-), KV4.3 (A-type K-channel) and KV2.1 channels. We suggest that the bursting and/or non-bursting character of the PC neurons is at least partly determined by the battery of ion-channels present and their cellular and subcellular compartmentalization.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GMO 7413(United States)
  • NINR NIH HHS - NR009270(United States)

Tonic inhibition of accumbal spiny neurons by extrasynaptic α4βδ GABAA receptors modulates the actions of psychostimulants.

  • Maguire EP
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Jan 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), synaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) mediate phasic inhibition of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and influence behavioral responses to cocaine. We demonstrate that both dopamine D1- and D2-receptor-expressing MSNs (D-MSNs) additionally harbor extrasynaptic GABAARs incorporating α4, β, and δ subunits that mediate tonic inhibition, thereby influencing neuronal excitability. Both the selective δ-GABAAR agonist THIP and DS2, a selective positive allosteric modulator, greatly increased the tonic current of all MSNs from wild-type (WT), but not from δ(-/-) or α4(-/-) mice. Coupling dopamine and tonic inhibition, the acute activation of D1 receptors (by a selective agonist or indirectly by amphetamine) greatly enhanced tonic inhibition in D1-MSNs but not D2-MSNs. In contrast, prolonged D2 receptor activation modestly reduced the tonic conductance of D2-MSNs. Behaviorally, WT and constitutive α4(-/-) mice did not differ in their expression of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP). Importantly, however, mice with the α4 deletion specific to D1-expressing neurons (α4(D1-/-)) showed increased CPP. Furthermore, THIP administered systemically or directly into the NAc of WT, but not α4(-/-) or α4(D1-/-) mice, blocked cocaine enhancement of CPP. In comparison, α4(D2-/-) mice exhibited normal CPP, but no cocaine enhancement. In conclusion, dopamine modulation of GABAergic tonic inhibition of D1- and D2-MSNs provides an intrinsic mechanism to differentially affect their excitability in response to psychostimulants and thereby influence their ability to potentiate conditioned reward. Therefore, α4βδ GABAARs may represent a viable target for the development of novel therapeutics to better understand and influence addictive behaviors.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - 1R01HG005969(United States)

Kv2 channels regulate firing rate in pyramidal neurons from rat sensorimotor cortex.

  • Guan D
  • J. Physiol. (Lond.)
  • 2013 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The largest outward potassium current in the soma of neocortical pyramidal neurons is due to channels containing Kv2.1 α subunits. These channels have been implicated in cellular responses to seizures and ischaemia, mechanisms for intrinsic plasticity and cell death, and responsiveness to anaesthetic agents. Despite their abundance, knowledge of the function of these delayed rectifier channels has been limited by the lack of specific pharmacological agents. To test for functional roles of Kv2 channels in pyramidal cells from somatosensory or motor cortex of rats (layers 2/3 or 5), we transfected cortical neurons with DNA for a Kv2.1 pore mutant (Kv2.1W365C/Y380T: Kv2.1 DN) in an organotypic culture model to manipulate channel expression. Slices were obtained from rats at postnatal days (P7-P14) and maintained in organotypic culture. We used biolistic methods to transfect neurons with gold 'bullets' coated with DNA for the Kv2.1 DN and green fluorescent protein (GFP), GFP alone, or wild type (WT) Kv2.1 plus GFP. Cells that fluoresced green, contained a bullet and responded to positive or negative pressure from the recording pipette were considered to be transfected cells. In each slice, we recorded from a transfected cell and a control non-transfected cell from the same layer and area. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings obtained after 3-7 days in culture showed that cells transfected with the Kv2.1 DN had a significant reduction in outward current (∼45% decrease in the total current density measured 200 ms after onset of a voltage step from -78 to -2 mV). Transfection with GFP alone did not affect current amplitude and overexpression of the Kv2.1 WT resulted in greatly increased currents. Current-clamp experiments were used to assess the functional consequences of manipulation of Kv2.1 expression. The results suggest roles for Kv2 channels in controlling membrane potential during the interspike interval (ISI), firing rate, spike frequency adaptation (SFA) and the steady-state gain of firing. Specifically, firing rate and gain were reduced in the Kv2.1 DN cells. The most parsimonious explanation for the effects on firing is that in the absence of Kv2 channels, the membrane remains depolarized during the ISIs, preventing recovery of Na(+) channels from inactivation. Depolarization and the number of inactivated Na(+) channels would build with successive spikes, resulting in slower firing and enhanced spike frequency adaptation in the Kv2.1 DN cells.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/F005806/1(United Kingdom)

Convergent Ca2+ and Zn2+ signaling regulates apoptotic Kv2.1 K+ currents.

  • McCord MC
  • Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • 2013 Aug 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

A simultaneous increase in cytosolic Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) accompanies the initiation of neuronal cell death signaling cascades. However, the molecular convergence points of cellular processes activated by these cations are poorly understood. Here, we show that Ca(2+)-dependent activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is required for a cell death-enabling process previously shown to also depend on Zn(2+). We have reported that oxidant-induced intraneuronal Zn(2+) liberation triggers a syntaxin-dependent incorporation of Kv2.1 voltage-gated potassium channels into the plasma membrane. This channel insertion can be detected as a marked enhancement of delayed rectifier K(+) currents in voltage clamp measurements observed at least 3 h following a short exposure to an apoptogenic stimulus. This current increase is the process responsible for the cytoplasmic loss of K(+) that enables protease and nuclease activation during apoptosis. In the present study, we demonstrate that an oxidative stimulus also promotes intracellular Ca(2+) release and activation of CaMKII, which, in turn, modulates the ability of syntaxin to interact with Kv2.1. Pharmacological or molecular inhibition of CaMKII prevents the K(+) current enhancement observed following oxidative injury and, importantly, significantly increases neuronal viability. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized cooperative convergence of Ca(2+)- and Zn(2+)-mediated injurious signaling pathways, providing a potentially unique target for therapeutic intervention in neurodegenerative conditions associated with oxidative stress.

Dynamic interaction between sigma-1 receptor and Kv1.2 shapes neuronal and behavioral responses to cocaine.

  • Kourrich S
  • Cell
  • 2013 Jan 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein, is an interorganelle signaling modulator that potentially plays a role in drug-seeking behaviors. However, the brain site of action and underlying cellular mechanisms remain unidentified. We found that cocaine exposure triggers a Sig-1R-dependent upregulation of D-type K(+) current in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) that results in neuronal hypoactivity and thereby enhances behavioral cocaine response. Combining ex vivo and in vitro studies, we demonstrated that this neuroadaptation is caused by a persistent protein-protein association between Sig-1Rs and Kv1.2 channels, a phenomenon that is associated to a redistribution of both proteins from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane. In conclusion, the dynamic Sig-1R-Kv1.2 complex represents a mechanism that shapes neuronal and behavioral response to cocaine. Functional consequences of Sig-1R binding to K(+) channels may have implications for other chronic diseases where maladaptive intrinsic plasticity and Sig-1Rs are engaged.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - U01 AA016669(United States)

Functional analysis of missense mutations in Kv8.2 causing cone dystrophy with supernormal rod electroretinogram.

  • Smith KE
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2012 Dec 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations in KCNV2 have been proposed as the molecular basis for cone dystrophy with supernormal rod electroretinogram. KCNV2 codes for the modulatory voltage-gated potassium channel α-subunit, Kv8.2, which is incapable of forming functional channels on its own. Functional heteromeric channels are however formed with Kv2.1 in heterologous expression systems, with both α-subunit genes expressed in rod and cone photoreceptors. Of the 30 mutations identified in the KCNV2 gene, we have selected three missense mutations localized in the potassium channel pore and two missense mutations localized in the tetramerization domain for analysis. We characterized the differences between homomeric Kv2.1 and heteromeric Kv2.1/Kv8.2 channels and investigated the influence of the selected mutations on the function of heteromeric channels. We found that two pore mutations (W467G and G478R) led to the formation of nonconducting heteromeric Kv2.1/Kv8.2 channels, whereas the mutations localized in the tetramerization domain prevented heteromer generation and resulted in the formation of homomeric Kv2.1 channels only. Consequently, our study suggests the existence of two distinct molecular mechanisms involved in the disease pathology.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - EB008400(United States)

Distinct modifications in Kv2.1 channel via chemokine receptor CXCR4 regulate neuronal survival-death dynamics.

  • Shepherd AJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2012 Dec 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) has multiple effects on neuronal activity, survival, and death under conditions that generate a proinflammatory microenvironment within the brain, via signaling through C-X-C-type chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), although the underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms are unclear. Using rat hippocampal neurons, we investigated distinct modifications in the voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) channel Kv2.1 in response to short- and long-term SDF-1α/CXCR4-mediated signaling as an underlying mechanism for CXCR4-dependent regulation of neuronal survival and death. Acute exposure of neurons to SDF-1α led to dynamic dephosphorylation and altered localization of Kv2.1 channel, resulting in enhanced voltage-dependent activation of Kv2.1-based delayed-rectifier Kv currents (I(DR)). These changes were dependent on CXCR4- and/or NMDA receptor-mediated activation of calcineurin and provide neuroprotection. However, prolonged SDF-1α treatment leads to CXCR4-mediated activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, resulting in phosphorylation of Kv2.1 at S800 and enhanced surface trafficking of the channel protein, resulting in increased I(DR)/Kv2.1 current density. This, in combination with sustained dephosphorylation-induced enhancement of the voltage-dependent activation of I(DR)/Kv2.1, predisposed neurons to excessive K⁺ efflux, a vital step for the neuronal apoptotic program. Such apoptotic death was dependent on CXCR4 and Kv2.1 function and was absent in cells expressing the Kv2.1-S800A mutant channel. Furthermore, similar modifications in Kv2.1 and CXCR4/Kv2.1-dependent apoptosis were observed following treatment of neurons with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) glycoprotein gp120. Therefore, distinct modifications in Kv2.1 in response to short- and long-term CXCR4-mediated signaling could provide a basis for neuroprotection or apoptosis in neuropathologies, such as neuroinflammation, stroke, brain tumors, and HIV-associated neurodegeneration.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P41 RR-08605(United States)

Sensory neuron downregulation of the Kv9.1 potassium channel subunit mediates neuropathic pain following nerve injury.

  • Tsantoulas C
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2012 Nov 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chronic neuropathic pain affects millions of individuals worldwide, is typically long-lasting, and remains poorly treated with existing therapies. Neuropathic pain arising from peripheral nerve lesions is known to be dependent on the emergence of spontaneous and evoked hyperexcitability in damaged nerves. Here, we report that the potassium channel subunit Kv9.1 is expressed in myelinated sensory neurons, but is absent from small unmyelinated neurons. Kv9.1 expression was strongly and rapidly downregulated following axotomy, with a time course that matches the development of spontaneous activity and pain hypersensitivity in animal models. Interestingly, siRNA-mediated knock-down of Kv9.1 in naive rats led to neuropathic pain behaviors. Diminished Kv9.1 function also augmented myelinated sensory neuron excitability, manifested as spontaneous firing, hyper-responsiveness to stimulation, and persistent after-discharge. Intracellular recordings from ex vivo dorsal root ganglion preparations revealed that Kv9.1 knock-down was linked to lowered firing thresholds and increased firing rates under physiologically relevant conditions of extracellular potassium accumulation during prolonged activity. Similar neurophysiological changes were detected in animals subjected to traumatic nerve injury and provide an explanation for neuropathic pain symptoms, including poorly understood conditions such as hyperpathia and paresthesias. In summary, our results demonstrate that Kv9.1 dysfunction leads to spontaneous and evoked neuronal hyperexcitability in myelinated fibers, coupled with development of neuropathic pain behaviors.

Carbon monoxide mediates the anti-apoptotic effects of heme oxygenase-1 in medulloblastoma DAOY cells via K+ channel inhibition.

  • Al-Owais MM
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2012 Jul 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tumor cell survival and proliferation is attributable in part to suppression of apoptotic pathways, yet the mechanisms by which cancer cells resist apoptosis are not fully understood. Many cancer cells constitutively express heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catabolizes heme to generate biliverdin, Fe(2+), and carbon monoxide (CO). These breakdown products may play a role in the ability of cancer cells to suppress apoptotic signals. K(+) channels also play a crucial role in apoptosis, permitting K(+) efflux which is required to initiate caspase activation. Here, we demonstrate that HO-1 is constitutively expressed in human medulloblastoma tissue, and can be induced in the medulloblastoma cell line DAOY either chemically or by hypoxia. Induction of HO-1 markedly increases the resistance of DAOY cells to oxidant-induced apoptosis. This effect was mimicked by exogenous application of the heme degradation product CO. Furthermore we demonstrate the presence of the pro-apoptotic K(+) channel, Kv2.1, in both human medulloblastoma tissue and DAOY cells. CO inhibited the voltage-gated K(+) currents in DAOY cells, and largely reversed the oxidant-induced increase in K(+) channel activity. p38 MAPK inhibition prevented the oxidant-induced increase of K(+) channel activity in DAOY cells, and enhanced their resistance to apoptosis. Our findings suggest that CO-mediated inhibition of K(+) channels represents an important mechanism by which HO-1 can increase the resistance to apoptosis of medulloblastoma cells, and support the idea that HO-1 inhibition may enhance the effectiveness of current chemo- and radiotherapies.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - GMX-191597(Canada)

The voltage-dependent potassium channel subunit Kv2.1 regulates insulin secretion from rodent and human islets independently of its electrical function.

  • Dai XQ
  • Diabetologia
  • 2012 Jun 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: It is thought that the voltage-dependent potassium channel subunit Kv2.1 (Kv2.1) regulates insulin secretion by controlling beta cell electrical excitability. However, this role of Kv2.1 in human insulin secretion has been questioned. Interestingly, Kv2.1 can also regulate exocytosis through direct interaction of its C-terminus with the soluble NSF attachment receptor (SNARE) protein, syntaxin 1A. We hypothesised that this interaction mediates insulin secretion independently of Kv2.1 electrical function. METHODS: Wild-type Kv2.1 or mutants lacking electrical function and syntaxin 1A binding were studied in rodent and human beta cells, and in INS-1 cells. Small intracellular fragments of the channel were used to disrupt native Kv2.1-syntaxin 1A complexes. Single-cell exocytosis and ion channel currents were monitored by patch-clamp electrophysiology. Interaction between Kv2.1, syntaxin 1A and other SNARE proteins was probed by immunoprecipitation. Whole-islet Ca(2+)-responses were monitored by ratiometric Fura red fluorescence and insulin secretion was measured. RESULTS: Upregulation of Kv2.1 directly augmented beta cell exocytosis. This happened independently of channel electrical function, but was dependent on the Kv2.1 C-terminal syntaxin 1A-binding domain. Intracellular fragments of the Kv2.1 C-terminus disrupted native Kv2.1-syntaxin 1A interaction and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This was not due to altered ion channel activity or impaired Ca(2+)-responses to glucose, but to reduced SNARE complex formation and Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Direct interaction between syntaxin 1A and the Kv2.1 C-terminus is required for efficient insulin exocytosis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This demonstrates that native Kv2.1-syntaxin 1A interaction plays a key role in human insulin secretion, which is separate from the channel's electrical function.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY026024(United States)

Long-term preservation of cones and improvement in visual function following gene therapy in a mouse model of leber congenital amaurosis caused by guanylate cyclase-1 deficiency.

  • Mihelec M
  • Hum. Gene Ther.
  • 2012 Feb 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a severe retinal dystrophy manifesting from early infancy as poor vision or blindness. Loss-of-function mutations in GUCY2D cause LCA1 and are one of the most common causes of LCA, accounting for 20% of all cases. Human GUCY2D and mouse Gucy2e genes encode guanylate cyclase-1 (GC1), which is responsible for restoring the dark state in photoreceptors after light exposure. The Gucy2e(-/-) mouse shows partially diminished rod function, but an absence of cone function before degeneration. Although the cones appear morphologically normal, they exhibit mislocalization of proteins involved in phototransduction. In this study we tested the efficacy of an rAAV2/8 vector containing the human rhodopsin kinase promoter and the human GUCY2D gene. Following subretinal delivery of the vector in Gucy2e(-/-) mice, GC1 protein was detected in the rod and cone outer segments, and in transduced areas of retina cone transducin was appropriately localized to cone outer segments. Moreover, we observed a dose-dependent restoration of rod and cone function and an improvement in visual behavior of the treated mice. Most importantly, cone preservation was observed in transduced areas up to 6 months post injection. To date, this is the most effective rescue of the Gucy2e(-/-) mouse model of LCA and we propose that a vector, similar to the one used in this study, could be suitable for use in a clinical trial of gene therapy for LCA1.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS058901(United States)

Postsynaptic density-95 scaffolding of Shaker-type K⁺ channels in smooth muscle cells regulates the diameter of cerebral arteries.

  • Joseph BK
  • J. Physiol. (Lond.)
  • 2011 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95) is a 95 kDa scaffolding molecule in the brain that clusters postsynaptic proteins including ion channels, receptors, enzymes and other signalling partners required for normal cognition. The voltage-gated, Shaker-type K(+) (K(V)1) channel is one key binding partner of PSD95 scaffolds in neurons. However, K(V)1 channels composed of α1.2 and α1.5 pore-forming subunits also are expressed in the vascular smooth muscle cells (cVSMCs) of the cerebral circulation, although the identity of their molecular scaffolds is unknown. Since α1.2 contains a binding motif for PSD95, we explored the possibility that cVSMCs express PSD95 as a scaffold to promote K(V)1 channel expression and cerebral vasodilatation. Cerebral arteries from Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated for analysis of PSD95 and K(V)1 channel proteins. PSD95 was detected in cVSMCs and it co-immunoprecipitated and co-localized with the pore-forming α1.2 subunit of the K(V)1 channel. Antisense-mediated knockdown of PSD95 profoundly reduced K(V)1 channel expression and suppressed K(V)1 current in patch-clamped cVSMCs. Loss of PSD95 also depolarized cVSMCs in pressurized cerebral arteries and induced a strong constriction associated with a loss of functional K(V)1 channels. Our findings provide initial evidence that PSD95 is expressed in cVSMCs, and the K(V)1 channel is one of its important binding partners. PSD95 appears to function as a critical 'dilator' scaffold in cerebral arteries by increasing the number of functional K(V)1 channels at the plasma membrane.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY015128(United States)

Phosphorylation of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv2.1 by AMP-activated protein kinase regulates membrane excitability.

  • Ikematsu N
  • Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • 2011 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Firing of action potentials in excitable cells accelerates ATP turnover. The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv2.1 regulates action potential frequency in central neurons, whereas the ubiquitous cellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated by ATP depletion and protects cells by switching off energy-consuming processes. We show that treatment of HEK293 cells expressing Kv2.1 with the AMPK activator A-769662 caused hyperpolarizing shifts in the current-voltage relationship for channel activation and inactivation. We identified two sites (S440 and S537) directly phosphorylated on Kv2.1 by AMPK and, using phosphospecific antibodies and quantitative mass spectrometry, show that phosphorylation of both sites increased in A-769662-treated cells. Effects of A-769662 were abolished in cells expressing Kv2.1 with S440A but not with S537A substitutions, suggesting that phosphorylation of S440 was responsible for these effects. Identical shifts in voltage gating were observed after introducing into cells, via the patch pipette, recombinant AMPK rendered active but phosphatase-resistant by thiophosphorylation. Ionomycin caused changes in Kv2.1 gating very similar to those caused by A-769662 but acted via a different mechanism involving Kv2.1 dephosphorylation. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, A-769662 caused hyperpolarizing shifts in voltage gating similar to those in HEK293 cells, effects that were abolished by intracellular dialysis with Kv2.1 antibodies. When active thiophosphorylated AMPK was introduced into cultured neurons via the patch pipette, a progressive, time-dependent decrease in the frequency of evoked action potentials was observed. Our results suggest that activation of AMPK in neurons during conditions of metabolic stress exerts a protective role by reducing neuronal excitability and thus conserving energy.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK093000(United States)

Activity-dependent phosphorylation of neuronal Kv2.1 potassium channels by CDK5.

  • Cerda O
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2011 Aug 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dynamic modulation of ion channel expression, localization, and/or function drives plasticity in intrinsic neuronal excitability. Voltage-gated Kv2.1 potassium channels are constitutively maintained in a highly phosphorylated state in neurons. Increased neuronal activity triggers rapid calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation, loss of channel clustering, and hyperpolarizing shifts in voltage-dependent activation that homeostatically suppress neuronal excitability. These changes are reversible, such that rephosphorylation occurs after removal of excitatory stimuli. Here, we show that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a Pro-directed Ser/Thr protein kinase, directly phosphorylates Kv2.1, and determines the constitutive level of Kv2.1 phosphorylation, the rapid increase in Kv2.1 phosphorylation upon acute blockade of neuronal activity, and the recovery of Kv2.1 phosphorylation after stimulus-induced dephosphorylation. We also demonstrate that although the phosphorylation state of Kv2.1 is also shaped by the activity of the PP1 protein phosphatase, the regulation of Kv2.1 phosphorylation by CDK5 is not mediated through the previously described regulation of PP1 activity by CDK5. Together, these studies support a novel role for CDK5 in regulating Kv2.1 channels through direct phosphorylation.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - (United Kingdom)

Carbon monoxide protects against oxidant-induced apoptosis via inhibition of Kv2.1.

  • Dallas ML
  • FASEB J.
  • 2011 May 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oxidative stress induces neuronal apoptosis and is implicated in cerebral ischemia, head trauma, and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. An early step in this process is the loss of intracellular K(+) via K(+) channels, and evidence indicates that K(v)2.1 is of particular importance in this regard, being rapidly inserted into the plasma membrane in response to apoptotic stimuli. An additional feature of neuronal oxidative stress is the up-regulation of the inducible enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catabolizes heme to generate biliverdin, Fe(2+), and carbon monoxide (CO). CO provides neuronal protection against stresses such as stroke and excitotoxicity, although the underlying mechanisms are not yet elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that CO reversibly inhibits K(v)2.1. Channel inhibition by CO involves reactive oxygen species and protein kinase G activity. Overexpression of K(v)2.1 in HEK293 cells increases their vulnerability to oxidant-induced apoptosis, and this is reversed by CO. In hippocampal neurons, CO selectively inhibits K(v)2.1, reverses the dramatic oxidant-induced increase in K(+) current density, and provides marked protection against oxidant-induced apoptosis. Our results provide a novel mechanism to account for the neuroprotective effects of CO against oxidative apoptosis, which has potential for therapeutic exploitation to provide neuronal protection in situations of oxidative stress.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM68958(United States)

Immunolocalization of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv2.2 in GABAergic neurons in the basal forebrain of rats and mice.

  • Hermanstyne TO
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Kv2 voltage-gated potassium channels, Kv2.1 and Kv2.2, are important regulators of neuronal excitability in mammalian brain. It has been shown that Kv2.1 channels are expressed in virtually all neurons in the brain. However, the cellular localization of Kv2.2 has not been fully elucidated. In this article we report that Kv2.2 is highly expressed in a subset of neurons in the magnocellular preoptic nucleus (MCPO) and the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) of the basal forebrain complex, which are areas highly implicated in the regulation of cortical activity and the sleep/wake cycle. It has been shown that MCPO and HDB contain distinct populations of neurons that differ in their neurochemicals, cholinergic, glutamatergic, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons. Using specific immunolabeling and knockin mice in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) is expressed in GABAergic neurons, we found that Kv2.2 is abundantly expressed in a large subpopulation of the GABAergic neurons in the MCPO and HDB. These data offer Kv2.2 as a molecular target to study the role of the specific subpopulation of basal forebrain GABAergic neurons.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA073735(United States)

Contribution of the delayed-rectifier potassium channel Kv2.1 to acute spinal cord injury in rats.

  • Song MY
  • BMB Rep
  • 2010 Nov 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent studies have reported that delayed-rectifier Kv channels regulate apoptosis in the nervous system. Herein, we investigated changes in the expression of the delayed-rectifier Kv channels Kv1.2, Kv2.1, and Kv3.1 after acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. We performed RT-PCR analysis and found an increase in the level of Kv2.1 mRNA after SCI but no significant changes in the levels of Kv1.2 and Kv3.1 mRNA. Western blot analysis revealed that Kv2.1 protein levels rapidly decreased and then dramatically increased from 1 day, whereas Kv3.1b protein levels gradually and sharply decreased at 5 days. Kv1.2 protein levels did not change significantly. In addition, Kv2.1 clusters were disrupted in the plasma membranes of motor neurons after SCI. Interestingly, the expressional changes and translocation of Kv2.1 were consistent with the apoptotic changes on day 1. Therefore, these results suggest that Kv2.1 channels probably contribute to neuronal cell responses to SCI.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G9900837(United Kingdom)
  • NCRR NIH HHS - R01 RR07861(United States)

Regulation of Kv2.1 phosphorylation in an animal model of anoxia.

  • Ito T
  • Neurobiol. Dis.
  • 2010 Apr 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Conditions such as hypoxia and anoxia inflict serious damage to the brain and continue to be major medical problems. However, the molecular mechanisms that give rise to such damage are not well understood. To elucidate these mechanisms, we established a clinically relevant rodent model of anoxia/recovery by monitoring blood gas levels after oxygen deprivation. Using this animal model, we examined the regulation of Kv2.1, a voltage-gated potassium channel that plays pivotal roles in the homeostasis and survival of neurons. We found that exposure to anoxia induces rapid dephosphorylation of Kv2.1 in the brain, which can be blocked by pre-administration of a NMDA-type glutamate receptor antagonist, memantine. Furthermore, this change is rapidly reversed as the animal recovers from anoxic stress. These results suggest that Kv2.1 is tightly regulated in a clinically relevant animal model of anoxia and further implicate its role in the homeostasis of neurons during anoxic stress.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK075032(United States)

Suppression of a pro-apoptotic K+ channel as a mechanism for hepatitis C virus persistence.

  • Mankouri J
  • Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • 2009 Sep 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

An estimated 3% of the global population are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the majority of these individuals will develop chronic liver disease. As with other chronic viruses, establishment of persistent infection requires that HCV-infected cells must be refractory to a range of pro-apoptotic stimuli. In response to oxidative stress, amplification of an outward K(+) current mediated by the Kv2.1 channel, precedes the onset of apoptosis. We show here that in human hepatoma cells either infected with HCV or harboring an HCV subgenomic replicon, oxidative stress failed to initiate apoptosis via Kv2.1. The HCV NS5A protein mediated this effect by inhibiting oxidative stress-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation of Kv2.1. The inhibition of a host cell K(+) channel by a viral protein is a hitherto undescribed viral anti-apoptotic mechanism and represents a potential target for antiviral therapy.

Molecular diversity of deep short-axon cells of the rat main olfactory bulb.

  • Eyre MD
  • Eur. J. Neurosci.
  • 2009 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Local circuit GABAergic interneurons comprise the most diverse cell populations of neuronal networks. Interneurons have been characterized and categorized based on their axo-somato-dendritic morphologies, neurochemical content, intrinsic electrical properties and their firing in relation to in-vivo population activity. Great advances in our understanding of their roles have been facilitated by their selective identification. Recently, we have described three major subtypes of deep short-axon cells (dSACs) of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) based on their axo-dendritic distributions and synaptic connectivity. Here, we investigated whether dSACs also display pronounced molecular diversity and whether distinct dSAC subtypes selectively express certain molecules. Multiple immunofluorescent labeling revealed that the most commonly used molecular markers of dSACs (e.g. vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, calbindin and nitric oxide synthase) label only very small subpopulations (< 7%). In contrast, voltage-gated potassium channel subunits Kv2.1, Kv3.1b, Kv4.3 and the GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit are present in 70-95% of dSACs without showing any dSAC subtype-selective expression. However, metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1alpha mainly labels dSACs that project to the glomerular layer (GL-dSAC subtype) and comprise approximately 20% of the total dSAC population. Analysing these molecular markers with stereological methods, we estimated the total number of dSACs in the entire MOB to be approximately 13,500, which is around a quarter of the number of mitral cells. Our results demonstrate a large molecular heterogeneity of dSACs and reveal a unique neurochemical marker for one dSAC subtype. Based on our results, dSAC subtype-specific genetic modifications will allow us to decipher the role of GL-dSACs in shaping the dynamic activity of the MOB network.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - K08HD46655(United States)

Ethanol disrupts NMDA receptor and astroglial EAAT2 modulation of Kv2.1 potassium channels in hippocampus.

  • Mulholland PJ
  • Alcohol
  • 2009 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Delayed-rectifier Kv2.1 channels are the principal component of voltage-sensitive K+ currents (I(K)) in hippocampal neurons and are critical regulators of somatodendritic excitability. In a recent study, we demonstrated that surface trafficking and phosphorylation of Kv2.1 channels is modulated by NMDA-type glutamate receptors and that astroglial excitatory amino acid transporters 2 (EAAT2) regulate the coupling of NMDA receptors and Kv2.1 channels. Because ethanol is known to acutely inhibit NMDA receptors, we sought to determine if NMDA receptor and astroglial EAAT2 modulation of Kv2.1 channels is impaired by ethanol in the rodent hippocampus. As expected, bath application of NMDA to hippocampal cultures reduced the size of Kv2.1 clusters and produced a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage-dependent activation of I(K) that was associated with dephosphorylated Kv2.1 channels. Ethanol, applied acutely, prevented the hyperpolarizing shift in activation of I(K) induced by NMDA and restored Kv2.1 clustering and phosphorylation to near control levels. Ethanol also attenuated the dephosphorylation of Kv2.1 channels produced by the EAAT2 selective inhibitor dihydrokainic acid. These data demonstrate that acute ethanol disrupts changes in Kv2.1 channels that follow NMDA receptor activation and impairs astroglial regulation of the functional coupling between NMDA receptors and Kv2.1 channels.

Glutamate transporters regulate extrasynaptic NMDA receptor modulation of Kv2.1 potassium channels.

  • Mulholland PJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2008 Aug 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Delayed-rectifier Kv2.1 potassium channels regulate somatodendritic excitability during periods of repetitive, high-frequency activity. Recent evidence suggests that Kv2.1 channel modulation is linked to glutamatergic neurotransmission. Because NMDA-type glutamate receptors are critical regulators of synaptic plasticity, we investigated NMDA receptor modulation of Kv2.1 channels in rodent hippocampus and cortex. Bath application of NMDA potently unclustered and dephosphorylated Kv2.1 and produced a hyperpolarizing shift in voltage-dependent activation of voltage-sensitive potassium currents (I(K)). In contrast, driving synaptic activity in Mg2+-free media to hyperactivate synaptic NMDA receptors had no effect on Kv2.1 channels, and moderate pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure activity in adult mice did not dephosphorylate hippocampal Kv2.1 channels. Selective activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors unclustered and dephosphorylated Kv2.1 channels and produced a hyperpolarizing shift in neuronal I(K). In addition, inhibition of glutamate uptake rapidly activated NMDA receptors and dephosphorylated Kv2.1 channels. These observations demonstrate that regulation of intrinsic neuronal activity by Kv2.1 is coupled to extrasynaptic but not synaptic NMDA receptors. These data support a novel mechanism for glutamate transporters in regulation of neuronal excitability and plasticity through extrasynaptic NMDA receptor modulation of Kv2.1 channels.

Array tomography: a new tool for imaging the molecular architecture and ultrastructure of neural circuits.

  • Micheva KD
  • Neuron
  • 2007 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many biological functions depend critically upon fine details of tissue molecular architecture that have resisted exploration by existing imaging techniques. This is particularly true for nervous system tissues, where information processing function depends on intricate circuit and synaptic architectures. Here, we describe a new imaging method, called array tomography, which combines and extends superlative features of modern optical fluorescence and electron microscopy methods. Based on methods for constructing and repeatedly staining and imaging ordered arrays of ultrathin (50-200 nm), resin-embedded serial sections on glass microscope slides, array tomography allows for quantitative, high-resolution, large-field volumetric imaging of large numbers of antigens, fluorescent proteins, and ultrastructure in individual tissue specimens. Compared to confocal microscopy, array tomography offers the advantage of better spatial resolution, in particular along the z axis, as well as depth-independent immunofluorescent staining. The application of array tomography can reveal important but previously unseen features of brain molecular architecture.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM084279(United States)

Kv2 subunits underlie slowly inactivating potassium current in rat neocortical pyramidal neurons.

  • Guan D
  • J. Physiol. (Lond.)
  • 2007 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

We determined the expression of Kv2 channel subunits in rat somatosensory and motor cortex and tested for the contributions of Kv2 subunits to slowly inactivating K+ currents in supragranular pyramidal neurons. Single cell RT-PCR showed that virtually all pyramidal cells expressed Kv2.1 mRNA and approximately 80% expressed Kv2.2 mRNA. Immunocytochemistry revealed striking differences in the distribution of Kv2.1 and Kv2.2 subunits. Kv2.1 subunits were clustered and located on somata and proximal dendrites of all pyramidal cells. Kv2.2 subunits were primarily distributed on large apical dendrites of a subset of pyramidal cells from deep layers. We used two methods for isolating currents through Kv2 channels after excluding contributions from Kv1 subunits: intracellular diffusion of Kv2.1 antibodies through the recording pipette and extracellular application of rStromatoxin-1 (ScTx). The Kv2.1 antibody specifically blocked the slowly inactivating K+ current by 25-50% (at 8 min), demonstrating that Kv2.1 subunits underlie much of this current in neocortical pyramidal neurons. ScTx (300 nM) also inhibited approximately 40% of the slowly inactivating K+ current. We observed occlusion between the actions of Kv2.1 antibody and ScTx. In addition, Kv2.1 antibody- and ScTx-sensitive currents demonstrated similar recovery from inactivation and voltage dependence and kinetics of activation and inactivation. These data indicate that both agents targeted the same channels. Considering the localization of Kv2.1 and 2.2 subunits, currents from truncated dissociated cells are probably dominated by Kv2.1 subunits. Compared with Kv2.1 currents in expression systems, the Kv2.1 current in neocortical pyramidal cells activated and inactivated at relatively negative potentials and was very sensitive to holding potential.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - (United States)

Mechanism of shortened action potential duration in Na+-Ca2+ exchanger knockout mice.

  • Pott C
  • Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
  • 2007 Feb 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

In cardiac-specific Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) knockout (KO) mice, the ventricular action potential (AP) is shortened. The shortening of the AP, as well as a decrease of the L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca)), provides a critical mechanism for the maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis and contractility in the absence of NCX (Pott C, Philipson KD, Goldhaber JI. Excitation-contraction coupling in Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger knockout mice: reduced transsarcolemmal Ca(2+) flux. Circ Res 97: 1288-1295, 2005). To investigate the mechanism that underlies the accelerated AP repolarization, we recorded the transient outward current (I(to)) in patch-clamped myocytes isolated from wild-type (WT) and NCX KO mice. Peak I(to) was increased by 78% and decay kinetics were slowed in KO vs. WT. Consistent with increased I(to), ECGs from KO mice exhibited shortened QT intervals. Expression of the I(to)-generating K(+) channel subunit Kv4.2 and the K(+) channel interacting protein was increased in KO. We used a computer model of the murine AP (Bondarenko VE, Szigeti GP, Bett GC, Kim SJ, and Rasmusson RL. Computer model of action potential of mouse ventricular myocytes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 287: 1378-1403, 2004) to determine the relative contributions of increased I(to), reduced I(Ca), and reduced NCX current (I(NCX)) on the shape and kinetics of the AP. Reduction of I(Ca) and elimination of I(NCX) had relatively small effects on the duration of the AP in the computer model. In contrast, AP repolarization was substantially accelerated when I(to) was increased in the computer model. Thus, the increase in I(to), and not the reduction of I(Ca) or I(NCX), is likely to be the major mechanism of AP shortening in KO myocytes. The upregulation of I(to) may comprise an important regulatory mechanism to limit Ca(2+) influx via a reduction of AP duration, thus preventing Ca(2+) overload in situations of reduced myocyte Ca(2+) extrusion capacity.

Funding information:
  • NLM NIH HHS - T15 LM009451(United States)