BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are characterised by high expression of KIT and ETV1, which cooperate in GIST oncogenesis. Our aim was to identify microRNAs that are deregulated in GIST, have a role in GIST pathogenesis, and could potentially be used as therapeutic tool. METHODS: Differentially expressed microRNAs between primary GIST (n=50) and gastrointestinal leiomyosarcomas (GI-LMS, n=10) were determined using microarrays. Selected microRNA mimics were transfected into GIST-882 and GIST-T1 cell lines to study the effects of microRNA overexpression on GIST cells. Luciferase reporter assays were used to establish regulation of target genes by selected microRNAs. RESULTS: MiR-17-92 and miR-221/222 cluster members were significantly (P<0.01) lower expressed in GIST vs GI-LMS and normal gastrointestinal control tissues. MiR-17/20a/222 overexpression in GIST cell lines severely inhibited cell proliferation, affected cell cycle progression, induced apoptosis and strongly downregulated protein and--to a lesser extent--mRNA levels of their predicted target genes KIT and ETV1. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed direct regulation of KIT and ETV1 by miR-222 and miR-17/20a, respectively. CONCLUSION: MicroRNAs that may have an essential role in GIST pathogenesis were identified, in particular miR-17/20a/222 that target KIT and ETV1. Delivering these microRNAs therapeutically could hold great potential for GIST management, especially in imatinib-resistant disease.
Simultaneous labeling of multiple targets in a single sample, or multiplexing, is a powerful approach to directly compare the amount, localization and/or molecular properties of different targets in the same sample. Here we highlight the robust reliability of the simultaneous use of multiple mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of different immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses in a wide variety of multiplexing applications employing anti-mouse IgG subclass-specific secondary antibodies (2°Abs). We also describe the unexpected finding that IgG subclass-specific 2°Abs are superior to general anti-mouse IgG 2 °Abs in every tested application in which mouse mAbs were used. This was due to a detection bias of general anti-mouse IgG-specific 2°Abs against mAbs of the most common mouse IgG subclass, IgG1, and to a lesser extent IgG2b mAbs. Thus, when using any of numerous mouse mAbs available through commercial and non-profit sources, for cleaner and more robust results each mAb should be detected with its respective IgG subclass-specific 2°Ab and not a general anti-mouse IgG-specific 2°Ab.