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Smad2 (D43B4) XP Rabbit mAb antibody


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Smad2 (D43B4) XP Rabbit mAb human, non-human primate, rat, mouse, h, m, r, mk

Proper Citation

(Cell Signaling Technology Cat# 5339, RRID:AB_10626777)


monoclonal antibody


Applications: W, IP, IF-IC, F, ChIP. Consolidation: AB_10858226.

Host Organism



Cell Signaling Technology

Cat Num

5339 also 5339S, 5339P

Twist1 Activation in Muscle Progenitor Cells Causes Muscle Loss Akin to Cancer Cachexia.

  • Parajuli P
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 18

Literature context:


Cancer cachexia is characterized by extreme skeletal muscle loss that results in high morbidity and mortality. The incidence of cachexia varies among tumor types, being lowest in sarcomas, whereas 90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients experience severe weight loss. How these tumors trigger muscle depletion is still unfolding. Serendipitously, we found that overexpression of Twist1 in mouse muscle progenitor cells, either constitutively during development or inducibly in adult animals, caused severe muscle atrophy with features reminiscent of cachexia. Using several genetic mouse models of PDAC, we detected a marked increase in Twist1 expression in muscle undergoing cachexia. In cancer patients, elevated levels of Twist1 are associated with greater degrees of muscle wasting. Finally, both genetic and pharmacological inactivation of Twist1 in muscle progenitor cells afforded substantial protection against cancer-mediated cachexia, which translated into meaningful survival benefits, implicating Twist1 as a possible target for attenuating muscle cachexia in cancer patients.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - 2R01 DK-041274(United States)

A Metabolic Basis for Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition.

  • Xiong J
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) is a cellular process often initiated by the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family of ligands. Although required for normal heart valve development, deregulated EndoMT is linked to a wide range of pathological conditions. Here, we demonstrate that endothelial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is a critical in vitro and in vivo regulator of EndoMT. We further show that this FAO-dependent metabolic regulation of EndoMT occurs through alterations in intracellular acetyl-CoA levels. Disruption of FAO via conditional deletion of endothelial carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (Cpt2E-KO) augments the magnitude of embryonic EndoMT, resulting in thickening of cardiac valves. Consistent with the known pathological effects of EndoMT, adult Cpt2E-KO mice demonstrate increased permeability in multiple vascular beds. Taken together, these results demonstrate that endothelial FAO is required to maintain endothelial cell fate and that therapeutic manipulation of endothelial metabolism could provide the basis for treating a growing number of EndoMT-linked pathological conditions.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 HL005012-11()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - K08 HL121174()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P30 AG024827()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - T32 DK007052()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM084445(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072241()

Resolving the Combinatorial Complexity of Smad Protein Complex Formation and Its Link to Gene Expression.

  • Lucarelli P
  • Cell Syst
  • 2018 Jan 24

Literature context:


Upon stimulation of cells with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), Smad proteins form trimeric complexes and activate a broad spectrum of target genes. It remains unresolved which of the possible Smad complexes are formed in cellular contexts and how these contribute to gene expression. By combining quantitative mass spectrometry with a computational selection strategy, we predict and provide experimental evidence for the three most relevant Smad complexes in the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa1-6. Utilizing dynamic pathway modeling, we specify the contribution of each Smad complex to the expression of representative Smad target genes, and show that these contributions are conserved in human hepatoma cell lines and primary hepatocytes. We predict, based on gene expression data of patient samples, increased amounts of Smad2/3/4 proteins and Smad2 phosphorylation as hallmarks of hepatocellular carcinoma and experimentally verify this prediction. Our findings demonstrate that modeling approaches can disentangle the complexity of transcription factor complex formation and its impact on gene expression.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA EY000222-26(United States)

Long-Range Signaling Activation and Local Inhibition Separate the Mesoderm and Endoderm Lineages.

  • van Boxtel AL
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jan 22

Literature context:


Specification of the three germ layers by graded Nodal signaling has long been seen as a paradigm for patterning through a single morphogen gradient. However, by exploiting the unique properties of the zebrafish embryo to capture the dynamics of signaling and cell fate allocation, we now demonstrate that Nodal functions in an incoherent feedforward loop, together with Fgf, to determine the pattern of endoderm and mesoderm specification. We show that Nodal induces long-range Fgf signaling while simultaneously inducing the cell-autonomous Fgf signaling inhibitor Dusp4 within the first two cell tiers from the margin. The consequent attenuation of Fgf signaling in these cells allows specification of endoderm progenitors, while the cells further from the margin, which receive Nodal and/or Fgf signaling, are specified as mesoderm. This elegant model demonstrates the necessity of feedforward and feedback interactions between multiple signaling pathways for providing cells with temporal and positional information.

Funding information:
  • NLM NIH HHS - 5T15LM007359(United States)

Conditional overexpression of liver receptor homolog-1 in female mouse mammary epithelium results in altered mammary morphogenesis via the induction of TGF-β.

  • Lazarus KA
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 May 21

Literature context:


Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that belongs to the NR5A subgroup of nuclear receptors. LRH-1 induces key genes to regulate metabolic process, ovarian function, cancer cell proliferation, and steroidogenesis. In the breast, LRH-1 modulates and synergizes with endogenous estrogen signaling to promote breast cancer cell proliferation. We used small interfering RNA knockdown strategies to deplete LRH-1 in breast cancer cells and followed with microarray analysis to identify LRH-1-dependent mechanisms. We identified key genes involved in TGF-β signaling to be highly responsive to LRH-1 knockdown. This relationship was validated in 2 breast cancer cell lines overexpressing LRH-1 in vitro and in a novel transgenic mouse with targeted LRH-1 overexpression in mammary epithelial cells. Notably, TGF-β signaling was activated in LRH-1-overexpressing breast cancer cells and mouse mammary glands. Further analyses of mammary gross morphology revealed a significant reduction in mammary lateral budding after LRH-1 overexpression. These findings suggest that the altered mammary morphogenesis in LRH-1 transgenic animals is mediated via enhanced TGF-β expression. The regulation of TGF-β isoforms and SMAD2/3-mediated downstream signaling by LRH-1 also implicates a potential contribution of LRH-1 in breast cancer. Collectively, these data demonstrate that LRH-1 regulates TGF-β expression and downstream signaling in mouse mammary glands.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY019051(United States)

Myostatin stimulates, not inihibits, C2C12 myoblast proliferation.

  • Rodgers BD
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Mar 25

Literature context:


The immortal C2C12 cell line originates from dystrophic mouse thigh muscle and has been used to study the endocrine control of muscle cell growth, development, and function, including those actions regulated by myostatin. Previous studies suggest that high concentrations of recombinant myostatin generated in bacteria inhibit C2C12 proliferation and differentiation. Recombinant myostatin generated in eukaryotic systems similarly inhibits the proliferation of primary myosatellite cells, but consequently initiates, rather than inhibits, their differentiation and is bioactive at far lower concentrations. Our studies indicate that 2 different sources of recombinant myostatin made in eukaryotes stimulate, not inhibit, C2C12 proliferation. This effect occurred at different cell densities and serum concentrations and in the presence of IGF-I, a potent myoblast mitogen. This stimulatory effect was comparable to that obtained with TGFβ1, a related factor that also inhibits primary myosatellite cell proliferation. Attenuating the myostatin/activin (ie, Acvr2b) and TGFβ1 receptor signaling pathways with the Alk4/5 and Alk5 inhibitors, SB431542 and SB505142, respectively, similarly attenuated proliferation induced by serum, myostatin or TGFβ1 and in a dose-dependent manner. In serum-free medium, both myostatin and TGFβ1 stimulated Smad2 phosphorylation, but not that of Smad3, and a Smad3 inhibitor (SIS3) only inhibited proliferation in cells cultured in high serum. Thus, myostatin and TGFβ1 stimulate C2C12 proliferation primarily via Smad2. These results together question the physiological relevance of the C2C12 model and previous studies using recombinant myostatin generated in bacteria. They also support the alternative use of primary myosatellite cells and recombinant myostatin generated in eukaryotes.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - MT-15563(Canada)

Unsaturated fatty acids disrupt Smad signaling in gonadotrope cells leading to inhibition of FSHβ gene expression.

  • Garrel G
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Feb 22

Literature context:


Reproductive function is highly dependent on nutritional input. We recently provided evidence that the unsaturated ω6 fatty acid (FA), linoleic acid (linoleic), interferes with transcription and secretion of the gonadotropin LH, highlighting the existence of a lipid sensing in pituitary gonadotropes. Here, we show, using a combination of in vivo and in vitro models, that linoleic differentially regulates Lhb and Fshb expression. Central exposure of rats to linoleic over 7 days was associated with increase of Lhb but not Fshb transcript levels. Consistently, exposure of rat pituitary cells or LβT2 cells to linoleic increased Lhb, whereas it dramatically decreased Fshb transcript levels without affecting its stability. This effect was also induced by ω9 and ω3-polyunsaturated FA but not by saturated palmitic acid. Analysis of the underlying mechanisms in LβT2 cells using small interfering RNA revealed that early growth response protein 1 mediates linoleic stimulation of Lhb expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated that linoleic counteracts activin and bone morphogenetic protein-2 stimulation of Fshb expression. Using Western blotting and Smad-responsive reporter gene assays, linoleic was shown to decrease basal Smad2/3 phosphorylation levels as well as activin- and bone morphogenetic protein-2-dependent activation of Smad, uncovering a new FA-sensitive signaling cascade. Finally, the protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1A was shown to mediate linoleic inhibition of basal Smad phosphorylation and Fshb expression, identifying protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1A as a new target of FA in gonadotropes. Altogether, this study provides a novel mechanism by which FAs target gene expression and underlines the relevant role of pituitary gonadotropes in mediating the effects of nutritional FA on reproductive function.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM095867(United States)