Literature context: se, monoclonal, Swant Cat# 235, RRID:AB_10000343 1:2,000
The actual organization of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in the rat is mostly based on cytoarchitecture and the distribution of several cell types, as described by McDonald in 1982. Four divisions were identified by this author. However, since this original work, one of these divisions, the intermediate part, has not been consistently recognized based on Nissl-stained material. In the present study, we observed that a compact condensation of retrogradely labeled cells is found in the CEA after fluorogold injection in the anterior region of the tuberal lateral hypothalamic area in the rat. We then searched for neurochemical markers of this cell condensation and found that it is quite specifically labeled for calbindin (Cb), but also contains calretinin (Cr), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk) immunohistochemical signals. These neurochemical features are specific to this cell group which, therefore, is distinct from the other parts of the CEA. We then performed cholera toxin injections in the mouse LHA (lateral hypothalamic area) to identify this cell group in this species. We found that neurons exist in the medial and rostral CEAl that project into the LHA but they have a less tight organization than in the rat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Literature context: ribourg, Switzerland, Cat# 235, RRID:AB_10000343) was developed by hybridization
Extensive rodent literature suggests that the endocannabinoid (eCB) system present in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) modulates dopamine (DA) release in this area. However, expression patterns of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R), the synthesizing enzyme N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), and the degradation enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in the NAc have not yet been described in non-human primates. The goal of this study is therefore to characterize the expression and localization of the eCB system within the NAc of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus) using Western blots and immunohistochemistry. Results show that CB1R, NAPE-PLD, and FAAH are expressed across the NAc rostrocaudal axis, both in the core and shell. CB1R, NAPE-PLD, and FAAH are localized in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons (FSIs). Dopaminergic projections and astrocytes did not express CB1R, NAPE-PLD, or FAAH. These data show that the eCB system is present in the vervet monkey NAc and supports its role in the primate brain reward circuit.
Literature context: pv (goat anti-pv, 1:500, Swant, RRID:AB_10000343) and vgat (rabbit anti-vgat, 1:
In the human neocortex, solitary action potentials in some layer 2-3 pyramidal cells (PCs) trigger brief episodes of network activity known as complex events through strong excitatory synapses that specifically innervate GABAergic interneurons. Yet, how these "master PCs" configure the local network activity is not well understood. We report that single spikes in the PCs, studied here in synaptically connected cell pairs in frontal or temporal neocortical areas of both males and females, elicit firing of fast-spiking basket cells (FSBCs) with a short delay (on average 2.7 ms). The FSBC discharge is triggered by 13 mV (on average) monosynaptic EPSPs, and the action potential is time locked to the master PC spike with high temporal precision, showing little jitter in delay. In the complex events, the FSBC discharge occurs in the beginning of the activity episode, forming the first wave of the complex event activity. Firing of FSBCs generates GABAergic IPSCs with fast kinetics in layer 2-3 PCs, and similar IPSCs regularly occur time locked to master PC spikes in the beginning of the complex events with high probability and short (median 4.1 ms) delay with little jitter. In comparison, discharge of nonfast spiking interneurons (non-FSINs) investigated here appears inconsistently in the complex events and shows low probability. Thus, firing of layer 2-3 FSBCs with high temporal fidelity characterizes early phase of the complex events in the human neocortex.
Literature context: 1 (F) Mouse monoclonal antibody RRID:AB_10000343 1:2,000 (LM) 1:1,000 (EM)
Parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), calbindin D-28k (CB), stage specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA4), and phosphorylated neurofilament 200 (pNF200) have been commonly used as markers for primary afferent neurons with large myelinated (A) fibers but detailed information on the expression of these markers in specific primary afferent fiber types is still lacking. We here examined the fibers that express PV, CR, CB, SSEA4, and pNF200 in the trigeminal ganglion and its peripheral sensory root by light- and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry and quantitative analysis. We found that all CR-immunopositive (+), CB+, and SSEA4+ fibers and virtually all (98.8%) PV+ fibers were myelinated, most CR+ fibers were large myelinated, whereas most CB+ and SSEA4+ fibers were small myelinated. One half of the PV+ fibers were small myelinated and the other half were large myelinated. Of all pNF200+ fibers, about a third each were small myelinated, large myelinated, and unmyelinated. These findings suggest that PV, CR, CB, and SSEA4 can be used as specific markers for primary afferent neurons with myelinated fibers, but that pNF200 is not suitable as a specific marker for primary afferent neurons with myelinated fibers, and also raise the possibility that PV, CR, CB, and SSEA4 may be expressed in both mechanoreceptive and nociceptive neurons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Literature context: , 1:7000, Swant, Cat# 235, RRID:AB_10000343) primary antibodies were applie
Recent data from absence epileptic patients and animal models provide evidence for significant impairments of attention, memory, and psychosocial functioning. Here, we outline aspects of the electrophysiological and structural background of these dysfunctions by investigating changes in hippocampal and cortical GABAergic inhibitory interneurons in two genetically absence epileptic rat strains: the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) and the Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. Using simultaneously recorded field potentials from the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 cortex, seizure focus) and the hippocampal hilus, we demonstrated that typical frequencies of spike-wave discharges (SWDs; 7-8 Hz, GAERS; 7-9 Hz, WAG/Rij) and their harmonics appeared and their EEG spectral power markedly increased on recordings not only from the S1 cortex, but also from the hilus in both GAERS and WAG/Rij rats during SWDs. Moreover, we observed an increased synchronization between S1 cortex and hilus at 7-8 Hz (GAERS) and 7-9 Hz (WAG/Rij) and at their harmonics when SWDs occurred in the S1 cortex in both rat strains. In addition, using immunohistochemistry we demonstrated changes in the densities of perisomatic (parvalbumin-immunopositive, PV+) and interneuron-selective (calretinin-immunopositive, CR+) GABAergic inhibitory interneuron somata. Specifically, GAERS and WAG/Rij rats displayed lower densities of PV-immunopositivity in the hippocampal hilus compared to non-epileptic control (NEC) and normal Wistar rats. GAERS and WAG/Rij rats also show a marked reduction in the density of CR + interneurons in the same region in comparison with NEC rats. Data from the S1 cortex reveals bidirectional differences in PV + density, with GAERS displaying a significant increase, whereas WAG/Rij a reduction compared to control rat strains. Our results suggest an enhanced synchronization and functional connections between the hippocampus and S1 cortex as well as thalamocortical activities during SWDs and a functional alteration of inhibitory mechanisms in the hippocampus and S1 cortex of two genetic models of absence epilepsy, presumably in relation with increased neuronal activity and seizure-induced neuronal injury.
Literature context: ologies, 1:2000; RRID:AB_10000343); and AlexaFluor 488-, 555-, an
Neural circuits, governed by a complex interplay between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, are the substrate for information processing, and the organization of synaptic connectivity in neural network is an important determinant of circuit function. Here, we analyzed the fine structure of connectivity in hippocampal CA1 excitatory and inhibitory neurons innervated by Schaffer collaterals (SCs) using mGRASP in male mice. Our previous study revealed spatially structured synaptic connectivity between CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs). Surprisingly, parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVs) showed a significantly more random pattern spatial structure. Notably, application of Peters' rule for synapse prediction by random overlap between axons and dendrites enhanced structured connectivity in PCs, but, by contrast, made the connectivity pattern in PVs more random. In addition, PCs in a deep sublayer of striatum pyramidale appeared more highly structured than PCs in superficial layers, and little or no sublayer specificity was found in PVs. Our results show that CA1 excitatory PCs and inhibitory PVs innervated by the same SC inputs follow different connectivity rules. The different organizations of fine scale structured connectivity in hippocampal excitatory and inhibitory neurons provide important insights into the development and functions of neural networks.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding how neural circuits generate behavior is one of the central goals of neuroscience. An important component of this endeavor is the mapping of fine-scale connection patterns that underlie, and help us infer, signal processing in the brain. Here, using our recently developed synapse detection technology (mGRASP and neuTube), we provide detailed profiles of synaptic connectivity in excitatory (CA1 pyramidal) and inhibitory (CA1 parvalbumin-positive) neurons innervated by the same presynaptic inputs (CA3 Schaffer collaterals). Our results reveal that these two types of CA1 neurons follow different connectivity patterns. Our new evidence for differently structured connectivity at a fine scale in hippocampal excitatory and inhibitory neurons provides a better understanding of hippocampal networks and will guide theoretical and experimental studies.
Literature context: linzona, Switzerland, cat# 235, RRID:AB_10000343) was used that specifically det
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a critical excitatory signaling center within the basal ganglia circuitry. The activity of subthalamic neurons is tightly controlled by upstream inhibitory signaling centers in the basal ganglia. In this study, we used immunohistochemical techniques to firstly, visualize and quantify the STN neurochemical organization based on neuronal markers including parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), SMI-32, and GAD65/67 . Secondly, we characterized the detailed regional, cellular and subcellular expression of GABAA (α1 , α2 , α3 , β2/3 , and γ2 ) and GABAB (R1 and R2) receptor subunits within the normal human STN. Overall, we found seven neurochemically distinct populations of principal neurons in the human STN. The three main populations detected were: (a) triple-labeled PV+ /CR+ /SMI32+ ; (b) double-labeled PV+ /CR+ ; and (c) single-labeled CR+ neurons. Subthalamic principal neurons were found to express GABAA receptor subunits α1 , α3 , β2/3 , γ2 , and GABAB receptor subunits R1 and R2. However, no expression of GABAA receptor α2 subunit was detected. We also found a trend of increasing regional staining intensity for all positive GABAA receptor subunits from the dorsolateral pole to ventromedial extremities. The GAD+ interneurons showed relatively low expression of GABAA receptor subunits. These results provide the morphological basis of GABAergic transmission within the normal human subthalamic nucleus and evidence of GABA innervation through both GABAA and GABAB receptors on subthalamic principal neurons.
Literature context: t# 235, RRID:AB_10000343 Rabbit anti-parvalbumin Swant C
Inhibitory interneurons regulate the oscillatory rhythms and network synchrony that are required for cognitive functions and disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Network dysrhythmias in AD and multiple neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with hypofunction of Nav1.1, a voltage-gated sodium channel subunit predominantly expressed in interneurons. We show that Nav1.1-overexpressing, but not wild-type, interneuron transplants derived from the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) enhance behavior-dependent gamma oscillatory activity, reduce network hypersynchrony, and improve cognitive functions in human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP)-transgenic mice, which simulate key aspects of AD. Increased Nav1.1 levels accelerated action potential kinetics of transplanted fast-spiking and non-fast-spiking interneurons. Nav1.1-deficient interneuron transplants were sufficient to cause behavioral abnormalities in wild-type mice. We conclude that the efficacy of interneuron transplantation and the function of transplanted cells in an AD-relevant context depend on their Nav1.1 levels. Disease-specific molecular optimization of cell transplants may be required to ensure therapeutic benefits in different conditions.
Literature context: in (PV) antibody (Swant, PV235, RRID:AB_10000343, directed against PV purified f
Inhibitory neurons are crucial for shaping and regulating the dynamics of the entire network, and disturbances in these neurons contribute to brain disorders. Despite the recent progress in genetic labeling techniques, the heterogeneity of inhibitory neurons requires the development of highly characterized tools that allow accurate, convenient, and versatile visualization of inhibitory neurons in the mouse brain. Here, we report a novel genetic technique to visualize the vast majority and/or sparse subsets of inhibitory neurons in the mouse brain without using techniques that require advanced skills. We developed several lines of Cre-dependent tdTomato reporter mice based on the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-BAC, named VGAT-stop-tdTomato mice. The most useful line (line #54) was selected for further analysis based on two characteristics: the inhibitory neuron-specificity of tdTomato expression and the transgene integration site, which confers efficient breeding and fewer adverse effects resulting from transgene integration-related genomic disruption. Robust and inhibitory neuron-specific expression of tdTomato was observed in a wide range of developmental and cellular contexts. By breeding the VGAT-stop-tdTomato mouse (line #54) with a novel Cre driver mouse line, Galntl4-CreER, sparse labeling of inhibitory neurons was achieved following tamoxifen administration. Furthermore, another interesting line (line #58) was generated through the unexpected integration of the transgene into the X-chromosome and will be used to map X-chromosome inactivation of inhibitory neurons. Taken together, our studies provide new, well-characterized tools with which multiple aspects of inhibitory neurons can be studied in the mouse.
Literature context: B, CR: mouse monoclonal, 1:200, RRID:AB_10000343, RRID:AB_10000347, RRID:AB_1000
The structural and functional integrity of subgenual cingulate area 25 (A25) is crucial for emotional expression and equilibrium. A25 has a key role in affective networks, and its disruption has been linked to mood disorders, but its cortical connections have yet to be systematically or fully studied. Using neural tracers in rhesus monkeys, we found that A25 was densely connected with other ventromedial and posterior orbitofrontal areas associated with emotions and homeostasis. A moderate pathway linked A25 with frontopolar area 10, an area associated with complex cognition, which may regulate emotions and dampen negative affect. Beyond the frontal lobe, A25 was connected with auditory association areas and memory-related medial temporal cortices, and with the interoceptive-related anterior insula. A25 mostly targeted the superficial cortical layers of other areas, where broadly dispersed terminations comingled with modulatory inhibitory or disinhibitory microsystems, suggesting a dominant excitatory effect. The architecture and connections suggest that A25 is the consummate feedback system in the PFC. Conversely, in the entorhinal cortex, A25 pathways terminated in the middle-deep layers amid a strong local inhibitory microenvironment, suggesting gating of hippocampal output to other cortices and memory storage. The graded cortical architecture and associated laminar patterns of connections suggest how areas, layers, and functionally distinct classes of inhibitory neurons can be recruited dynamically to meet task demands. The complement of cortical connections of A25 with areas associated with memory, emotion, and somatic homeostasis provide the circuit basis to understand its vulnerability in psychiatric and neurologic disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Integrity of the prefrontal subgenual cingulate cortex is crucial for healthy emotional function. Subgenual area 25 (A25) is mostly linked with other prefrontal areas associated with emotion in a dense network positioned to recruit large fields of cortex. In healthy states, A25 is associated with internal states, autonomic function, and transient negative affect. Constant hyperactivity in A25 is a biomarker for depression in humans and may trigger extensive activation in its dominant connections with areas associated with emotions and internal balance. A pathway between A25 and frontopolar area 10 may provide a critical link to regulate emotions and dampen persistent negative affect, which may be explored for therapeutic intervention in depression.
Literature context: ody against PV (Swant; Cat# 235 RRID:AB_10000343; dilution 1:5000), a guinea pig
Parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons form dendritic gap junctions with one another, but the connectivity among gap junction-coupled dendrites remains uninvestigated in most neocortical areas. We visualized gap junctions in layer 4 of the mouse barrel cortex and examined their structural details. PV neurons were divided into 4 types based on the location of soma and dendrites within or outside barrels. Type 1 neurons that had soma and all dendrites inside a barrel, considered most specific to single vibrissa-derived signals, unexpectedly formed gap junctions only with other types but never with each other. Type 2 neurons inside a barrel elongated dendrites outward, forming gap junctions within a column that contained the home barrel. Type 3 neurons located outside barrels established connections with all types including Type 4 neurons that were confined inside the inter-barrel septa. The majority (33/38, 86.8%) of dendritic gap junctions were within 75 μm from at least 1 of 2 paired somata. All types received vesicular glutamate transporter 2-positive axon terminals preferentially on somata and proximal dendrites, indicating the involvement of all types in thalamocortical feedforward regulation in which proximal gap junctions may also participate. These structural organizations provide a new morphological basis for regulatory mechanisms in barrel cortex.
Literature context: 500; Swant, PV235, RRID:AB_10000343), Ambra1 (1:20; Novus Biologica
Imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission cause brain network dysfunction and are central to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Parvalbumin interneurons are highly implicated in this imbalance. Here, we probed the social behavior and hippocampal function of mice carrying a haploinsufficiency for Ambra1, a pro-autophagic gene crucial for brain development. We show that heterozygous Ambra1 mice (Ambra+/-) are characterized by loss of hippocampal parvalbumin interneurons, decreases in the inhibition/excitation ratio, and altered social behaviors that are solely restricted to the female gender. Loss of parvalbumin interneurons in Ambra1+/- females is further linked to reductions of the inhibitory drive onto principal neurons and alterations in network oscillatory activity, CA1 synaptic plasticity, and pyramidal neuron spine density. Parvalbumin interneuron loss is underlined by increased apoptosis during the embryonic development of progenitor neurons in the medial ganglionic eminence. Together, these findings identify an Ambra1-dependent mechanism that drives inhibition/excitation imbalance in the hippocampus, contributing to abnormal brain activity reminiscent of neurodevelopmental disorders.
Literature context: V: 1:2000, Swant, cat. no. 235, RRID:AB_10000343, rabbit anti-SST: 1:200, Santa
Cortical circuits are profoundly shaped by experience during postnatal development. The consequences of altered vision during the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity have been extensively studied in rodent primary visual cortex (V1). However, little is known about how eye opening, a naturally occurring event, influences the maturation of cortical microcircuits. Here we used a combination of slice electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry in rat V1 to ask whether manipulating the time of eye opening for 3 or 7 d affects cortical excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission onto excitatory neurons uniformly across layers or induces laminar-specific effects. We report that binocular delayed eye opening for 3 d showed similar reductions of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in layers 2/3, 4, and 5. Synaptic transmission recovered to age-matched control levels if the delay was prolonged to 7 d, suggesting that these changes were dependent on binocular delay duration. Conversely, laminar-specific and long-lasting effects were observed if eye opening was delayed unilaterally. Our data indicate that pyramidal neurons located in different cortical laminae have distinct sensitivity to altered sensory drive; our data also strongly suggest that experience plays a fundamental role in not only the maturation of synaptic transmission, but also its coordination across cortical layers.
Literature context: Cat# 235, RRID:AB_10000343), calbindi
Minipump infusions into visual cortex in vivo at the onset of the critical period have revealed that the proinflammatory cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) delays the maturation of thalamocortical projection neurons of the lateral geniculate nucleus, and tecto-thalamic projection neurons of the superior colliculus, and cortical layer IV spiny stellates and layer VI pyramidal neurons. Here, we report that P12-20 LIF infusion inhibits somatic maturation of pyramidal neurons and of all interneuron types in vivo. Likewise, DIV 12-20 LIF treatment in organotypic cultures prevents somatic growth GABA-ergic neurons. Further, while NPY expression is increased in the LIF-infused hemispheres, the expression of parvalbumin mRNA and protein, Kv3.1 mRNA, calbindin D-28k protein, and GAD-65 mRNA, but not of GAD-67 mRNA or calretinin protein is substantially reduced. Also, LIF treatment decreases parvalbumin, Kv3.1, Kv3.2 and GAD-65, but not GAD-67 mRNA expression in OTC. Developing cortical neurons are known to depend on neurotrophins. Indeed, LIF alters neurotrophin mRNA expression, and prevents the growth promoting action of neurotophin-4 in GABA-ergic neurons. The results imply that LIF, by altering neurotrophin expression and/or signaling, could counteract neurotrophin-dependent growth and neurochemical differentiation of cortical neurons.
Literature context: Swant, Bellinzona, Switzerland, RRID:AB_10000343). All antibodies were mouse mon
KEY POINTS: Hyperexcitability and hypersynchrony of neuronal networks are thought to be linked to the generation of epileptic activity in both humans and animal models. Here we show that human epileptic postoperative neocortical tissue is able to generate two different types of synchronies in vitro. Epileptiform bursts occurred only in slices derived from epileptic patients and were hypersynchronous events characterized by high levels of excitability. Spontaneous population activity emerged in both epileptic and non-epileptic tissue, with a significantly lower degree of excitability and synchrony, and could not be linked to epilepsy. These results help us to understand better the role of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal circuits in the generation of population events, and to define the subtle border between physiological and pathological synchronies. ABSTRACT: Interictal activity is a hallmark of epilepsy diagnostics and is linked to neuronal hypersynchrony. Little is known about perturbations in human epileptic neocortical microcircuits, and their role in generating pathological synchronies. To explore hyperexcitability of the human epileptic network, and its contribution to convulsive activity, we investigated an in vitro model of synchronous burst activity spontaneously occurring in postoperative tissue slices derived from patients with or without preoperative clinical and electrographic manifestations of epileptic activity. Human neocortical slices generated two types of synchronies. Interictal-like discharges (classified as epileptiform events) emerged only in epileptic samples, and were hypersynchronous bursts characterized by considerably elevated levels of excitation. Synchronous population activity was initiated in both epileptic and non-epileptic tissue, with a significantly lower degree of excitability and synchrony, and could not be linked to epilepsy. However, in pharmacoresistant epileptic tissue, a higher percentage of slices exhibited population activity, with higher local field potential gradient amplitudes. More intracellularly recorded neurons received depolarizing synaptic potentials, discharging more reliably during the events. Light and electron microscopic examinations showed slightly lower neuron densities and higher densities of excitatory synapses in the human epileptic neocortex. Our data suggest that human neocortical microcircuits retain their functionality and plasticity in vitro, and can generate two significantly different synchronies. We propose that population bursts might not be pathological events while interictal-like discharges may reflect the epileptogenicity of the human cortex. Our results show that hyperexcitability characterizes the human epileptic neocortical network, and that it is closely related to the emergence of synchronies.
Literature context: 0-11 (F), RRID:AB_10000343) was devel
In songbirds, the learning and maintenance of song is dependent on auditory feedback, but little is known about the presence or role of other forms of sensory feedback. Here, we studied the innervation of the avian vocal organ, the syrinx, in the zebra finch. Using a combination of immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and neural tracing with subunit B of cholera toxin (CTB), we analysed the peripheral and central endings of the branch of the hypoglossal nerve that supplies the syrinx, the tracheosyringeal nerve. In the syringeal muscles, we show the presence of numerous choline acetyl transferase-like immunoreactive en plaque motor endplates and substance P-like immunoreactive, thin and varicose free nerve endings. Substance P-like immunoreactive free nerve endings were also present in the luminal syringeal tissues, especially in the luminal epithelium of the trachea and pessulus. Also, by a combination of immunofluorescence and transganglionic tracing following injections of CTB in the tracheosyringeal nerve, we identified as central targets of the syringeal receptors the caudolateral part of the interpolaris subnucleus of the descending trigeminal tract, a caudolateral region of the nucleus tractus solitarius, and a lateral band of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus. Further studies are required to determine the sensory modalities of these receptors and the connections of their specific synaptic targets.
Literature context: 832Mouse monoclonal anti-PVSwantPV235Mouse monoclonal anti-CALB (D-28
The formation and retrieval of a memory is thought to be accomplished by activation and reactivation, respectively, of the memory-holding cells (engram cells) by a common set of neural circuits, but this hypothesis has not been established. The medial temporal-lobe system is essential for the formation and retrieval of episodic memory for which individual hippocampal subfields and entorhinal cortex layers contribute by carrying out specific functions. One subfield whose function is poorly known is the subiculum. Here, we show that dorsal subiculum and the circuit, CA1 to dorsal subiculum to medial entorhinal cortex layer 5, play a crucial role selectively in the retrieval of episodic memories. Conversely, the direct CA1 to medial entorhinal cortex layer 5 circuit is essential specifically for memory formation. Our data suggest that the subiculum-containing detour loop is dedicated to meet the requirements associated with recall such as rapid memory updating and retrieval-driven instinctive fear responses.
Literature context: albumin (1:300; Swant, Cat. No. PV235), goat anti-ChAT (1:500; Millip
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common cause of inherited forms of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mechanisms have been proposed to underlie this disease, but the pathogenic pathways are not fully understood. To better understand the involvement of different cell types in the pathogenesis of ALS, we systematically analyzed the distribution of promoter activity of the mouse ortholog of C9orf72 in the central nervous system. We demonstrate that C9orf72 promoter activity is widespread in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons as well as in oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. In contrast, few microglia and astrocytes exhibit detectable C9orf72 promoter activity. Although at a gross level, the distribution of C9orf72 promoter activity largely follows overall cellular density, we found that it is selectively enriched in subsets of neurons and glial cells that degenerate in ALS. Specifically, we show that C9orf72 promoter activity is enriched in corticospinal and spinal motor neurons as well as in oligodendrocytes in brain regions that are affected in ALS. These results suggest that cell autonomous changes in both neurons and glia may contribute to C9orf72-mediated disease, as has been shown for mutations in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1).
Literature context: 1:5,000; RRID:AB_10000343; both by S
There are substantial differences across species in the organization and function of the motor pathways. These differences extend to basic electrophysiological properties. Thus, in rat motor cortex, pyramidal cells have long duration action potentials, while in the macaque, some pyramidal neurons exhibit short duration "thin" spikes. These differences may be related to the expression of the fast potassium channel Kv3.1b, which in rat interneurons is associated with generation of thin spikes. Rat pyramidal cells typically lack these channels, while there are reports that they are present in macaque pyramids. Here we made a systematic, quantitative comparison of the Kv3.1b expression in sections from macaque and rat motor cortex, using two different antibodies (NeuroMab, Millipore). As our standard reference, we examined, in the same sections, Kv3.1b staining in parvalbumin-positive interneurons, which show strong Kv3.1b immunoreactivity. In macaque motor cortex, a large sample of pyramidal neurons were nearly all found to express Kv3.1b in their soma membranes. These labeled neurons were identified as pyramidal based either by expression of SMI32 (a pyramidal marker), or by their shape and size, and lack of expression of parvalbumin (a marker for some classes of interneuron). Large (Betz cells), medium, and small pyramidal neurons all expressed Kv3.1b. In rat motor cortex, SMI32-postive pyramidal neurons expressing Kv3.1b were very rare and weakly stained. Thus, there is a marked species difference in the immunoreactivity of Kv3.1b in pyramidal neurons, and this may be one of the factors explaining the pronounced electrophysiological differences between rat and macaque pyramidal neurons.
Literature context: arvalbuminCarp muscleSwant, #235AB_10000343Mouse, monoclonal1:5,0002.4Â Anal
Coordinated activity of neural circuitry in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) supports a range of cognitive functions. Altered DLPFC activation is implicated in a number of human psychiatric and neurological illnesses. Proper DLPFC activity is, in part, maintained by two populations of neurons containing the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV): local inhibitory interneurons that form Type II synapses, and long-range glutamatergic inputs from the thalamus that form Type I synapses. Understanding the contributions of each PV neuronal population to human DLPFC function requires a detailed examination of their anatomical properties. Consequently, we performed an electron microscopic analysis of (1) the distribution of PV immunoreactivity within the neuropil, (2) the properties of dendritic shafts of PV-IR interneurons, (3) Type II PV-IR synapses from PV interneurons, and (4) Type I PV-IR synapses from long-range projections, within the superficial and middle laminar zones of the human DLPFC. In both laminar zones, Type II PV-IR synapses from interneurons comprised ∼60% of all PV-IR synapses, and Type I PV-IR synapses from putative thalamocortical terminals comprised the remaining ∼40% of PV-IR synapses. Thus, the present study suggests that innervation from PV-containing thalamic nuclei extends across superficial and middle layers of the human DLPFC. These findings contrast with previous ultrastructural studies in monkey DLPFC where Type I PV-IR synapses were not identified in the superficial laminar zone. The presumptive added modulation of DLPFC circuitry by the thalamus in human may contribute to species-specific, higher-order functions.
Literature context: Cat#235; RRID:AB_10000343 Rabbit pol
Subcellular resolution imaging of the whole brain and subsequent image analysis are prerequisites for understanding anatomical and functional brain networks. Here, we have developed a very high-speed serial-sectioning imaging system named FAST (block-face serial microscopy tomography), which acquires high-resolution images of a whole mouse brain in a speed range comparable to that of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy. FAST enables complete visualization of the brain at a resolution sufficient to resolve all cells and their subcellular structures. FAST renders unbiased quantitative group comparisons of normal and disease model brain cells for the whole brain at a high spatial resolution. Furthermore, FAST is highly scalable to non-human primate brains and human postmortem brain tissues, and can visualize neuronal projections in a whole adult marmoset brain. Thus, FAST provides new opportunities for global approaches that will allow for a better understanding of brain systems in multiple animal models and in human diseases.
Literature context: log #235, RRID:AB_10000343; Swant), a
The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of the primate play distinctive roles in the mediation of complex cognitive tasks. Compared with the LPFC, integration of information by the ACC can span longer timescales and requires stronger engagement of inhibitory processes. Here, we reveal the synaptic mechanism likely to underlie these differences using in vitro patch-clamp recordings of synaptic events and multiscale imaging of synaptic markers in rhesus monkeys. Although excitatory synaptic signaling does not differ, the level of synaptic inhibition is much higher in ACC than LPFC layer 3 pyramidal neurons, with a significantly higher frequency (∼6×) and longer duration of inhibitory synaptic currents. The number of inhibitory synapses and the ratio of cholecystokinin to parvalbumin-positive inhibitory inputs are also significantly higher in ACC compared with LPFC neurons. Therefore, inhibition is functionally and structurally more robust and diverse in ACC than in LPFC, resulting in a lower excitatory: inhibitory ratio and a greater dynamic range for signal integration and network oscillation by the ACC. These differences in inhibitory circuitry likely underlie the distinctive network dynamics in ACC and LPC during normal and pathological brain states.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) play temporally distinct roles during the execution of cognitive tasks (rapid working memory during ongoing tasks and long-term memory to guide future action, respectively). Compared with LPFC-mediated tasks, ACC-mediated tasks can span longer timescales and require stronger engagement of inhibition. This study shows that inhibitory signaling is much more robust and diverse in the ACC than in the LPFC. Therefore, there is a lower excitatory: inhibitory synaptic ratio and a greater dynamic range for signal integration and oscillatory behavior in the ACC. These significant differences in inhibitory synaptic transmission form an important basis for the differential timing of cognitive processing by the LPFC and ACC in normal and pathological brain states.
Literature context: No. 235, RRID:AB_10000343) dissolved
The claustrum is a small, elongated nucleus close to the external capsule and deep in the insular cortex. In rodents, this nucleus is characterized by a dense cluster of parvalbumin labeling. The claustrum is connected with the cerebral cortex. It does not project to the brainstem, but brainstem structures can influence this nucleus. To identify some specific projections from the lateral hypothalamus and midbrain, we analyzed the distribution of projections labeled with antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), and hypocretin (Hcrt) in the region of the claustrum. The claustrum contains a significant projection by MCH axons, whereas it is devoid of TH projections. Unlike TH and MCH axons, Hcrt axons are scattered throughout the region. This observation is discussed mainly with regard to the role of the claustrum in cognitive functions and that of MCH in REM sleep. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1489-1498, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: 10-11 (F) RRID:AB_10000343 1:1000â€‰Î¼l
Increasing evidence indicates an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance may have a critical role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Impaired inhibitory circuitry is consistently reported in the motor cortex of both familial and sporadic patients, closely associated with cortical hyperexcitability and ALS onset. Inhibitory network dysfunction is presumably mediated by intra-cortical inhibitory interneurons, however, the exact cell types responsible are yet to be identified. In this study we demonstrate dynamic changes in the number of calretinin- (CR) and neuropeptide Y-expressing (NPY) interneurons in the motor cortex of the familial hSOD1G93A ALS mouse model, suggesting their potential involvement in motor neuron circuitry defects. We show that the density of NPY-populations is significantly decreased by ~17% at symptom onset (8 weeks), and by end-stage disease (20 weeks) is significantly increased by ~30%. Conversely, the density of CR-populations is progressively reduced during later symptomatic stages (~31%) to end-stage (~36%), while CR-expressing interneurons also show alteration of neurite branching patterns at symptom onset. We conclude that a differential capacity for interneurons exists in the ALS motor cortex, which may not be a static phenomenon, but involves early dynamic changes throughout disease, implicating specific inhibitory circuitry.
Literature context: t# PV235; RRID:AB_10000343 Bacterial
Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) mutations cause severe epilepsies marked by intermittent, pathological hypersynchronous brain states. Here we present two mechanisms that help to explain how mutations in one VGSC gene, Scn8a, contribute to two distinct seizure phenotypes: (1) hypoexcitation of cortical circuits leading to convulsive seizure resistance, and (2) hyperexcitation of thalamocortical circuits leading to non-convulsive absence epilepsy. We found that loss of Scn8a leads to altered RT cell intrinsic excitability and a failure in recurrent RT synaptic inhibition. We propose that these deficits cooperate to enhance thalamocortical network synchrony and generate pathological oscillations. To our knowledge, this finding is the first clear demonstration of a pathological state tied to disruption of the RT-RT synapse. Our observation that loss of a single gene in the thalamus of an adult wild-type animal is sufficient to cause spike-wave discharges is striking and represents an example of absence epilepsy of thalamic origin.
Literature context: Cat# 235 RRID:AB_10000343 Goat polyc
Generating a precise cellular and molecular cartography of the human embryo is essential to our understanding of the mechanisms of organogenesis in normal and pathological conditions. Here, we have combined whole-mount immunostaining, 3DISCO clearing, and light-sheet imaging to start building a 3D cellular map of the human development during the first trimester of gestation. We provide high-resolution 3D images of the developing peripheral nervous, muscular, vascular, cardiopulmonary, and urogenital systems. We found that the adult-like pattern of skin innervation is established before the end of the first trimester, showing important intra- and inter-individual variations in nerve branches. We also present evidence for a differential vascularization of the male and female genital tracts concomitant with sex determination. This work paves the way for a cellular and molecular reference atlas of human cells, which will be of paramount importance to understanding human development in health and disease. PAPERCLIP.
Literature context: es: mouse anti-PV (1:1000, RRID:AB_10000343; Swant); rabbit anti-PV (1:1000
Target cell type-dependent differences in presynaptic release probability (Pr ) and short-term plasticity are intriguing features of cortical microcircuits that increase the computational power of neuronal networks. Here, we tested the hypothesis that different voltage-gated Ca2+ channel densities in presynaptic active zones (AZs) underlie different Pr values. Two-photon Ca2+ imaging, triple immunofluorescent labeling, and 3D electron microscopic (EM) reconstruction of rat CA3 pyramidal cell axon terminals revealed ∼1.7-1.9 times higher Ca2+ inflow per AZ area in high Pr boutons synapsing onto parvalbumin-positive interneurons (INs) than in low Pr boutons synapsing onto mGluR1α-positive INs. EM replica immunogold labeling, however, demonstrated only 1.15 times larger Cav2.1 and Cav2.2 subunit densities in high Pr AZs. Our results indicate target cell type-specific modulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channel function or different subunit composition as possible mechanisms underlying the functional differences. In addition, high Pr synapses are also characterized by a higher density of docked vesicles, suggesting that a concerted action of these mechanisms underlies the functional differences.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Target cell type-dependent variability in presynaptic properties is an intriguing feature of cortical synapses. When a single cortical pyramidal cell establishes a synapse onto a somatostatin-expressing interneuron (IN), the synapse releases glutamate with low probability, whereas the next bouton of the same axon has high release probability when its postsynaptic target is a parvalbumin-expressing IN. Here, we used combined molecular, imaging, and anatomical approaches to investigate the mechanisms underlying these differences. Our functional experiments implied an approximately twofold larger Ca2+ channel density in high release probability boutons, whereas freeze-fracture immunolocalization demonstrated only a 15% difference in Ca2+ channel subunit densities. Our results point toward a postsynaptic target cell type-dependent regulation of Ca2+ channel function or different subunit composition as the underlying mechanism.
Literature context: Cat# 235, RRID:AB_10000343), Ca2+/cal
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) integrates sensory input from cortical and subcortical regions, a function that requires marked synaptic plasticity. Here we provide evidence that cytochrome P450 aromatase (AROM), the enzyme converting testosterone to 17β-estradiol (E2), contributes to the regulation of this plasticity in a sex-specific manner. We show that AROM is expressed in the BLA, particularly in the basolateral nucleus (BL), in male and female rodents. Systemic administration of the AROM inhibitor letrozole reduced spine synapse density in the BL of adult female mice but not in the BL of male mice. Similarly, in organotypic corticoamygdalar slice cultures from immature rats, treatment with letrozole significantly reduced spine synapses in the BL only in cultures derived from females. In addition, letrozole sex-specifically altered synaptic properties in the BL: in acute slices from juvenile (prepubertal) female rats, wash-in of letrozole virtually abolished long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas it did not prevent the generation of LTP in the slices from males. Together, these data indicate that neuron-derived E2 modulates synaptic plasticity in rodent BLA sex-dependently. As protein expression levels of AROM, estrogen and androgen receptors did not differ between males and females and were not sex-specifically altered by letrozole, the findings suggest sex-specific mechanisms of E2 signaling.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key structure of the fear circuit. This research reveals a sexually dimorphic regulation of synaptic plasticity in the BLA involving neuronal aromatase, which produces the neurosteroid 17β-estradiol (E2). As male and female neurons in rodent BLA responded differently to aromatase inhibition both in vivo and in vitro, our findings suggest that E2 signaling in BLA neurons is regulated sex-dependently, presumably via mechanisms that have been established during sexual determination. These findings could be relevant for the understanding of sex differences in mood disorders and of the side effects of cytochrome P450 aromatase inhibitors, which are frequently used for breast cancer therapy.
Literature context: valbumin (RRID:AB_10000343);calbindin
Long-term diffuse traumatic brain injury (dTBI) causes neuronal hyperexcitation in supragranular layers in sensory cortex, likely through reduced inhibition. Other forms of TBI affect inhibitory interneurons in subcortical areas but it is unknown if this occurs in cortex, or in any brain area in dTBI. We investigated dTBI effects on inhibitory neurons and astrocytes in somatosensory and motor cortex, and hippocampus, 8 weeks post-TBI. Brains were labeled with antibodies against calbindin (CB), parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and somatostatin (SOM) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for astrogliosis during neurodegeneration. Despite persistent behavioral deficits in rotarod performance up to the time of brain extraction (TBI = 73.13 ± 5.23% mean ± SEM, Sham = 92.29 ± 5.56%, P < 0.01), motor cortex showed only a significant increase, in NPY neurons in supragranular layers (mean cells/mm2 ± SEM, Sham = 16 ± 0.971, TBI = 25 ± 1.51, P = 0.001). In somatosensory cortex, only CR+ neurons showed changes, being decreased in supragranular (TBI = 19 ± 1.18, Sham = 25 ± 1.10, P < 0.01) and increased in infragranular (TBI = 28 ± 1.35, Sham = 24 ± 1.07, P < 0.05) layers. Heterogeneous changes were seen in hippocampal staining: CB+ decreased in dentate gyrus (TBI = 2 ± 0.382, Sham = 4 ± 0.383, P < 0.01), PV+ increased in CA1 (TBI = 39 ± 1.26, Sham = 33 ± 1.69, P < 0.05) and CA2/3 (TBI = 26 ± 2.10, Sham = 20 ± 1.49, P < 0.05), and CR+ decreased in CA1 (TBI = 10 ± 1.02, Sham = 14 ± 1.14, P < 0.05). Astrogliosis significantly increased in corpus callosum (TBI = 6.7 ± 0.69, Sham = 2.5 ± 0.38; P = 0.007). While dTBI effects on inhibitory neurons appear region- and type-specific, a common feature in all cases of decrease was that changes occurred in dendrite targeting interneurons involved in neuronal integration. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3530-3560, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: at.# 235, RRID:AB_10000343). This ant
Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole-brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high-resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large-format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto- and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127-3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: No. 235, RRID:AB_10000343; diluted 1
The parvafox nucleus is an elongated structure that is lodged within the ventrolateral hypothalamus and lies along the optic tract. It comprises axially located parvalbumin (Parv)-positive neurons and a peripheral cuff of Foxb1-expressing ones. In the present study, injections of Cre-dependent adenoviral constructs were targeted to the ventrolateral hypothalamus of Foxb1/Cre mice to label specifically and map the efferent connections of the Foxb1-expressing subpopulation of neurons of the parvafox nucleus. These neurons project more widely than do the Parv-positive ones and implicate a part of the axons known to emanate from the lateral hypothalamus. High labeling densities were found in the dorsolateral and the upper lateral portion of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), the Su3 and PV2 nuclei of the ventrolateral PAG, the cuneiform nucleus, the mesencephalic reticular formation, and the superior colliculus. Intermediate densities of terminals were encountered in the septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, substantia innominata, various thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei, pedunculopontine nucleus, Barrington's nucleus, retrofacial nucleus, and retroambigual nucleus. Scattered terminals were observed in the olfactory bulbs, the prefrontal cortex and the lamina X of the cervical spinal cord. Because the terminals were demonstrated to express the glutamate transporter VGlut2, the projections are presumed to be excitatory. A common denominator of the main target sites of the Foxb1-positive axons of the parvafox nucleus appears to be an involvement in the defensive reactions to life-threatening situations. The hypothalamic parvafox nucleus may contribute to the autonomic manifestations that accompany the expression of emotions. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2955-2981, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: tPV28Hirano et al., 20111:10,000AB_10000343CBRabbitRat recombinant calbindi
The present study provides the first systematic immunohistochemical neuroanatomical investigation of the systems involved in the control and regulation of sleep in an odontocete cetacean, the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). The odontocete cetaceans show an unusual form of mammalian sleep, with unihemispheric slow waves, suppressed REM sleep, and continuous bodily movement. All the neural elements involved in sleep regulation and control found in bihemispheric sleeping mammals were present in the harbor porpoise, with no specific nuclei being absent, and no novel nuclei being present. This qualitative similarity of nuclear organization relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic, and orexinergic systems and is extended to the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic elements involved with these nuclei. Quantitative analysis of the cholinergic and noradrenergic nuclei of the pontine region revealed that in comparison with other mammals, the numbers of pontine cholinergic (126,776) and noradrenergic (122,878) neurons are markedly higher than in other large-brained bihemispheric sleeping mammals. The diminutive telencephalic commissures (anterior commissure, corpus callosum, and hippocampal commissure) along with an enlarged posterior commissure and supernumerary pontine cholinergic and noradrenergic neurons indicate that the control of unihemispheric slow-wave sleep is likely to be a function of interpontine competition, facilitated through the posterior commissure, in response to unilateral telencephalic input related to the drive for sleep. In addition, an expanded peripheral division of the dorsal raphe nuclear complex appears likely to play a role in the suppression of REM sleep in odontocete cetaceans. Thus, the current study provides several clues to the understanding of the neural control of the unusual sleep phenomenology present in odontocete cetaceans. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1999-2017, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The current study analyzed the nuclear organization of the neural systems related to the control and regulation of sleep and wake in the basal forebrain, diencephalon, midbrain, and pons of the minke whale, a mysticete cetacean. While odontocete cetaceans sleep in an unusual manner, with unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS) and suppressed REM sleep, it is unclear whether the mysticete whales show a similar sleep pattern. Previously, we detailed a range of features in the odontocete brain that appear to be related to odontocete-type sleep, and here present our analysis of these features in the minke whale brain. All neural elements involved in sleep regulation and control found in bihemispheric sleeping mammals and the harbor porpoise were present in the minke whale, with no specific nuclei being absent, and no novel nuclei being present. This qualitative similarity relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems, and the GABAergic elements of these nuclei. Quantitative analysis revealed that the numbers of pontine cholinergic (274,242) and noradrenergic (203,686) neurons, and hypothalamic orexinergic neurons (277,604), are markedly higher than other large-brained bihemispheric sleeping mammals. Small telencephalic commissures (anterior, corpus callosum, and hippocampal), an enlarged posterior commissure, supernumerary pontine cholinergic and noradrenergic cells, and an enlarged peripheral division of the dorsal raphe nuclear complex of the minke whale, all indicate that the suite of neural characteristics thought to be involved in the control of USWS and the suppression of REM in the odontocete cetaceans are present in the minke whale. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2018-2035, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Literature context: l, Swant, RRID:AB_10000343). After th
Hippocampal neurons activated during encoding drive the recall of contextual fear memory. Little is known about how such ensembles emerge during acquisition and eventually form the cellular engram. Manipulating the activity of granule cells (GCs) of the dentate gyrus (DG), we reveal a mechanism of lateral inhibition that modulates the size of the cellular engram. GCs engage somatostatin-positive interneurons that inhibit the dendrites of surrounding GCs. Our findings reveal a microcircuit within the DG that controls the size of the cellular engram and the stability of contextual fear memory.
The hippocampal formation (HF) is one of the hottest regions in neuroscience because it is critical to learning, memory, and cognition, while being vulnerable to many neurological and mental disorders. With increasing high-resolution imaging techniques, many scientists have started to use distinct landmarks along the anterior-posterior axis of HF to allow segmentation into individual subfields in order to identify specific functions in both normal and diseased conditions. These studies urgently call for more reliable and accurate segmentation of the HF subfields DG, CA3, CA2, CA1, prosubiculum, subiculum, presubiculum, and parasubiculum. Unfortunately, very limited data are available on detailed parcellation of the HF subfields, especially in the complex, curved hippocampal head region. In this study we revealed detailed organization and parcellation of all subfields of the hippocampal head and body regions on the base of a combined analysis of multiple cyto- and chemoarchitectural stains and dense sequential section sampling. We also correlated these subfields to macro-anatomical landmarks, which are visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Furthermore, we created three versions of the detailed anatomic atlas for the hippocampal head region to account for brains with four, three, or two hippocampal digitations. These results will provide a fundamental basis for understanding the organization, parcellation, and anterior-posterior difference of human HF, facilitating accurate segmentation and measurement of HF subfields in the human brain on MRI scans.
Literature context: and; 235, RRID:AB_10000343, 1:2500).
OBJECTIVE: Perineuronal nets (PN) form a specialized extracellular matrix around certain highly active neurons within the central nervous system and may help to stabilize synaptic contacts, promote local ion homeostasis, or play a protective role. Within the ocular motor system, excitatory burst neurons and omnipause neurons are highly active cells that generate rapid eye movements - saccades; both groups of neurons contain the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin and are ensheathed by PN. Experimental lesions of excitatory burst neurons and omnipause neurons cause slowing or complete loss of saccades. Selective palsy of saccades in humans is reported following cardiac surgery, but such cases have shown normal brainstem neuroimaging, with only one clinicopathological study that demonstrated paramedian pontine infarction. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that lesions of PN surrounding these brainstem saccade-related neurons may cause saccadic palsy. METHODS: Together with four controls we studied the brain of a patient who had developed a permanent selective saccadic palsy following cardiac surgery and died several years later. Sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded brainstem blocks were applied to double-immunoperoxidase staining of parvalbumin and three different components of PN. Triple immunofluorescence labeling for all PN components served as internal controls. Combined immunostaining of parvalbumin and synaptophysin revealed the presence of synapses. RESULTS: Excitatory burst neurons and omnipause neurons were preserved and still received synaptic input, but their surrounding PN showed severe loss or fragmentation. INTERPRETATION: Our findings support current models and experimental studies of the brainstem saccade-generating neurons and indicate that damage to PN may permanently impair the function of these neurons that the PN ensheathe. How a postulated hypoxic mechanism could selectively damage the PN remains unclear. We propose that the well-studied saccadic eye movement system provides an accessible model to evaluate the role of PN in health and disease.
Creatine is a molecule that supports energy metabolism in cells. It is carried across the plasma membrane by the creatine transporter. There has been recent interest in creatine for its neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases and its potential as a therapeutic agent. This study represents the first systematic investigation of the distribution of the creatine transporter in the human brain. We have used immunohistochemical techniques to map out its location and the intensity of staining. The transporter was found to be strongly expressed, especially in the large projection neurons of the brain and spinal cord. These include the pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex, Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex, and motor neurons of the somatic motor and visceromotor cranial nerve nuclei and the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Many other neurons in the brain also had some degree of creatine transporter immunoreactivity. By contrast, the medium spiny neurons of the striatum and the catecholaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus, which are implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, showed a very low to almost absent level of immunoreactivity for the transporter. We propose that the distribution may reflect the energy consumption by different cell types and that the extent of creatine transporter expression is proportional to the cell's energy requirements. Furthermore, the distribution indicates that supplemented creatine would be widely taken up by brain cells, although possibly less by those cells that degenerate in Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases.
Literature context: McAB235, RRID:AB_10000343 IF: 1:5,00
Projections from the nucleus incertus (NI) to the septum have been implicated in the modulation of hippocampal theta rhythm. In this study we describe a previously uncharacterized projection from the septum to the NI, which may provide feedback modulation of the ascending circuitry. Fluorogold injections into the NI resulted in retrograde labeling in the septum that was concentrated in the horizontal diagonal band and areas of the posterior septum including the septofimbrial and triangular septal nuclei. Double-immunofluorescent staining indicated that the majority of NI-projecting septal neurons were calretinin-positive and some were parvalbumin-, calbindin-, or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-67-positive. Choline acetyltransferase-positive neurons were Fluorogold-negative. Injection of anterograde tracers into medial septum, or triangular septal and septofimbrial nuclei, revealed fibers descending to the supramammillary nucleus, median raphe, and the NI. These anterogradely labeled varicosities displayed synaptophysin immunoreactivity, indicating septal inputs form synapses on NI neurons. Anterograde tracer also colocalized with GAD-67-positive puncta in labeled fibers, which in some cases made close synaptic contact with GAD-67-labeled NI neurons. These data provide evidence for the existence of an inhibitory descending projection from medial and posterior septum to the NI that provides a "feedback loop" to modulate the comparatively more dense ascending NI projections to medial septum and hippocampus. Neural processes and associated behaviors activated or modulated by changes in hippocampal theta rhythm may depend on reciprocal connections between ascending and descending pathways rather than on unidirectional regulation via the medial septum.
Literature context: RRID:AB_10000343 1:1,000 di
Subthreshold A-type K(+) currents (ISA s) have been recorded from the cell bodies of hippocampal and neocortical interneurons as well as neocortical pyramidal neurons. Kv4 channels are responsible for the somatodendritic ISA s. It has been proposed that neuronal Kv4 channels are ternary complexes including pore-forming Kv4 subunits, K(+) channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs), and dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPPLs). However, colocalization evidence was still lacking. The distribution of DPP10 mRNA in rodent brain has been reported but its protein localization remains unknown. In this study, we generated a DPP10 antibody to label DPP10 protein in adult rat brain by immunohistochemistry. Absent from glia, DPP10 proteins appear mainly in the cell bodies of DPP10(+) neurons, not only at the plasma membrane but also in the cytoplasm. At least 6.4% of inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus coexpressed Kv4.3, KChIP1, and DPP10, with the highest density in the CA1 strata alveus/oriens/pyramidale and the dentate hilus. Colocalization of Kv4.3/KChIP1/DPP10 was also detected in at least 6.9% of inhibitory interneurons scattered throughout the neocortex. Both hippocampal and neocortical Kv4.3/KChIP1/DPP10(+) inhibitory interneurons expressed parvalbumin or somatostatin, but not calbindin or calretinin. Furthermore, we found colocalization of Kv4.2/Kv4.3/KChIP3/DPP10 in neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons and olfactory bulb mitral cells. Together, although DPP10 is also expressed in some brain neurons lacking Kv4 (such as parvalbumin- and somatostatin-positive Golgi cells in the cerebellum), colocalization of DPP10 with Kv4 and KChIP at the plasma membrane of ISA -expressing neuron somata supports the existence of Kv4/KChIP/DPPL ternary complex in vivo.
Literature context: t 1:1000 (catalog #PV 235; RRID AB10000343; Swant); rabbit polyclonal anti
Perturbations in fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) interneurons are hypothesized to be a major component of various neuropsychiatric disorders; however, the mechanisms regulating PV interneurons remain mostly unknown. Recently, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been shown to function as a major regulator of synaptic plasticity. Here, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of Cdk5 in PV interneurons in mouse brain leads to an increase in GABAergic neurotransmission and impaired synaptic plasticity. PVCre;fCdk5 mice display a range of behavioral abnormalities, including decreased anxiety and memory impairment. Our results reveal a central role of Cdk5 expressed in PV interneurons in gating inhibitory neurotransmission and underscore the importance of such regulation during behavioral tasks. Our findings suggest that Cdk5 can be considered a promising therapeutic target in a variety of conditions attributed to inhibitory interneuronal dysfunction, such as epilepsy, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia.
Literature context: carp musclesSwant, no. 235RRID: AB_10000343Mouse monoclonal1:20,000Parvalbu
About 15 parallel ganglion cell pathways transmit visual signals to the brain, but the interneuron (bipolar and amacrine) populations providing input to ganglion cells remain poorly understood in primate retina. We carried out a quantitative analysis of the inner nuclear layer in the retina of the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Vertical Vibratome sections along the horizontal meridian were processed with immunohistochemical markers. Image stacks were taken with a confocal microscope, and densities of cell populations were determined. The density of flat midget bipolar cells fell from 15,746 cells/mm(2) at 1 mm (8 deg) to 7,827 cells/mm(2) at 3 mm (25 deg). The rod bipolar cell density fell from 8,640 cells/mm(2) at 1 mm to 4,278 cells/mm(2) at 3 mm, but the ratio of the two bipolar cell types did not change with eccentricity. The amacrine cell density ranged from 30,000 cells/mm(2) at 8 deg to less than 15,000 cells/mm(2) at 25 deg, but throughout the retina, the ratio of glycinergic to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic to amacrine cells remained relatively constant. The fractions of rod bipolar, cone bipolar, amacrine, Müller, and horizontal cells of all cells in the inner nuclear layer were comparable in central and peripheral retina. Marmosets had lower proportions of midget bipolar and rod bipolar in comparison with macaque. These differences were correlated with differences in rod and cone densities between the two species and did not reflect fundamental differences in the wiring between the two species.
Literature context: ; 1:2000; RRID:AB_10000343, Swant) an
The medial septum (MS) is required for theta rhythmic oscillations and grid cell firing in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). While GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neurons project from the MS to the MEC, their synaptic targets are unknown. To investigate whether MS neurons innervate specific layers and cell types in the MEC, we expressed channelrhodopsin-2 in mouse MS neurons and used patch-clamp recording in brain slices to determine the response to light activation of identified cells in the MEC. Following activation of MS axons, we observed fast monosynaptic GABAergic IPSPs in the majority (>60%) of fast-spiking (FS) and low-threshold-spiking (LTS) interneurons in all layers of the MEC, but in only 1.5% of nonstellate principal cells (NSPCs) and in no stellate cells. We also observed fast glutamatergic responses to MS activation in a minority (<5%) of NSPCs, FS, and LTS interneurons. During stimulation of MS inputs at theta frequency (10 Hz), the amplitude of GABAergic IPSPs was maintained, and spike output from LTS and FS interneurons was entrained at low (25-60 Hz) and high (60-180 Hz) gamma frequencies, respectively. By demonstrating cell type-specific targeting of the GABAergic projection from the MS to the MEC, our results support the idea that the MS controls theta frequency activity in the MEC through coordination of inhibitory circuits.
Literature context: rons (Mullen et al., 1992). The PV monoclonal antibody labeled a subpopulation of neur
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the zona incerta (ZI) are two major structures of the subthalamus. The STN has strong connections between the basal ganglia and related nuclei. The ZI has strong connections between brainstem reticular nuclei, sensory nuclei, and nonspecific thalamic nuclei. Both the STN and ZI receive heavy projections from a subgroup of layer V neurons in the cerebral cortex. The major goal of this study was to investigate the following two questions about the cortico-subthalamic projections using the lentivirus anterograde tracing method in the rat: 1) whether cortical projections to the STN and ZI have independent functional organizations or a global organization encompassing the entire subthalamus as a whole; and 2) how the cortical functional zones are represented in the subthalamus. This study revealed that the subthalamus receives heavy projections from the motor and sensory cortices, that the cortico-subthalamic projections have a large-scale functional organization that encompasses both the STN and two subdivisions of the ZI, and that the group of cortical axons that originate from a particular area of the cortex sequentially innervate and form separate terminal fields in the STN and ZI. The terminal zones formed by different cortical functional areas have highly overlapped and fuzzy borders, as do the somatotopic representations of the sensorimotor cortex in the subthalamus. The present study suggests that the layer V neurons in the wide areas of the sensorimotor cortex simultaneously control STN and ZI neurons. Together with other known afferent and efferent connections, possible new functionality of the STN and ZI is discussed.
Literature context: alog #235 RRID:AB_10000343; Swant) di
Replay of neuronal activity during hippocampal sharp wave-ripples (SWRs) is essential in memory formation. To understand the mechanisms underlying the initiation of irregularly occurring SWRs and the generation of periodic ripples, we selectively manipulated different components of the CA3 network in mouse hippocampal slices. We recorded EPSCs and IPSCs to examine the buildup of neuronal activity preceding SWRs and analyzed the distribution of time intervals between subsequent SWR events. Our results suggest that SWRs are initiated through a combined refractory and stochastic mechanism. SWRs initiate when firing in a set of spontaneously active pyramidal cells triggers a gradual, exponential buildup of activity in the recurrent CA3 network. We showed that this tonic excitatory envelope drives reciprocally connected parvalbumin-positive basket cells, which start ripple-frequency spiking that is phase-locked through reciprocal inhibition. The synchronized GABA(A) receptor-mediated currents give rise to a major component of the ripple-frequency oscillation in the local field potential and organize the phase-locked spiking of pyramidal cells. Optogenetic stimulation of parvalbumin-positive cells evoked full SWRs and EPSC sequences in pyramidal cells. Even with excitation blocked, tonic driving of parvalbumin-positive cells evoked ripple oscillations. Conversely, optogenetic silencing of parvalbumin-positive cells interrupted the SWRs or inhibited their occurrence. Local drug applications and modeling experiments confirmed that the activity of parvalbumin-positive perisomatic inhibitory neurons is both necessary and sufficient for ripple-frequency current and rhythm generation. These interneurons are thus essential in organizing pyramidal cell activity not only during gamma oscillation, but, in a different configuration, during SWRs.
Literature context: log #235, RRID:AB_10000343) at 1:2000
The primate amygdala sends dense projections to posterior orbitofrontal cortex (pOFC) in pathways that are critical for processing emotional content, but the synaptic mechanisms are not understood. We addressed this issue by investigating pathways in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) from the amygdala to pOFC at the level of the system and synapse. Terminations from the amygdala were denser and larger in pOFC compared with the anterior cingulate cortex, which is also strongly connected with the amygdala. Axons from the amygdala terminated most densely in the upper layers of pOFC through large terminals. Most of these terminals innervated spines of presumed excitatory neurons and many were frequently multisynaptic and perforated, suggesting high synaptic efficacy. These amygdalar synapses in pOFC exceeded in size and specialization even thalamocortical terminals from the prefrontal-related thalamic mediodorsal nucleus to the middle cortical layers, which are thought to be highly efficient drivers of cortical neurons. Pathway terminals in the upper layers impinge on the apical dendrites of neurons in other layers, suggesting that the robust amygdalar projections may also activate neurons in layer 5 that project back to the amygdala and beyond to autonomic structures. Among inhibitory neurons, the amygdalar pathway innervated preferentially the neurochemical classes of calbindin and calretinin neurons in the upper layers of pOFC, which are synaptically suited to suppress noise and enhance signals. These features provide a circuit mechanism for flexibly shifting focus and adjusting emotional drive in processes disrupted in psychiatric disorders, such as phobias and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
To investigate how prefrontal cortices impinge on medial temporal cortices we labeled pathways from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and posterior orbitofrontal cortex (pOFC) in rhesus monkeys to compare their relationship with excitatory and inhibitory systems in rhinal cortices. The ACC pathway terminated mostly in areas 28 and 35 with a high proportion of large terminals, whereas the pOFC pathway terminated mostly through small terminals in area 36 and sparsely in areas 28 and 35. Both pathways terminated in all layers. Simultaneous labeling of pathways and distinct neurochemical classes of inhibitory neurons, followed by analyses of appositions of presynaptic and postsynaptic fluorescent signal, or synapses, showed overall predominant association with spines of putative excitatory neurons, but also significant interactions with presumed inhibitory neurons labeled for calretinin, calbindin, or parvalbumin. In the upper layers of areas 28 and 35 the ACC pathway was associated with dendrites of neurons labeled with calretinin, which are thought to disinhibit neighboring excitatory neurons, suggesting facilitated hippocampal access. In contrast, in area 36 pOFC axons were associated with dendrites of calbindin neurons, which are poised to reduce noise and enhance signal. In the deep layers, both pathways innervated mostly dendrites of parvalbumin neurons, which strongly inhibit neighboring excitatory neurons, suggesting gating of hippocampal output to other cortices. These findings suggest that the ACC, associated with attention and context, and the pOFC, associated with emotional valuation, have distinct contributions to memory in rhinal cortices, in processes that are disrupted in psychiatric diseases.
In hippocampal neurons, AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory postsynaptic responses at glutamatergic synapses, and are involved in various forms of synaptic plasticity. Dendritic local protein synthesis of selected AMPAR subunit mRNAs is considered an additional mechanism to independently and rapidly control the strength of individual synapses. We have used fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to analyze the localization of AMPAR subunit (GluA1-4) mRNAs and their relationship with the translation machinery in principal cells and interneurons of the adult rat hippocampus. The mRNAs encoding all four AMPAR subunits were detected in the somata and dendrites of CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells and those of six classes of CA1 γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons. GluA1-4 subunit mRNAs were highly localized to the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells, whereas in interneurons they were present in multiple dendrites. In contrast, in the dentate gyrus, GluA1-4 subunit mRNAs were virtually restricted to the somata and were absent from the dendrites of granule cells. These different regional and cell type-specific labeling patterns also correlated with the localization of markers for components of the protein synthesis machinery. Our results support the local translation of GluA1-4 mRNAs in dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal cells and CA1 interneurons but not in granule cells of the dentate gyrus. Furthermore, the regional and cell type-specific differences we observed suggest that each cell type uses distinct ways of regulating the local translation of AMPAR subunits.
The basal ganglia, including the striatum, globus pallidus interna and externa (GPe), subthalamic nucleus (STN), and substantia nigra pars compacta, are conserved throughout vertebrate phylogeny and have been suggested to form a common vertebrate mechanism for action selection. In mammals, this circuitry is further elaborated by the presence of a dual-output nucleus, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), and the presence of modulatory input from the cholinergic pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). We sought to determine whether these additional components of the mammalian basal ganglia are also present in one of the phylogenetically oldest vertebrates, the lamprey. We show, by using immunohistochemistry, tract tracing, and whole-cell recordings, that homologs of the SNr and PPN are present in the lamprey. Thus the SNr receives direct projections from inwardly rectifying γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic striatal neurons expressing substance P, but it is also influenced by indirect basal ganglia projections from the STN and potentially the GPe. Moreover, GABAergic SNr projection neurons are tonically active and project to the thalamus and brainstem motor areas. The homolog of the PPN contains both cholinergic and GABAergic neurons and is connected with all the nuclei of the basal ganglia, supporting its proposed role as part of an extended basal ganglia. A separate group of cholinergic neurons dorsal to the PPN corresponds to the descending mesencephalic locomotor region. Our results suggest that dual-output nuclei are part of the ancestral basal ganglia and that the PPN appears to have coevolved as part of a mechanism for action selection common to all vertebrates.
Neural tracing studies have revealed that the rat medial and lateral septum are targeted by ascending projections from the nucleus incertus, a population of tegmental GABA neurons. These neurons express the relaxin-family peptide, relaxin-3, and pharmacological modulation of relaxin-3 receptors in medial septum alters hippocampal theta rhythm and spatial memory. In an effort to better understand the basis of these interactions, we have characterized the distribution of relaxin-3 fibers/terminals in relation to different septal neuron populations identified using established protein markers. Dense relaxin-3 fiber plexuses were observed in regions of medial septum containing hippocampal-projecting choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-, and parvalbumin (PV)-positive neurons. In lateral septum (LS), relaxin-3 fibers were concentrated in the ventrolateral nucleus of rostral LS and the ventral nucleus of caudal LS, with sparse labeling in the dorsolateral and medial nuclei of rostral LS, dorsal nucleus of caudal LS, and ventral portion nuclei. Relaxin-3 fibers were also observed in the septofimbrial and triangular septal nuclei. In the medial septum, we observed relaxin-3-immunoreactive contacts with ChAT-, PV-, and glutamate decarboxylase-67-positive neurons that projected to hippocampus, and contacts between relaxin-3 terminals and calbindin- and calretinin-positive neurons. Relaxin-3 colocalized with synaptophysin in nerve terminals in all septal areas, and ultrastructural analysis revealed these terminals were symmetrical and contacted spines, somata, dendritic shafts, and occasionally other axonal terminals. These data predict that this GABA/peptidergic projection modulates septohippocampal activity and hippocampal theta rhythm related to exploratory navigation, defensive and ingestive behaviors, and responses to neurogenic stressors.
Gudden's tegmental nuclei provide major inputs to the rodent mammillary bodies, where they are thought to be important for learning and navigation. Comparable projections have yet to be described in the primate brain, where part of the problem has been in effectively delineating these nuclei. Immunohistochemical staining of tissue from a series of macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) showed that cells in the region of both the ventral and dorsal tegmental nuclei selectively stain for parvalbumin, thus helping to reveal these nuclei. These same tegmental nuclei were not selectively revealed when tissue was stained for SMI32, acetylcholinesterase, calbindin, or calretinin. In a parallel study, horseradish peroxidase was injected into the mammillary bodies of five cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Retrogradely labeled neurons were consistently found in the three subdivisions of the ventral tegmental nucleus of Gudden, which are located immediately below, within, and above the medial longitudinal fasciculus. Further projections to the mammillary body region arose from cells in the anterior tegmental nucleus, which appears to be a rostral continuation of the infrafascicular part of the ventral tegmental nucleus. In the dorsal tegmental nucleus of Gudden, labeled cells were most evident when the tracer injection was more laterally placed in the mammillary bodies, consistent with a projection to the lateral mammillary nucleus. The present study not only demonstrates that the primate mammillary bodies receive parallel inputs from the dorsal and ventral tegmental nuclei of Gudden, but also helps to confirm the extent of these poorly distinguished nuclei in the monkey brain.
Neuronal primary cilia are not generally recognized, but they are considered to extend from most, if not all, neurons in the neocortex. However, when and how cilia develop in neurons are not known. This study used immunohistochemistry for adenylyl cyclase III (ACIII), a marker of primary cilia, and electron microscopic analysis to describe the development and maturation of cilia in mouse neocortical neurons. Our results indicate that ciliogenesis is initiated in late fetal stages after neuroblast migration, when the mother centriole docks with the plasma membrane, becomes a basal body, and grows a cilia bud that we call a procilium. This procilium consists of a membranous protrusion extending from the basal body but lacking axonemal structure and remains undifferentiated until development of the axoneme and cilia elongation starts at about postnatal day 4. Neuronal cilia elongation and final cilia length depend on layer position, and the process extends for a long time, lasting 8-12 weeks. We show that, in addition to pyramidal neurons, inhibitory interneurons also grow cilia of comparable length, suggesting that cilia are indeed present in all neocortical neuron subtypes. Furthermore, the study of mice with defective ciliogenesis suggested that failed elongation of cilia is not essential for proper neuronal migration and laminar organization or establishment of neuronal polarity. Thus, the function of this organelle in neocortical neurons remains elusive.
In primates the retina receives input from histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamus that are active during the day. In order to understand how this input contributes to information processing in Old World monkey retinas, we have been localizing histamine receptors (HR) and studying the effects of histamine on the neurons that express them. Previously, we localized HR3 to the tips of ON bipolar cell dendrites and showed that histamine hyperpolarizes the cells via this receptor. We raised antisera against synthetic peptides corresponding to an extracellular domain of HR1 between the 4th and 5th transmembrane domains and to an intracellular domain near the carboxyl terminus of HR2. Using these, we localized HR1 to horizontal cells and a small number of amacrine cells and localized HR2 to puncta closely associated with synaptic ribbons inside cone pedicles. Consistent with this, HR1 mRNA was detected in horizontal cell perikarya and primary dendrites and HR2 mRNA was found in cone inner segments. We studied the effect of 5 μM exogenous histamine on primate cones in macaque retinal slices. Histamine reduced I(h) at moderately hyperpolarized potentials, but not the maximal current. This would be expected to increase the operating range of cones and conserve ATP in bright, ambient light. Thus, all three major targets of histamine are in the outer plexiform layer, but the retinopetal axons containing histamine terminate in the inner plexiform layer. Taken together, the findings in these three studies suggest that histamine acts primarily via volume transmission in primate retina.
The olfactory peduncle, the region connecting the olfactory bulb with the basal forebrain, contains several neural areas that have received relatively little attention. The present work includes studies that provide an overview of the region in the mouse. An analysis of cell soma size in pars principalis (pP) of the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) revealed considerable differences in tissue organization between mice and rats. An unbiased stereological study of neuron number in the cell-dense regions of pars externa (pE) and pP of the AON of 3-, 12-, and 24-month-old mice indicated that pE has about 16,500 cells in 0.043 mm(3) and pP about 58,300 cells in 0.307 mm(3) . Quantitative Golgi studies of pyramidal neurons in pP suggested that mouse neurons are similar to although smaller than those of the rat. An immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that all peduncular regions (pE, pP, the dorsal peduncular cortex, ventral tenia tecta, and anterior olfactory tubercle and piriform cortex) have cells that express either calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, neuropeptide Y, or cholecystokinin (antigens commonly co-expressed by subspecies of γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA]ergic neurons), although the relative numbers of each cell type differ between zones. Finally, an electron microscopic comparison of the organization of myelinated fibers in lateral olfactory tract in the anterior and posterior peduncle indicated that the region is less orderly in mice than in rats. The results provide a caveat for investigators who generalize data between species, as both similarities and differences between the laboratory mouse and rat were observed.
Certain GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex, basket cells, establish multiple connections with cell bodies that typically outline the somata and proximal dendrites of pyramidal cells. During studies into the distribution of the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) in the human cerebral cortex, we were struck by the presence of a very dense, pericellular arrangement of multiple VGAT-immunoreactive (-ir) terminals in certain cortical areas. We called these terminals "Complex basket formations" (Cbk-formations) to distinguish them from the simpler and more typical pericellular GABAergic innervations of most cortical neurons. Here we examined the distribution of these VGAT-ir Cbk-formations in various cortical areas, including the somatosensory (area 3b), visual (areas 17 and 18), motor (area 4), associative frontal (dorsolateral areas 9, 10, 45, 46, and orbital areas 11, 12, 13, 14, 47), associative temporal (areas 20, 21, 22, and 38), and limbic cingulate areas (areas 24, 32). Furthermore, we used dual or triple staining techniques to study the chemical nature of the innervated cells. We found that VGAT-ir Cbk-formations were most frequently found in area 4 followed by areas 3b, 13, and 18. In addition, they were mostly observed in layer III, except in area 17, where they were most dense in layer IV. We also found that 70% of the innervated neurons were pyramidal cells, while the remaining 30% were multipolar cells. Most of these multipolar cells expressed the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin and the lectin Vicia villosa agglutinin.
The neurons in the cortical white matter (WM neurons) originate from the first set of postmitotic neurons that migrates from the ventricular zone. In particular, they arise in the subplate that contains the earliest cells generated in the telencephalon, prior to the appearance of neurons in gray matter cortical layers. These cortical WM neurons are very numerous during development, when they are thought to participate in transient synaptic networks, although many of these cells later die, and relatively few cells survive as WM neurons in the adult. We used light and electron microscopy to analyze the distribution and density of WM neurons in various areas of the adult human cerebral cortex. Furthermore, we examined the perisomatic innervation of these neurons and estimated the density of synapses in the white matter. Finally, we examined the distribution and neurochemical nature of interneurons that putatively innervate the somata of WM neurons. From the data obtained, we can draw three main conclusions: first, the density of WM neurons varies depending on the cortical areas; second, calretinin-immunoreactive neurons represent the major subpopulation of GABAergic WM neurons; and, third, the somata of WM neurons are surrounded by both glutamatergic and GABAergic axon terminals, although only symmetric axosomatic synapses were found. By contrast, both symmetric and asymmetric axodendritic synapses were observed in the neuropil. We discuss the possible functional implications of these findings in terms of cortical circuits.
Geckos use vocalizations for intraspecific communication, but little is known about the organization of their central auditory system. We therefore used antibodies against the calcium-binding proteins calretinin (CR), parvalbumin (PV), and calbindin-D28k (CB) to characterize the gecko auditory system. We also examined expression of both glutamic acid decarboxlase (GAD) and synaptic vesicle protein (SV2). Western blots showed that these antibodies are specific to gecko brain. All three calcium-binding proteins were expressed in the auditory nerve, and CR immunoreactivity labeled the first-order nuclei and delineated the terminal fields associated with the ascending projections from the first-order auditory nuclei. PV expression characterized the superior olivary nuclei, whereas GAD immunoreactivity characterized many neurons in the nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and some neurons in the torus semicircularis. In the auditory midbrain, the distribution of CR, PV, and CB characterized divisions within the central nucleus of the torus semicircularis. All three calcium-binding proteins were expressed in nucleus medialis of the thalamus. These expression patterns are similar to those described for other vertebrates.
The present study was undertaken to determine the precise projection pattern from the primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices to the posterior nuclear proper (POm) and ventroposterior thalamic nuclei (VP). The POm was previously shown to receive large boutons arising exclusively from layer V of the S1 barrel region. This descending input was proposed to play a key role, namely, as a driver, in shaping the receptive property of POm neurons. To determine whether other body parts and the S2 also contribute such unique inputs to the dorsal thalamus, anterograde neuroanatomical tracers were focally deposited in the S1 and S2 forepaw and whisker regions of rats and C57BL6-Tg (GFPm)/Thy1 transgenic mice. Our major findings were that, 1) irrespective of body representations, both the S1 and the S2 provided corticothalamic large terminals to the POm with comparable morphological characteristics and 2) descending large terminals were also noted in particular subzones within the VP, including boundary and caudal areas. We concluded, based on these findings, that the rodent VP has three partitions: the rostral VP innervated by small corticothalamic terminals, the caudal VP with both corticothalamic small and large terminals, and a surrounding shell region, which also contained large terminals. Furthermore, assuming that the large terminal has a driver's role, we propose that particular subzones in the VP may play a role as a multiple-order thalamic relay so that they can simultaneously coordinate with first- and higher-order relays in the thalamocortical circuitry for processing somatosensory information.
The beta(2)-adrenergic receptors (ARs) are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the physiological responses to adrenaline and noradrenaline. The present study aimed to determine the regional distribution of beta(2)-ARs in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain by means of in vitro autoradiographic and immunohistochemical methods. The immunohistochemical localization of beta(2)-ARs, in agreement with the quantitative beta-adrenoceptor autoradiography, showed a wide distribution of beta(2)-ARs in the adult zebrafish brain. The cerebellum and the dorsal zone of periventricular hypothalamus exhibited the highest density of [(3)H]CGP-12177 binding sites and beta(2)-AR immunoreactivity. Neuronal cells strongly stained for beta(2)-ARs were found in the periventricular ventral telencephalic area, magnocellular and parvocellular superficial pretectal nuclei (PSm, PSp), occulomotor nucleus (NIII), locus coeruleus (LC), medial octavolateral nucleus (MON), magnocellular octaval nucleus (MaON) reticular formation (SRF, IMRF, IRF), and ganglionic cell layer of cerebellum. Interestingly, in most cases (NIII, LC, MON, MaON, SRF, IMRF, ganglionic cerebellar layer) beta(2)-ARs were colocalized with alpha(2A)-ARs in the same neuron, suggesting their interaction for mediating the physiological functions of nor/adrenaline. Moderate to low labeling of beta(2)-ARs was found in neurons in dorsal telencephalic area, optic tectum (TeO), torus semicircularis (TS), and periventricular gray zone of optic tectum (PGZ). In addition to neuronal, glial expression of beta(2)-ARs was found in astrocytic fibers located in the central gray and dorsal rhombencephalic midline, in close relation to the ventricle. The autoradiographic and immunohistochemical distribution pattern of beta(2)-ARs in the adult zebrafish brain further support the conserved profile of adrenergic/noradrenergic system through vertebrate brain evolution.
Previous studies have suggested that the patterns of innervation and high interconnectivity of the piriform cortex (PC) provide for strong olfactory hippocampal memory; however, these same attributes may create high seizurogenic tendencies. Thus, understanding this wiring is important from a physiological and pathophysiological perspective. Distinct interneurons expressing differing calcium binding proteins (CBPs), parvalbumin (PV), calbindin (CB), and calretinin (CR), have been shown to exist in PC. However, a comprehensive examination of the distribution and innervation patterns of these neurons has not been done. Thus the purpose of this study was to combine the analysis of the CBP cell localization with analysis of their innervation patterns. Each type was differentially localized in the three layers of the PC. Only CR-positive neurons were found in layer 1. PV and CB are coexpressed in layers 2-3, most expressing both PV and CB. A morphological estimate of the dendritic extent for each subtype showed that PV and PV/CB cells demonstrated equally wide, horizontal and vertical arborizations, whereas CB cells had wide horizontal and restricted vertical arborizations. CR cells had restricted horizontal and very long vertical arborizations. Postsynaptic morphological targeting was also found to be specific, namely, PV(+) and PV/CB(+) nerve terminals (NTs) innervate perisomatic regions of principal cells. CR(+) NTs innervate only dendrites of principal cells, and CB(+) NTs innervate both somata and dendrites of principal cells. These data show highly complex innervation patterns for all of the CBP interneurons of the PC and form a basis for further studies in the plasticity of this region.
The primary olfactory cortex (or piriform cortex, PC) is attracting increasing attention as a model system for the study of cortical sensory processing, yet little is known about inhibitory neurons in the PC. Here we provide the first systematic classification of GABA-releasing interneurons in the anterior PC of mice, based on the expression of molecular markers. Our experiments used GAD67-GFP transgenic mice, in which gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing cells are labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP). We first confirmed, using paired whole-cell recordings, that GFP(+) neurons in the anterior PC of GAD67-GFP mice are functionally GABAergic. Next, we performed immunolabeling of GFP(+) cells to quantify their expression of every possible pairwise combination of seven molecular markers: calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin, cholecystokinin, neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide. We found that six main categories of interneurons could be clearly distinguished in the anterior PC, based on the size and laminar location of their somata, intensity of GFP fluorescence, patterns of axonal projections, and expression of one or more of the seven markers. A number of rarer categories of interneurons could also be identified. These data provide a road map for further work that examines the functional properties of the six main classes of interneurons. Together, this information elucidates the cellular architecture of the PC and provides clues about the roles of GABAergic interneurons in olfactory processing.
The main olfactory bulb (OB) is made up of several concentric layers, forming circuitries often involving dendro-dendritic synapses. Important interactions between OB neurons occur in the external plexiform layer (EPL), where dendrites of tufted and Van Gehuchten cells form synapses with dendrites of deeper lying mitral, tufted, and granule cells. OB neurons display a variety of neurotransmitters. Here, the focus is on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a 37-amino acid neuropeptide transmitter that is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system. In the OB, CGRP-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies were mostly observed in the mitral cell layer (MCL) of normal mice, and their number increased following colchicine treatment. Sparsely distributed CGRP-ir cell bodies were also found in the EPL and granular cell layer. Double-immunofluorescence experiments revealed a lack of co-localization between CGRP-like immunoreactivity (LI) and corticotropin-releasing factor- or galanin-LI, two markers for mitral cells, and no CGRP-LI was found in cholecystokinin-, parvalbumin-, or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-ir tufted/Van Gehuchten cells. CGRP-ir cell bodies were not found to co-localize glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67)-green fluorescence protein, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-, or calretinin-LI, although the possibility remains that CGRP-ir cells may contain low levels of GABA and/or GAD67 not detected by our methodology. Dendrites of CGRP-ir cells extensively ramified deep in the EPL and double-immunofluorescence revealed them to be adjacent with, often apparently contacting, dendrites of granule, mitral, tufted, and Van Gehuchten cells. We propose that these CGRP-ir cell bodies in the mouse OB are "satellite-like" cells within and, occasionally, close to the MCL.
During central nervous system development, several transcription factors regulate the differentiation of progenitor cells to postmitotic neurons. Here we describe a novel role for Ikaros-1 in the generation of late-born striatal neurons. Our results show that Ikaros-1 is expressed in the boundary of the striatal germinal zone (GZ)/mantle zone (MZ), where it induces cell cycle arrest of neural progenitors by up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKi) p21(Cip1/Waf1). This effect is coupled with the neuronal differentiation of late precursors, which in turn is critical for the second wave of striatal neurogenesis that gives rise to matrix neurons. Consistently, Ikaros(-/-) mice had fewer striatal projecting neurons and, in particular, enkephalin (ENK)-positive neurons. In addition, overexpression of Ikaros-1 in primary striatal cultures increases the number of calbindin- and ENK-positive neurons. Our results also show that Ikaros-1 acts downstream of the Dlx family of transcription factors, insofar as its expression is lost in Dlx1/2 double knockout mice. However, we demonstrate that Ikaros-1 and Ebf-1 independently regulate the final determination of the two populations of striatal projection neurons of the matrix compartment, ENK- and substance P-positive neurons. In conclusion, our findings identify Ikaros-1 as a modulator of cell cycle exit of neural progenitors that gives rise to the neurogenesis of ENK-positive striatal neurons.
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is characterized by deficits in the scotopic pathway, although the cellular locus for these deficits is not clear. Here we examined neurochemical and cellular changes that develop during oxygen-induced retinopathy, a model of ROP. In addition, we examined whether treatment with the angiotensin II type-1 receptor inhibitor, valsartan, prevented these changes. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from postnatal day (P) 0 to 11 to 80%:20% O(2) (22:2 hr/day) and then room air until P18. Valsartan (40 mg/kg/day) was administered from P12-P18. Pattern recognition analysis of overlapping amino acid profiles was used to provide a statistically robust and spatially complete classification of neural elements for each experimental condition. Classification yielded 12 neuronal theme classes in controls and nine classes following ROP. ROP was associated with a reduction in the number of amacrine and bipolar cell theme classes. The reduction in theme classes was confirmed as true neuronal loss by quantifying anatomical changes and using an apoptotic marker. ROP was associated with shifts in amino acid levels across all neuronal populations except for horizontal cells. A reduction in the density of glycine-immunoreactive amacrine cells, and particularly parvalbumin-immunoreactive AII amacrine cells, was observed following ROP. Valsartan treatment during ROP prevented loss of theme classes and loss of AII amacrine cells. This study suggests that deficits in scotopic vision during ROP may be associated with loss of AII amacrine cells. In addition, this study highlights the potential of AT(1)R blockade in preventing neuronal anomalies in this condition.
Activation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptors (Y1r) in the rat basolateral nuclear complex of the amygdala (BLA) produces anxiolysis and interferes with the generation of conditioned fear. NPY is important in regulating the output of the BLA, yet the cell types involved in mediating this response are currently unknown. The current studies employed multiple label immunocytochemistry to determine the distribution of Y1r-immunoreactivity (-ir) in glutamatergic pyramidal and GABAergic cell populations in the BLA using scanning laser confocal stereology. Pyramidal neurons were identified by expression of calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII-ir) and functionally distinct interneuron subpopulations were distinguished by peptide (cholecystokinin, somatostatin) or calcium-binding protein (parvalbumin, calretinin) content. Throughout the BLA, Y1r-ir was predominately on soma with negligible fiber staining. The high degree of coexpression of Y1r-ir (99.9%) in CaMKII-ir cells suggests that these receptors colocalize on pyramidal cells and that NPY could influence BLA output by directly regulating the activity of these projection neurons. Additionally, Y1r-ir was also colocalized with the interneuronal markers studied. Parvalbumin-ir interneurons, which participate in feedforward inhibition of BLA pyramidal cells, represented the largest number of Y1r expressing interneurons in the BLA ( approximately 4% of the total neuronal population). The anatomical localization of NPY receptors on different cell populations within the BLA provides a testable circuit whereby NPY could modulate the activity of the BLA via actions on both projection cells and interneuronal cell populations.
The role of cellular phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PtdIns5P), as a signalling molecule or as a substrate for the production of small, compartmentalized pools of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P(2)], may be dependent on cell type and subcellular localization. PtdIns5P levels are primarily regulated by the PtdIns5P 4-kinases (type II PIP kinases or PIP4Ks), and we have investigated the expression and localization in the brain of the least-studied PIP4K isoform, PIP4Kgamma. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, using antisense oligonucleotide probes and a PIP4Kgamma-specific antibody, revealed that this isoform has a restricted CNS expression profile. The use of antibodies to different cell markers showed that this expression is limited to neurons, particularly the cerebellar Purkinje cells, pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, large neuronal cell types in the cerebral cortex including pyramidal cells, and mitral cells in the olfactory bulb and is not expressed in cerebellar, hippocampal formation, or olfactory bulb granule cells. In neurons expressing this enzyme, PIP4Kgamma has a vesicular distribution and shows partial colocalization with markers of cellular compartments of the endomembrane trafficking pathway. The PIP4Kgamma isoform expression is established after day 7 of postnatal development. Overall, our data suggest that PIP4Kgamma may have a role in neuron function, specifically in the regulation of vesicular transport, in specific regions of the developed brain.
Although the human temporal polar cortex (TPC), anterior to the limen insulae, is heavily involved in high-order brain functions and many neurological diseases, few studies on the parcellation and extent of the human TPC are available that have used modern neuroanatomical techniques. The present study investigated the TPC with combined analysis of several different cellular, neurochemical, and pathological markers and found that this area is not homogenous, as at least six different areas extend into the TPC, with another area being unique to the polar region. Specifically, perirhinal area 35 extends into the posterior TPC, whereas areas 36 and TE extend more anteriorly. Dorsolaterally, an area located anterior to the typical area TA or parabelt auditory cortex is distinguishable from area TA and is defined as area TAr (rostral). The polysensory cortical area located primarily in the dorsal bank of the superior temporal sulcus, separate from area TA, extends for some distance into the TPC and is defined as the TAp (polysensory). Anterior to the limen insulae and the temporal pyriform cortex, a cortical area, characterized by its olfactory fibers in layer Ia and lack of layer IV, was defined as the temporal insular cortex and named as area TI after Beck (J. Psychol. Neurol. 1934;41:129-264). Finally, a dysgranular TPC region that capped the tip with some extension into the dorsal aspect of the TPC is defined as temporopolar area TG. Therefore, the human TPC actually includes areas TAr and TI, anterior parts of areas 35, 36, TE, and TAp, and the unique temporopolar area TG.
Tourette syndrome (TS) is an inherited developmental neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by vocal and motor tics. Multiple lines of neurophysiological evidence implicate dysfunction in the corticostriatal-thalamocortical circuits in the etiology of TS. We recently identified rare sequence variants in the Slit and Trk-like family member 1 (SLITRK1) gene associated with TS. SLITRK1, a single-pass transmembrane protein, displays similarities to the SLIT family of secreted ligands, which have roles in axonal repulsion and dendritic patterning, but its function and developmental expression remain largely unknown. Here we provide evidence that SLITRK1 has a developmentally regulated expression pattern in projection neurons of the corticostriatal-thalamocortical circuits. SLITRK1 is further enriched in the somatodendritic compartment and cytoplasmic vesicles of cortical pyramidal neurons in mouse, monkey, and human brain, observations suggestive of an evolutionarily conserved function in mammals. SLITRK1 is transiently expressed in the striosomal/patch compartment of the mammalian striatum and moreover is associated with the direct output pathway; adult striatal expression is confined to cholinergic interneurons. These analyses demonstrate that the expression of SLITRK1 is dynamic and specifically associated with the circuits most commonly implicated in TS and related disorders, suggesting that SLITRK1 contributes to the development of corticostriatal-thalamocortical circuits.
Citron kinase (CIT-K), a ser/thr kinase, is required during neurogenesis for cytokinesis of neuronal precursors. Deletion of the cit-k gene in mice (cit-k(-/-) mice) leads to a severe malformative central nervous system syndrome characterized by microencephaly, ataxia, and epileptic seizures; affected mice die by the third week of postnatal life. We have used NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry, immunostaining for calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin, and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), and histological staining to undertake qualitative and quantitative analyses of the morphology and distribution of interneurons in the barrelfield cortex of cit-k(-/-) mice. By postnatal day 13, lack of CIT-K results in profoundly altered cortical cell morphology: the infragranular layers are populated by large, binucleate interneurons bearing many more dendrites than in control mice, an anatomical profile that has also been reported for the cortex of humans with cortical dysplasias and epilepsy. Tessellation analyses reveal that a clustered distribution of interneurons is maintained in cit-k(-/-) mice, but that their nearest neighbor distance is significantly increased, and thus their density is reduced; the overall number of interneurons is more dramatically decreased in the absence of CIT-K than would be predicted on the basis of the reduced brain size of affected mice. This reduction of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons likely underlies the occurrence of epileptic seizures in the cit-k(-/-) mice. Furthermore, the altered distribution of NADPH-diaphorase-positive interneurons could be responsible for an impaired coupling of cortical activity to blood flow, also affecting cortical growth and functioning.
In songbirds song production requires the intricate coordination of vocal and respiratory muscles under the executive influence of the telencephalon, as for speech in humans. In songbirds the site of this coordination is suspected to be the nucleus retroambigualis (RAm), because it contains premotor neurons projecting upon both vocal motoneurons and spinal motoneurons innervating expiratory muscles, and because it receives descending inputs from the telencephalic vocal control nucleus robustus archopallialis (RA). Here we used tract-tracing techniques to provide a more comprehensive account of the projections of RAm and to identify the different populations of RAm neurons. We found that RAm comprises diverse projection neuron types, including: 1) bulbospinal neurons that project, primarily contralaterally, upon expiratory motoneurons; 2) a separate group of neurons that project, primarily ipsilaterally, upon vocal motoneurons in the tracheosyringeal part of the hypoglossal nucleus (XIIts); 3) neurons that project throughout the ipsilateral and contralateral RAm; 4) another group that sends reciprocal, ascending projections to all the brainstem sources of afferents to RAm, namely, nucleus parambigualis, the ventrolateral nucleus of the rostral medulla, nucleus infra-olivarus superior, ventrolateral parabrachial nucleus, and dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex; and 5) a group of relatively large neurons that project their axons into the vagus nerve. Three morphological classes of RAm cells were identified by intracellular labeling, the dendritic arbors of which were confined to RAm, as defined by the terminal field of RA axons. Together the ascending and descending projections of RAm confirm its pivotal role in the mediation of respiratory-vocal control.
Comparative studies of the structural organization of the brain are fundamental to our understanding of human brain function. However, whereas brains of experimental animals are fixed by perfusion of a fixative through the vasculature, human or ape brains are fixed by immersion after varying postmortem intervals. Although differential treatments might affect the fundamental characteristics of the tissue, this question has not been evaluated empirically in primate brains. Monkey brains were either perfused or acquired after varying postmortem intervals before immersion-fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde. We found that the fixation method affected the neuroanatomical characteristics of the monkey hippocampal formation. Soma size was smaller in Nissl-stained, immersion-fixed tissue, although overall brain volume was larger as compared to perfusion-fixed tissue. Nonphosphorylated high-molecular-weight neurofilament immunoreactivity was lower in CA3 pyramidal neurons, dentate mossy cells, and the entorhinal cortex, whereas it was higher in the mossy fiber pathway in immersion-fixed tissue. Serotonin-immunoreactive fibers were well stained in perfused tissue but were undetectable in immersion-fixed tissue. Although regional immunoreactivity patterns for calcium-binding proteins were not affected, intracellular staining degraded with increasing postmortem intervals. Somatostatin-immunoreactive clusters of large axonal varicosities, previously reported only in humans, were observed in immersion-fixed monkey tissue. In addition, calretinin-immunoreactive multipolar neurons, previously observed only in rodents, were found in the rostral dentate gyrus in both perfused and immersion-fixed brains. In conclusion, comparative studies of the brain must evaluate the effects of fixation on the staining pattern of each marker in every structure of interest before drawing conclusions about species differences.
Unlike laboratory rats and mice, muridae of the Arvicanthis family (A. ansorgei and A. niloticus) are adapted to functioning best in daylight. To date, they have been used as experimental models mainly in studies of circadian rhythms. However, recent work aimed at optimizing photoreceptor-directed gene delivery vectors (Khani et al.  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:3954-3961) suggests their potential usefulness for studying retinal pathologies and therapies. In the present study we analyzed the retinal anatomy and visual performance of the Nile grass rat (A. niloticus) using immunohistofluorescence and the optokinetic response (OKR). We found that approximately 35-40% of photoreceptors are cones; that many neural features of the inner retina are similar to those in other diurnal mammals; and that spatial acuity, measured by the OKR, is more than two times that of the usual laboratory rodents. These observations are consistent with the known diurnal habits of this animal, and further support its pertinence as a complementary model for studies of structure, function, and pathology in cone-rich mammalian retinae.
Noradrenaline (NA) acting via beta-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) plays an important role in the modulation of memory in the hippocampus. betaARs have been shown to be expressed in principal cells, but their distribution across different interneuron classes is unknown. We have used specific interneuron markers including calcium binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin) and neuropeptides (somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, and cholecystokinin) together with either beta1AR or beta2AR to determine the distribution of these receptors in all major subfields of the hippocampus. We found that beta1AR-expressing interneurons were more prevalent in the CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus than in the dentate gyrus, where they were relatively sparse. beta2AR-expressing interneurons were more uniformly distributed between all three regions of the hippocampus. A high proportion of neuropeptide Y-containing interneurons in the dentate gyrus co-expressed beta2AR. beta1AR labeling was common in interneurons expressing somatostatin and parvalbumin in the CA3 and CA1 regions, particularly in the stratum oriens of these regions. beta2AR labeling was more likely to be found than beta1AR labeling in cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons. In contrast, calretinin-containing interneurons were virtually devoid of beta1AR or beta2AR labeling. These regional and interneuron type-specific differences suggest functionally distinct roles for NA in modulating hippocampal activity via activation of betaARs.
Area X is a songbird basal ganglia nucleus that is required for vocal learning. Both Area X and its immediate surround, the medial striatum (MSt), contain cells displaying either striatal or pallidal characteristics. We used pathway-tracing techniques to compare directly the targets of Area X and MSt with those of the lateral striatum (LSt) and globus pallidus (GP). We found that the zebra finch LSt projects to the GP, substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and pars compacta (SNc), but not the thalamus. The GP is reciprocally connected with the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and projects to the SNr and motor thalamus analog, the ventral intermediate area (VIA). In contrast to the LSt, Area X and surrounding MSt project to the ventral pallidum (VP) and dorsal thalamus via pallidal-like neurons. A dorsal strip of the MSt contains spiny neurons that project to the VP. The MSt, but not Area X, projects to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and SNc, but neither MSt nor Area X projects to the SNr. Largely distinct populations of SNc and VTA dopaminergic neurons innervate Area X and surrounding the MSt. Finally, we provide evidence consistent with an indirect pathway from the cerebellum to the basal ganglia, including Area X. Area X projections thus differ from those of the GP and LSt, but are similar to those of the MSt. These data clarify the relationships among different portions of the oscine basal ganglia as well as among the basal ganglia of birds and mammals.
The alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor (AR) subtype, a G protein-coupled receptor located both pre- and postsynaptically, mediates adrenaline/noradrenaline functions. The present study aimed to determine the alpha(2A)-AR distribution in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain by means of immunocytochemistry. Detailed mapping showed labeling of alpha(2A)-ARs, in neuropil, neuronal somata and fibers, glial processes, and blood vessels. A high density of alpha(2A)-AR immunoreactivity was found in the ventral telencephalic area, preoptic, pretectal, hypothalamic areas, torus semicircularis, oculomotor nucleus (NIII), locus coreruleus (LC), medial raphe, medial octavolateralis nucleus (MON), magnocellular octaval nucleus (MaON), reticular formation (SRF, IMRF, IRF), rhombencephalic nerves and roots (DV, V, VII, VIII, X), and cerebellar Purkinje cell layer. Moderate levels of alpha(2A)-ARs were observed in the medial and central zone nuclei of dorsal telencephalic area, in the periventricular gray zone of optic tectum, in the dorsomedial part of optic tectum layers, and in the molecular and granular layers of all cerebellum subdivisions. Glial processes were found to express alpha(2A)-ARs in rhombencephalon, intermingled with neuronal fibers. Medium-sized neurons were labeled in telencephalic, diencephalic, and mesencephlic areas, whereas densely labeled large neurons were found in rhombencephalon, locus coeruleus, reticular formation, oculomotor area, medial octavolateralis and magnocellular octaval nuclei, and Purkinje cell somata. The functional role of alpha(2A)-ARs on neurons and glial processes is not known at present; however, their strong relation to the ventricular system, somatosensory nuclei, and nerves supports a possible regulatory role of alpha(2A)-ARs in autonomic functions, nerve output, and sensory integration in adult zebrafish brain.
In contrast to the restricted receptive field (RF) properties of the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM), neurons of the ventral thalamus zona incerta (ZI) have been shown to exhibit multiwhisker responses that vary from the ventral (ZIv) to the dorsal (ZId) subdivision. Differences in activity may arise from the trigeminal nuclear complex (TNC) and result from subnucleus specific inputs via certain cells of origin, axon distribution patterns, fiber densities, bouton sizes, or postsynaptic contact sites. We tested this hypothesis by assessing circuit relationships among TNC, ZI, and VPM. Results from tracer studies show that, 1) relative to ZId, the trigeminal projection to ZIv is denser and arises predominantly from the principalis (PrV) and interpolaris (SpVi) subdivisions; 2) the incertal projection from TNC subnuclei overlaps and covers most of ZIv; 3) two sets of PrV axons terminate in ZI: a major subtype, possessing bouton-like swellings, and a few fine fibers, with minimal specialization; 4) both PrV and SpVi terminals exhibit asymmetric endings and preferentially target dendrites of ZI neurons; 5) small and large neurons in PrV are labeled after retrograde injections into ZI; 6) small PrV cells with incertal projections form a population that is distinct from those projecting to VPM; and 7) approximately 30-50% of large cells in PrV send collaterals to ZI and VPM. These findings suggest that, 1) although information to ZI and VPM is essentially routed along separate TNC circuits, streams of somatosensory code converge in ZI to establish large RFs, and 2) subregional differences in ZI response profiles are attributable in part to TNC innervation density.
Sex differences in behavioral repertoires are often reflected in the underlying electrophysiological and morphological properties of motor neurons. Male zebra finches produce long, spectrally complex, learned songs and short calls, whereas female finches only produce short, innate, and spectrally simple calls. In both sexes, vocalizations are produced by using syringeal muscles controlled by motoneurons within the tracheosyringeal part of the hypoglossal motor nucleus (XIIts). We asked whether the sexually dimorphic vocal repertoire of adult zebra finches is paralleled by structural and functional differences in syringeal motoneurons. By using immunohistochemical and intracellular staining methods, we describe sex differences in the morphology of XIIts and its surrounding neuropil (suprahypoglossal region; SH). Although the overall number of XIIts neurons and the proportions of somata/neuropil were not sexually dimorphic, the volumes of both XIIts and SH were larger in males, in part because male XIIts neurons had larger somata. In contrast, female XIIts motoneurons had a more complex dendritic structure than did male neurons, suggesting that the larger volume of the male XIIts is due in part to increased numbers of afferents. Intracellular recordings in brain slices revealed that the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of female XIIts neurons were similar to published values for male XIIts motoneurons. We also show that female neurons received glycinergic inputs from the brainstem respiratory premotor column, similar to those described in males. These findings indicate that male and female zebra finches produce their disparate vocal repertoires using physiologically similar motoneurons. Thus, sites upstream of the motoneuron pool may be the major determinants of sexually dimorphic vocal behaviors in this species.
The amygdala complex participates in multiple systems having to do with affective processes. It has been implicated in human disorders of social and emotional behavior, such as autism. Of the interconnected functional networks, considerable research in rodents and primates has focused on connections between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The amygdala projects to OFC by both a direct amygdalocortical (AC) pathway and an indirect pathway through mediodorsal thalamus. In the rat, retrograde tracer experiments indicate that the AC and amygdalothalamic (AT) pathways originate from separate populations, and may therefore convey distinctive information, although the characteristics of these pathways remain unclear. To investigate this issue in monkeys we made anterograde tracer injections in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLC; n = 3). Three distinctive features were found preferentially associated with the AT or AC pathways. First, AT terminations are large (average diameter = 3.5 microm; range = 1.2-7.0 microm) and cluster around proximal dendrites, in contrast with small-bouton AC terminations. Second, AT terminations form small arbors (diameter approximately 0.1 mm), while AC are widely divergent (often >1.0 mm long). The AT terminations features are reminiscent of large bouton, "driver" corticothalamic terminations. Finally, AC but not AT terminations are positive for zinc (Zn), a neuromodulator associated with synaptic plasticity. From these results we suggest that AC and AT terminations originate from distinct populations in monkey as well as in rodent. Further work is necessary to determine the degree and manner of their segregation and how these subsystems interact within a broader connectivity network.
Olfactory sensory information is processed and integrated by circuits within the olfactory bulb. Golgi morphology suggests the olfactory bulb contains several major neuronal classes. However, an increasingly diverse collection of neurochemical markers have been localized in subpopulations of olfactory bulb neurons. While the mouse is becoming the animal model of choice for olfactory research, little is known about the proportions of neurons expressing and coexpressing different neurochemical markers in this species. Here we characterize neuronal populations in the mouse main olfactory bulb, focusing on glomerular populations. Immunofluorescent labeling for: 1) calretinin, 2) calbindin D-28K (CB), 3) parvalbumin, 4) neurocalcin, 5) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), 6) the 67-kDa isoform of GAD (GAD67), and 7) the neuronal marker NeuN was performed in mice expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of the glutamic acid decarboxylase 65kDa (GAD65) promoter. Using unbiased stereological cell counts we estimated the total numbers of cells and neurons in the bulb and the number and percentage of neurons expressing and coexpressing different neurochemical populations in each layer of the olfactory bulb. Use of a genetic label for GAD65 and immunohistochemistry for GAD67 identified a much larger percentage of GABAergic neurons in the glomerular layer (55% of all neurons) than previously recognized. Additionally, while many glomerular neurons expressing TH or CB coexpress GAD, the majority of these neurons preferentially express the GAD67 isoform. These data suggest that the chemospecific populations of neurons in glomeruli form distinct subpopulations and that GAD isoforms are preferentially regulated in different neurochemical cell types.
Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) play critical roles in synaptic plasticity and drug addiction. To characterize potential sites whereby these receptors mediate their effects in the ventral striatum, we studied the subcellular and subsynaptic localization of mGluR1a and mGluR5 in the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens in rat and monkey. In both species, group I mGluRs are mainly postsynaptic in dendrites and spines, with rare presynaptic labeling in unmyelinated axons. Minor, yet significant, differences in proportions of specific immunoreactive elements were found between the accumbens shell and the accumbens core in monkey. At the subsynaptic level, significant differences were found in the proportion of plasma membrane-bound mGluR5 labeling between species. In dendrites, spines, and unmyelinated axons, a significantly larger proportion of mGluR5 labeling was bound to the plasma membrane in rats (50-70%) than in monkeys (30-50%). Conversely, mGluR1a displayed the same pattern of immunogold labeling in the two species. Electron microscopic colocalization studies revealed 30% colocalization of mGluR1a and mGluR5 in dendrites and as much as 50-65% in spines in both compartments of the rat accumbens. Both group I mGluRs were significantly expressed in D1-immunoreactive dendritic processes (60-75% colocalization) and spines (30-50%) of striatal projection neurons as well as dendrites of cholinergic (30-70%) and parvalbumin-containing (70-85%) interneurons. These findings highlight the widespread expression of group I mGluRs in projection neurons and interneurons of the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens, providing a solid foundation for regulatory and therapeutic functions of group I mGluRs in reward-related behaviors and drug addiction.
Interneurons of the cerebellum granule cell layer (GCL) form distinct populations. Golgi cells extend dendrites in the molecular layer (ML) and innervate granule cells. In contrast, Lugaro cells have dendrites confined to the GCL but innervate interneurons in the ML, and globular cells have both their dendrites and axons in the ML. The latter cells were described recently and remain poorly characterized. Although several neurochemical markers have been associated selectively with GCL interneurons, it is unclear how they relate to their morphological classification and neurochemical phenotype (glycinergic and/or gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA]ergic). Here, we performed a detailed characterization of GCL interneurons in mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) in glycinergic and GABAergic neurons, respectively. By using immunofluorescence for metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) and neurogranin as markers, we demonstrate the existence of five non-overlapping subsets of Golgi cells: about 65% are glycinergic/GABAergic and co-express both markers. Two small subsets (5-10%) also contain both neurotransmitters but express only mGluR2; they are distinguished by cell body size and location in the GCL. The fourth subset (15%) is GABAergic only and expresses neurogranin. The fifth subset (5%) is glycinergic only and lacks both markers. Thus, the heterogeneity of Golgi cells suggests that they belong to specific functional circuits and are differentially regulated by mGluRs and Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent signaling pathways. In contrast to Golgi cells, Lugaro and globular cells are glycinergic/GABAergic and lack mGluR2 and neurogranin. They each represent at least 15% of GCL interneurons and extensively innervate stellate and basket cells, but not Purkinje cells, emphasizing their contribution to inhibitory control of ML interneurons.
Like other thalamic nuclei, the primate pulvinar is considered not to have long-range intrinsic connections, either excitatory or inhibitory. Injections of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) in the medial pulvinar, however, reveal retrogradely filled neurons up to 2.0 mm from the injection edge. Serial section reconstruction (n = 18) confirmed that retrogradely filled neurons projected to the injection site and showed that they had additional long-range collaterals within the posterior pulvinar. Arrays of small, beaded terminations occurred in multiple foci along the collaterals. Terminal arrays were up to 1.0 mm in length; foci were separated by about 0.7 mm. Somata were large (average area = 220 microm2), and dendritic arbors were radiate and also large (about 1.0 mm in diameter), but without either the appendages of classical interneurons or the hairlike spines characteristic of radiate pulvinocortical projection neurons. Double labeling for BDA and parvalbumin (PV) or BDA and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) indicated that these large neurons were positive for both PV and GABA. Double labeling for PV and GABA, or PV and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) revealed a small number of similarly large neurons in the posterior pulvinar that were positive for both substances. Thus, we propose that these neurons are a novel class of inhibitory interneuron, longer range than the classic thalamic local circuit interneurons. Future questions include how these neurons relate to other inhibitory systems and specific postsynaptic populations and whether they are located preferentially within the posterior pulvinar, possibly related to the multimodal character of this thalamic region.