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Anti-Lectin, Triticum vulgaris antibody produced in rabbit


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Lectin Triticum vulgaris antibody produced in rabbit triticum vulgaris

Proper Citation

(Sigma-Aldrich Cat# T4144, RRID:AB_261669)


polyclonal antibody


Vendor recommendations: Ouchterlony double diffusion: 1:8; Immunodiffusion; Other

Host Organism




Cat Num


Publications that use this research resource

Functional Divergence of Delta and Mu Opioid Receptor Organization in CNS Pain Circuits.

  • Wang D
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Cellular interactions between delta and mu opioid receptors (DORs and MORs), including heteromerization, are thought to regulate opioid analgesia. However, the identity of the nociceptive neurons in which such interactions could occur in vivo remains elusive. Here we show that DOR-MOR co-expression is limited to small populations of excitatory interneurons and projection neurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn and unexpectedly predominates in ventral horn motor circuits. Similarly, DOR-MOR co-expression is rare in parabrachial, amygdalar, and cortical brain regions processing nociceptive information. We further demonstrate that in the discrete DOR-MOR co-expressing nociceptive neurons, the two receptors internalize and function independently. Finally, conditional knockout experiments revealed that DORs selectively regulate mechanical pain by controlling the excitability of somatostatin-positive dorsal horn interneurons. Collectively, our results illuminate the functional organization of DORs and MORs in CNS pain circuits and reappraise the importance of DOR-MOR cellular interactions for developing novel opioid analgesics.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA042014(United States)

A Brainstem-Spinal Cord Inhibitory Circuit for Mechanical Pain Modulation by GABA and Enkephalins.

  • François A
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 22

Literature context:


Pain thresholds are, in part, set as a function of emotional and internal states by descending modulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. Neurons of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) are thought to critically contribute to this process; however, the neural circuits and synaptic mechanisms by which distinct populations of RVM neurons facilitate or diminish pain remain elusive. Here we used in vivo opto/chemogenetic manipulations and trans-synaptic tracing of genetically identified dorsal horn and RVM neurons to uncover an RVM-spinal cord-primary afferent circuit controlling pain thresholds. Unexpectedly, we found that RVM GABAergic neurons facilitate mechanical pain by inhibiting dorsal horn enkephalinergic/GABAergic interneurons. We further demonstrate that these interneurons gate sensory inputs and control pain through temporally coordinated enkephalin- and GABA-mediated presynaptic inhibition of somatosensory neurons. Our results uncover a descending disynaptic inhibitory circuit that facilitates mechanical pain, is engaged during stress, and could be targeted to establish higher pain thresholds. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Amygdala projections to the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the macaque: comparison with ventral striatal afferents.

  • deCampo DM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Oct 1

Literature context:


The lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTL) is involved in mediating anxiety-related behaviors to sustained aversive stimuli. The BSTL forms part of the central extended amygdala, a continuum composed of the BSTL, the amygdala central nucleus, and cell columns running between the two. The central subdivision (BSTLcn) and the juxtacapsular subdivision (BSTLJ) are two BSTL regions that lie above the anterior commissure, near the ventral striatum. The amygdala, a heterogeneous structure that encodes emotional salience, projects to both the BSTL and ventral striatum. We placed small injections of retrograde tracers into the BSTL, focusing on the BSTLcn and BSTLJ, and analyzed the distribution of labeled cells in amygdala subregions. We compared this to the pattern of labeled cells following injections into the ventral striatum. All retrograde results were confirmed by anterograde studies. We found that the BSTLcn receives stronger amygdala inputs relative to the BSTLJ. Furthermore, the BSTLcn is defined by inputs from the corticoamygdaloid transition area and central nucleus, while the BSTLJ receives inputs mainly from the magnocellular accessory basal and basal nucleus. In the ventral striatum, the dorsomedial shell receives inputs that are similar, but not identical, to inputs to the BSTLcn. In contrast, amygdala projections to the ventral shell/core are similar to projections to the BSTLJ. These findings indicate that the BSTLcn and BSTLJ receive distinct amygdala afferent inputs and that the dorsomedial shell is a transition zone with the BSTLcn, while the ventral shell/core are transition zones with the BSTLJ.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA021765(United States)

Sciatic nerve transection triggers release and intercellular transfer of a genetically expressed macromolecular tracer in dorsal root ganglia.

  • Bráz JM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Sep 1

Literature context:


We recently developed a genetic transneuronal tracing approach that allows for the study of circuits that are altered by nerve injury. We generated transgenic (ZW-X) mice in which expression of a transneuronal tracer, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), is induced in primary sensory neurons, but only after transection of their peripheral axon. By following the transneuronal transport of the tracer into the central nervous system (CNS) we can label the circuits that are engaged by the WGA-expressing damaged neurons. Here we used the ZW-X mouse line to analyze dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for intraganglionic connections between injured sensory neurons and their neighboring "intact" neurons. Because neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression is strongly induced in DRG neurons after peripheral axotomy, we crossed the ZW-X mouse line with a mouse that expresses Cre recombinase under the influence of the NPY promoter. As expected, sciatic nerve transection triggered WGA expression in NPY-positive DRG neurons, most of which are of large diameter. As expected, double labeling for ATF-3, a marker of cell bodies with damaged axons, showed that the tracer predominated in injured (i.e., axotomized) neurons. However, we also found the WGA tracer in DRG cell bodies of uninjured sensory neurons. Importantly, in the absence of nerve injury there was no intraganglionic transfer of WGA. Our results demonstrate that intraganglionic, cell-to-cell communication, via transfer of large molecules, occurs between the cell bodies of injured and neighboring noninjured primary afferent neurons.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - SP/10/10/28431(United Kingdom)

Genetically expressed transneuronal tracer reveals direct and indirect serotonergic descending control circuits.

  • Braz JM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Apr 20

Literature context:


Despite the evidence for a significant contribution of brainstem serotonergic (5HT) systems to the control of spinal cord "pain" transmission neurons, attention has turned recently to the influence of nonserotonergic neurons, including the facilitatory and inhibitory controls that originate from so-called "on" and "off" cells of the rostroventral medulla (RVM). Unclear, however, is the extent to which these latter circuits interact with or are influenced by the serotonergic cell groups. To address this question we selectively targeted expression of a transneuronal tracer, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), in the 5HT neurons so as to study the interplay between the 5HT and non-5HT systems. In addition to confirming the direct medullary 5HT projection to the spinal cord we also observed large numbers of non-5HT neurons, in the medullary nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis and magnocellularis, that were WGA-immunoreactive, i.e., were transneuronally labeled from 5HT neurons. FluoroGold injections into the spinal cord established that these reticular neurons are not only postsynaptic to the 5HT neurons of the medulla, but that most are also at the origin of descending, bulbospinal pathways. By contrast, we found no evidence that neurons of the midbrain periaqueductal gray that project to the RVM are postsynaptic to midbrain or medullary 5HT neurons. Finally, we found very few examples of WGA-immunoreactive noradrenergic neurons, which suggests that there is considerable independence of the monoaminergic bulbospinal pathways. Our results indicate that 5HT neurons influence "pain" processing at the spinal cord level both directly and indirectly via feedforward connections with multiple non-5HT descending control pathways.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC005590(United States)