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Caspr2 antibody

RRID:AB_2245198

Antibody ID

AB_2245198

Target Antigen

Caspr2 null

Proper Citation

(UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility Cat# 75-075, RRID:AB_2245198)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Originating manufacturer of this product. Applications: IB, ICC, IHC, IP, KO, WB. Validation status: IF or IB (Pass), IB in brain (Pass), IHC in brain (Pass), KO (Pass).

Clone ID

K67/25

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility Go To Vendor

Cat Num

75-075

Publications that use this research resource

Cadherin-10 Maintains Excitatory/Inhibitory Ratio through Interactions with Synaptic Proteins.

  • Smith KR
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Appropriate excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance is essential for normal cortical function and is altered in some psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Cell-autonomous molecular mechanisms that control the balance of excitatory and inhibitory synapse function remain poorly understood; no proteins that regulate excitatory and inhibitory synapse strength in a coordinated reciprocal manner have been identified. Using super-resolution imaging, electrophysiology, and molecular manipulations, we show that cadherin-10, encoded by CDH10 within the ASD risk locus 5p14.1, maintains both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic scaffold structure in cultured cortical neurons from rats of both sexes. Cadherin-10 localizes to both excitatory and inhibitory synapses in neocortex, where it is organized into nanoscale puncta that influence the size of their associated PSDs. Knockdown of cadherin-10 reduces excitatory but increases inhibitory synapse size and strength, altering the E/I ratio in cortical neurons. Furthermore, cadherin-10 exhibits differential participation in complexes with PSD-95 and gephyrin, which may underlie its role in maintaining the E/I ratio. Our data provide a new mechanism whereby a protein encoded by a common ASD risk factor controls E/I ratios by regulating excitatory and inhibitory synapses in opposing directions.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The correct balance between excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) is crucial for normal brain function and is altered in psychiatric disorders such as autism. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this balance remain elusive. To address this, we studied cadherin-10, an adhesion protein that is genetically linked to autism and understudied at the cellular level. Using a combination of advanced microscopy techniques and electrophysiology, we show that cadherin-10 forms nanoscale puncta at excitatory and inhibitory synapses, maintains excitatory and inhibitory synaptic structure, and is essential for maintaining the correct balance between excitation and inhibition in neuronal dendrites. These findings reveal a new mechanism by which E/I balance is controlled in neurons and may bear relevance to synaptic dysfunction in autism.

Generation of inner ear sensory epithelia from pluripotent stem cells in 3D culture.

  • Koehler KR
  • Nature
  • 2013 Aug 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The inner ear contains sensory epithelia that detect head movements, gravity and sound. It is unclear how to develop these sensory epithelia from pluripotent stem cells, a process that will be critical for modelling inner ear disorders or developing cell-based therapies for profound hearing loss and balance disorders. So far, attempts to derive inner ear mechanosensitive hair cells and sensory neurons have resulted in inefficient or incomplete phenotypic conversion of stem cells into inner-ear-like cells. A key insight lacking from these previous studies is the importance of the non-neural and preplacodal ectoderm, two critical precursors during inner ear development. Here we report the stepwise differentiation of inner ear sensory epithelia from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in three-dimensional culture. We show that by recapitulating in vivo development with precise temporal control of signalling pathways, ESC aggregates transform sequentially into non-neural, preplacodal and otic-placode-like epithelia. Notably, in a self-organized process that mimics normal development, vesicles containing prosensory cells emerge from the presumptive otic placodes and give rise to hair cells bearing stereocilia bundles and a kinocilium. Moreover, these stem-cell-derived hair cells exhibit functional properties of native mechanosensitive hair cells and form specialized synapses with sensory neurons that have also arisen from ESCs in the culture. Finally, we demonstrate how these vesicles are structurally and biochemically comparable to developing vestibular end organs. Our data thus establish a new in vitro model of inner ear differentiation that can be used to gain deeper insight into inner ear development and disorder.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U54 HG006370(United States)

Morvan syndrome: clinical and serological observations in 29 cases.

  • Irani SR
  • Ann. Neurol.
  • 2012 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: A study was undertaken to describe the clinical spectrum, voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody specificities, and central nervous system localization of antibody binding in 29 patients diagnosed with Morvan syndrome (MoS). METHODS: Clinical data were collected using questionnaires. Radioimmunoassay, cell-based assays, and mouse brain immunohistochemistry were used to characterize the serum antibodies. RESULTS: Neuromyotonia (100%), neuropsychiatric features (insomnia 89.7%, confusion 65.5%, amnesia 55.6%, hallucinations 51.9%), dysautonomia (hyperhidrosis 86.2%, cardiovascular 48.3%), and neuropathic pain (62.1%) were the most common manifestations. A total of 93.1% of MoS patients were male. VGKC-complex antibodies were present in 23 of 29 (79%) MoS patients at referral; 24 of 27 available sera had CASPR2, LGI1, or both CASPR2 and LGI1 antibodies (3 also with contactin-2 antibodies). CASPR2 antibodies were generally higher titer than LGI1 antibodies. Tumors (41.4%), mainly thymomas, were associated with CASPR2 antibodies and a poor prognosis, whereas LGI1 antibodies were associated with serum hyponatremia. In brain tissue regions including the hypothalamus, raphe, and locus coeruleus, commercial antibodies to LGI1 bound to neuronal cell bodies including the antidiuretic hormone-secreting and orexin-secreting hypothalamic neurons, whereas CASPR2 commercial antibodies bound more often to the neuropil. MoS antibodies bound similarly, but there was evidence of additional antibodies in some sera that were not adsorbed by LGI1- or CASPR2-expressing cells and bound to mouse Caspr2(-/-) tissue. INTERPRETATION: MoS is clinically distinct from other VGKC-complex antibody-associated conditions, and usually is associated with high-titer CASPR2 antibodies, often accompanied by lower-titer LGI1 antibodies. CASPR2 and LGI1 antibodies bind to multiple brain regions, which helps to explain the multifocal clinical features of this disease, but other antibodies are likely to play a role in some patients and need to be characterized in future studies.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - 83338-2(Canada)

Molecular microdomains in a sensory terminal, the vestibular calyx ending.

  • Lysakowski A
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2011 Jul 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many primary vestibular afferents form large cup-shaped postsynaptic terminals (calyces) that envelope the basolateral surfaces of type I hair cells. The calyceal terminals both respond to glutamate released from ribbon synapses in the type I cells and initiate spikes that propagate to the afferent's central terminals in the brainstem. The combination of synaptic and spike initiation functions in these unique sensory endings distinguishes them from the axonal nodes of central neurons and peripheral nerves, such as the sciatic nerve, which have provided most of our information about nodal specializations. We show that rat vestibular calyces express an unusual mix of voltage-gated Na and K channels and scaffolding, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix proteins, which may hold the ion channels in place. Protein expression patterns form several microdomains within the calyx membrane: a synaptic domain facing the hair cell, the heminode abutting the first myelinated internode, and one or two intermediate domains. Differences in the expression and localization of proteins between afferent types and zones may contribute to known variations in afferent physiology.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 085775/Z/08/Z(United Kingdom)