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PKC betaI Antibody (C-16)


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Prkcb human, rat, mouse

Proper Citation

(Santa Cruz Biotechnology Cat# sc-209, RRID:AB_2168968)


polyclonal antibody


Discontinued: 2016; Recommendations: western blot, ELISA, immunoprecipitation, immunocytochemistry

Host Organism



Santa Cruz Biotechnology

Cat Num


Exposure to far-infrared ray attenuates methamphetamine-induced impairment in recognition memory through inhibition of protein kinase C δ in male mice: Comparison with the antipsychotic clozapine.

  • Mai HN
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Feb 25

Literature context:


We have previously demonstrated that repeated treatment with methamphetamine (MA) results in a recognition memory impairment via upregulation of protein kinase C (PKC) δ and downregulation of the glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1)-dependent antioxidant system. We also demonstrated that far-infrared ray (FIR) attenuates acute restraint stress via induction of the GPx-1 gene. Herein, we investigated whether exposure to FIR modulates MA-induced recognition memory impairment in male mice, and whether cognitive potentials mediated by FIR require modulation of the PKCδ gene, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, and glutathione-dependent system. Repeated treatment with MA significantly increased PKCδ expression and its phosphorylation out of PKC isoenzymes (i.e., PKCα, PKCβI, PKCβII, PKCζ, and PKCδ expression) in the prefrontal cortex of mice. Exposure to FIR significantly attenuated MA-induced increase in phospho-PKCδ and decrease in phospho-ERK 1/2. In addition, FIR further facilitated the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent glutathione synthetic system. Moreover, L-buthionine-(S, R)-sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, counteracted the FIR-mediated phospho-ERK 1/2 induction and memory-enhancing activity against MA insult. More important, positive effects of FIR are comparable to those of genetic depletion of PKCδ or the antipsychotic clozapine. Our results indicate that FIR protects against MA-induced memory impairment via activations of the Nrf2-dependent glutathione synthetic system, and ERK 1/2 signaling by inhibition of the PKCδ gene.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32-GM007288(United States)

Impaired AMPA receptor trafficking by a double knockout of zebrafish olfactomedin1a/b.

  • Nakaya N
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


The olfm1a and olfm1b genes in zebrafish encode conserved secreted glycoproteins. These genes are preferentially expressed in the brain and retina starting from 16 h post-fertilization until adulthood. Functions of the Olfm1 gene is still unclear. Here, we produced and analyzed a null zebrafish mutant of both olfm1a and olfm1b genes (olfm1 null). olfm1 null fish were born at a normal Mendelian ratio and showed normal body shape and fertility as well as no visible defects from larval stages to adult. Olfm1 proteins were preferentially localized in the synaptosomes of the adult brain. Olfm1 co-immunoprecipitated with GluR2 and soluble NSF attachment protein receptor complexes indicating participation of Olfm1 in both pre- and post-synaptic events. Phosphorylation of GluR2 was not changed while palmitoylation of GluR2 was decreased in the brain synaptosomal membrane fraction of olfm1 null compared with wt fish. The levels of GluR2, SNAP25, flotillin1, and VAMP2 were markedly reduced in the synaptic microdomain of olfm1 null brain compared with wt. The internalization of GluR2 in retinal cells and the localization of VAMP2 in brain synaptosome were modified by olfm1 null mutation. This indicates that Olfm1 may regulate receptor trafficking from the intracellular compartments to the synaptic membrane microdomain, partly through the alteration of post-translational GluR2 modifications such as palmitoylation. Olfm1 may be considered a novel regulator of the composition and function of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor complex.

Synaptic Activity and Muscle Contraction Increases PDK1 and PKCβI Phosphorylation in the Presynaptic Membrane of the Neuromuscular Junction.

  • Hurtado E
  • Front Mol Neurosci
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Conventional protein kinase C βI (cPKCβI) is a conventional protein kinase C (PKC) isoform directly involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release in the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). It is located exclusively at the nerve terminal and both synaptic activity and muscle contraction modulate its protein levels and phosphorylation. cPKCβI molecular maturation includes a series of phosphorylation steps, the first of which is mediated by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1). Here, we sought to localize PDK1 in the NMJ and investigate the hypothesis that synaptic activity and muscle contraction regulate in parallel PDK1 and cPKCβI phosphorylation in the membrane fraction. To differentiate the presynaptic and postsynaptic activities, we abolished muscle contraction with μ-conotoxin GIIIB (μ-CgTx-GIIIB) in some experiments before stimulation of the phrenic nerve (1 Hz, 30 min). Then, we analyzed total and membrane/cytosol fractions of skeletal muscle by Western blotting. Results showed that PDK1 is located exclusively in the nerve terminal of the NMJ. After nerve stimulation with and without coincident muscle contraction, total PDK1 and phosphorylated PDK1 (pPDK1) protein levels remained unaltered. However, synaptic activity specifically enhanced phosphorylation of PDK1 in the membrane, an important subcellular location for PDK1 function. This increase in pPDK1 coincides with a significant increase in the phosphorylation of its substrate cPKCβI also in the membrane fraction. Moreover, muscle contraction maintains PDK1 and pPDK1 but increases cPKCβI protein levels and its phosphorylation. Thus, even though PDK1 activity is maintained, pcPKCβI levels increase in concordance with total cPKCβI. Together, these results indicate that neuromuscular activity could induce the membrane targeting of pPDK1 in the nerve terminal of the NMJ to promote the phosphorylation of the cPKCβI, which is involved in ACh release.

RasGRP3 Mediates MAPK Pathway Activation in GNAQ Mutant Uveal Melanoma.

  • Chen X
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 May 8

Literature context:


Constitutive activation of Gαq signaling by mutations in GNAQ or GNA11 occurs in over 80% of uveal melanomas (UMs) and activates MAPK. Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated as a link, but the mechanistic details remained unclear. We identified PKC δ and ɛ as required and sufficient to activate MAPK in GNAQ mutant melanomas. MAPK activation depends on Ras and is caused by RasGRP3, which is significantly and selectively overexpressed in response to GNAQ/11 mutation in UM. RasGRP3 activation occurs via PKC δ- and ɛ-dependent phosphorylation and PKC-independent, DAG-mediated membrane recruitment, possibly explaining the limited effect of PKC inhibitors to durably suppress MAPK in UM. The findings nominate RasGRP3 as a therapeutic target for cancers driven by oncogenic GNAQ/11.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA142873()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U54 CA143874()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - P01 AI091580()

The role of Pak-interacting exchange factor-β phosphorylation at serines 340 and 583 by PKCγ in dopamine release.

  • Shirafuji T
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Jul 9

Literature context:


Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in the control of neurotransmitter release. The AS/AGU rat, which has a nonsense mutation in PKCγ, shows symptoms of parkinsonian syndrome, including dopamine release impairments in the striatum. Here, we found that the AS/AGU rat is PKCγ-knock-out (KO) and that PKCγ-KO mice showed parkinsonian syndrome. However, the PKCγ substrates responsible for the regulated exocytosis of dopamine in vivo have not yet been elucidated. To identify the PKCγ substrates involved in dopamine release, we used PKCγ-KO mice and a phosphoproteome analysis. We found 10 candidate phosphoproteins that had decreased phosphorylation levels in the striatum of PKCγ-KO mice. We focused on Pak-interacting exchange factor-β (βPIX), a Cdc42/Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, and found that PKCγ directly phosphorylates βPIX at Ser583 and indirectly at Ser340 in cells. Furthermore, we found that PKC phosphorylated βPIX in vivo. Classical PKC inhibitors and βPIX knock-down (KD) significantly suppressed Ca(2+)-evoked dopamine release in PC12 cells. Wild-type βPIX, and not the βPIX mutants Ser340 Ala or Ser583 Ala, fully rescued the decreased dopamine release by βPIX KD. Double KD of Cdc42 and Rac1 decreased dopamine release from PC12 cells. These findings indicate that the phosphorylation of βPIX at Ser340 and Ser583 has pivotal roles in Ca(2+)-evoked dopamine release in the striatum. Therefore, we propose that PKCγ positively modulates dopamine release through β2PIX phosphorylation. The PKCγ-βPIX-Cdc42/Rac1 phosphorylation axis may provide a new therapeutic target for the treatment of parkinsonian syndrome.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY026024(United States)

Conditional gene expression and lineage tracing of tuba1a expressing cells during zebrafish development and retina regeneration.

  • Ramachandran R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Oct 15

Literature context:


The tuba1a gene encodes a neural-specific α-tubulin isoform whose expression is restricted to the developing and regenerating nervous system. By using zebrafish as a model system for studying CNS regeneration, we recently showed that retinal injury induces tuba1a gene expression in Müller glia that reentered the cell cycle. However, because of the transient nature of tuba1a gene expression during development and regeneration, it was not possible to trace the lineage of the tuba1a-expressing cells with a reporter directly under the control of the tuba1a promoter. To overcome this limitation, we generated tuba1a:CreER(T2) and β-actin2:loxP-mCherrry-loxP-GFP double transgenic fish that allowed us to label tuba1a-expressing cells conditionally and permanently via ligand-induced recombination. During development, recombination revealed transient tuba1a expression in not only neural progenitors but also cells that contribute to skeletal muscle, heart, and intestine. In the adult, recombination revealed tuba1a expression in brain, olfactory neurons, and sensory cells of the lateral line, but not in the retina. After retinal injury, recombination showed tuba1a expression in Müller glia that had reentered the cell cycle, and lineage tracing indicated that these cells are responsible for regenerating retinal neurons and glia. These results suggest that tuba1a-expressing progenitors contribute to multiple cell lineages during development and that tuba1a-expressing Müller glia are retinal progenitors in the adult.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM077138(United States)

Synaptic activity-related classical protein kinase C isoform localization in the adult rat neuromuscular synapse.

  • Besalduch N
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Jan 10

Literature context:


Protein kinase C (PKC) is essential for signal transduction in a variety of cells, including neurons and myocytes, and is involved in both acetylcholine release and muscle fiber contraction. Here, we demonstrate that the increases in synaptic activity by nerve stimulation couple PKC to transmitter release in the rat neuromuscular junction and increase the level of alpha, betaI, and betaII isoforms in the membrane when muscle contraction follows the stimulation. The phosphorylation activity of these classical PKCs also increases. It seems that the muscle has to contract in order to maintain or increase classical PKCs in the membrane. We use immunohistochemistry to show that PKCalpha and PKCbetaI were located in the nerve terminals, whereas PKCalpha and PKCbetaII were located in the postsynaptic and the Schwann cells. Stimulation and contraction do not change these cellular distributions, but our results show that the localization of classical PKC isoforms in the membrane is affected by synaptic activity.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R37 AR038648-21(United States)