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Mortalin/GRP75 antibody


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Mortalin/GRP75 null

Proper Citation

(UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility Cat# 75-127, RRID:AB_2120479)


monoclonal antibody


Originating manufacturer of this product. Applications: IB, ICC, IHC, IP, WB. Validation status: IF or IB (Pass), IB in brain (Pass), IHC in brain (Pass), KO (ND).

Clone ID


Host Organism



UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility Go To Vendor

Cat Num


Angiotensin II triggers peripheral macrophage-to-sensory neuron redox crosstalk to elicit pain.

  • Shepherd AJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jul 5

Literature context:


Injury, inflammation and nerve damage initiate a wide variety of cellular and molecular processes that culminate in hyperexcitation of sensory nerves, which underlies chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Using behavioral readouts of pain hypersensitivity induced by Angiotensin II (Ang II) injection into mouse hindpaws, our study shows that activation of the type 2 Ang II receptor (AT2R) and the cell damage-sensing ion channel TRPA1 are required for peripheral mechanical pain sensitization induced by Ang II in male and female mice. However, we show that AT2R is not expressed in mouse and human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. Instead, expression/activation of AT2R on peripheral/skin macrophages (MΦs) constitutes a critical trigger of mouse and human DRG sensory neuron excitation. Ang II-induced peripheral mechanical pain hypersensitivity can be attenuated by chemogenetic depletion of peripheral MΦs. Furthermore, AT2R activation in MΦs triggers production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, which trans-activate TRPA1 on mouse and human DRG sensory neurons, via cysteine-modification of the channel. Our study thus identifies a translatable immune cell-to-sensory neuron signaling crosstalk underlying peripheral nociceptor sensitization. This form of cell-to-cell signaling represents a critical peripheral mechanism for chronic pain, and thus identifies multiple druggable analgesic targets.Significance Statement: Pain is a widespread problem that is under-managed by currently available analgesics. Findings from a recent clinical trial on a type-II angiotensin II receptor (AT2R) antagonist showed effective analgesia for neuropathic pain. AT2R antagonists have been shown to reduce neuropathy-, inflammation- and bone cancer-associated pain in rodents. We report that activation of AT2R in macrophages that infiltrate the site of injury, but not in sensory neurons, triggers an intercellular redox communication with sensory neurons via activation of the cell damage/pain-sensing ion channel TRPA1. This macrophage-to-sensory neuron crosstalk results in peripheral pain sensitization. Our findings provide an evidence-based mechanism underlying the analgesic action of AT2R antagonists, which could accelerate the development of efficacious non-opioid analgesic drugs for multiple pain conditions.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01NS077521(United States)

Fine Mapping of a Dravet Syndrome Modifier Locus on Mouse Chromosome 5 and Candidate Gene Analysis by RNA-Seq.

  • Hawkins NA
  • PLoS Genet.
  • 2016 Oct 21

Literature context:


A substantial number of mutations have been identified in voltage-gated sodium channel genes that result in various forms of human epilepsy. SCN1A mutations result in a spectrum of severity ranging from mild febrile seizures to Dravet syndrome, an infant-onset epileptic encephalopathy. Dravet syndrome patients experience multiple seizures types that are often refractory to treatment, developmental delays, and elevated risk for SUDEP. The same sodium channel mutation can produce epilepsy phenotypes of varying clinical severity. This suggests that other factors, including genetic, modify the primary mutation and change disease severity. Mouse models provide a useful tool in studying the genetic basis of epilepsy. The mouse strain background can alter phenotype severity, supporting a contribution of genetic modifiers in epilepsy. The Scn1a+/- mouse model has a strain-dependent epilepsy phenotype. Scn1a+/- mice on the 129S6/SvEvTac (129) strain have a normal phenotype and lifespan, while [129xC57BL/6J]F1-Scn1a+/- mice experience spontaneous seizures, hyperthermia-induced seizures and high rates of premature death. We hypothesize the phenotypic differences are due to strain-specific genetic modifiers that influence expressivity of the Scn1a+/- phenotype. Low resolution mapping of Scn1a+/- identified several Dravet syndrome modifier (Dsm) loci responsible for the strain-dependent difference in survival. One locus of interest, Dsm1 located on chromosome 5, was fine mapped to a 9 Mb region using interval specific congenics. RNA-Seq was then utilized to identify candidate modifier genes within this narrowed region. Three genes with significant total gene expression differences between 129S6/SvEvTac and [129xC57BL/6J]F1 were identified, including the GABAA receptor subunit, Gabra2. Further analysis of Gabra2 demonstrated allele-specific expression. Pharmological manipulation by clobazam, a common anticonvulsant with preferential affinity for the GABRA2 receptor, revealed dose-dependent protection against hyperthermia-induced seizures in Scn1a+/- mice. These findings support Gabra2 as a genetic modifier of the Scn1a+/- mouse model of Dravet syndrome.

Developing high-quality mouse monoclonal antibodies for neuroscience research - approaches, perspectives and opportunities.

  • Gong B
  • N Biotechnol
  • 2016 Sep 25

Literature context:


High-quality antibodies (Abs) are critical to neuroscience research, as they remain the primary affinity proteomics reagent used to label and capture endogenously expressed protein targets in the nervous system. As in other fields, neuroscientists are frequently confronted with inaccurate and irreproducible Ab-based results and/or reporting. The UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility was created with the mission of addressing the unmet need for high-quality Abs in neuroscience research by applying a unique approach to generate and validate mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) optimized for use against mammalian brain (i.e., NeuroMabs). Here we describe our methodology of multi-step mAb screening focused on identifying mAbs exhibiting efficacy and specificity in labeling mammalian brain samples. We provide examples from NeuroMab screens, and from the subsequent specialized validation of those selected as NeuroMabs. We highlight the particular challenges and considerations of determining specificity for brain immunolabeling. We also describe why our emphasis on extensive validation of large numbers of candidates by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry against brain samples is essential for identifying those that exhibit efficacy and specificity in those applications to become NeuroMabs. We describe the special attention given to candidates with less common non-IgG1 IgG subclasses that can facilitate simultaneous multiplex labeling with subclass-specific secondary antibodies. We detail our recent use of recombinant cloning of NeuroMabs as a method to archive all NeuroMabs, to unambiguously define NeuroMabs at the DNA sequence level, and to re-engineer IgG1 NeuroMabs to less common IgG subclasses to facilitate their use in multiplex labeling. Finally, we provide suggestions to facilitate Ab development and use, as to design, execution and interpretation of Ab-based neuroscience experiments. Reproducibility in neuroscience research will improve with enhanced Ab validation, unambiguous identification of Abs used in published experiments, and end user proficiency in Ab-based assays.

Deletion of the Kv2.1 delayed rectifier potassium channel leads to neuronal and behavioral hyperexcitability.

  • Speca DJ
  • Genes Brain Behav.
  • 2014 Apr 9

Literature context:


The Kv2.1 delayed rectifier potassium channel exhibits high-level expression in both principal and inhibitory neurons throughout the central nervous system, including prominent expression in hippocampal neurons. Studies of in vitro preparations suggest that Kv2.1 is a key yet conditional regulator of intrinsic neuronal excitability, mediated by changes in Kv2.1 expression, localization and function via activity-dependent regulation of Kv2.1 phosphorylation. Here we identify neurological and behavioral deficits in mutant (Kv2.1(-/-) ) mice lacking this channel. Kv2.1(-/-) mice have grossly normal characteristics. No impairment in vision or motor coordination was apparent, although Kv2.1(-/-) mice exhibit reduced body weight. The anatomic structure and expression of related Kv channels in the brains of Kv2.1(-/-) mice appear unchanged. Delayed rectifier potassium current is diminished in hippocampal neurons cultured from Kv2.1(-/-) animals. Field recordings from hippocampal slices of Kv2.1(-/-) mice reveal hyperexcitability in response to the convulsant bicuculline, and epileptiform activity in response to stimulation. In Kv2.1(-/-) mice, long-term potentiation at the Schaffer collateral - CA1 synapse is decreased. Kv2.1(-/-) mice are strikingly hyperactive, and exhibit defects in spatial learning, failing to improve performance in a Morris Water Maze task. Kv2.1(-/-) mice are hypersensitive to the effects of the convulsants flurothyl and pilocarpine, consistent with a role for Kv2.1 as a conditional suppressor of neuronal activity. Although not prone to spontaneous seizures, Kv2.1(-/-) mice exhibit accelerated seizure progression. Together, these findings suggest homeostatic suppression of elevated neuronal activity by Kv2.1 plays a central role in regulating neuronal network function.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA177558(United States)

PLEKHG2 promotes heterotrimeric G protein βγ-stimulated lymphocyte migration via Rac and Cdc42 activation and actin polymerization.

  • Runne C
  • Mol. Cell. Biol.
  • 2013 Nov 10

Literature context:


PLEKHG2 is a Dbl family Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RhoGEF) whose gene was originally identified as being upregulated in a leukemia mouse model and was later shown to be activated by heterotrimeric G protein βγ (Gβγ) subunits. However, its function and activation mechanisms remain elusive. Here we show that, compared to its expression in primary human T cells, its expression is upregulated in several leukemia cell lines, including Jurkat T cells. Downregulation of PLEKHG2 in Jurkat T cells by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) specifically inhibited Gβγ-stimulated Rac and Cdc42, but not RhoA, activation. Consequently, suppressing PLEKHG2 expression blocked actin polymerization and SDF1α-stimulated lymphocyte migration. Additional studies indicate that Gβγ likely activates PLEKHG2, in part by binding the N terminus of PLEKHG2 to release an autoinhibition imposed by its C terminus, which interacts with a region encompassing the catalytic Dbl homology (DH) domain. As a result, overexpressing either the N terminus or the C terminus of PLEKHG2 blocked Gβγ-stimulated Rac and Cdc42 activation and prevented Jurkat T cells from forming membrane protrusions and migrating. Together, our studies have provided the first evidence for the endogenous function of PLEKHG2, which may serve as a key Gβγ-stimulated RhoGEF that regulates lymphocyte chemotaxis via Rac and Cdc42 activation and actin polymerization.

Differential roles of postsynaptic density-93 isoforms in regulating synaptic transmission.

  • Krüger JM
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Sep 25

Literature context:


In the postsynaptic density of glutamatergic synapses, the discs large (DLG)-membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of scaffolding proteins coordinates a multiplicity of signaling pathways to maintain and regulate synaptic transmission. Postsynaptic density-93 (PSD-93) is the most variable paralog in this family; it exists in six different N-terminal isoforms. Probably because of the structural and functional variability of these isoforms, the synaptic role of PSD-93 remains controversial. To accurately characterize the synaptic role of PSD-93, we quantified the expression of all six isoforms in the mouse hippocampus and examined them individually in hippocampal synapses. Using molecular manipulations, including overexpression, gene knockdown, PSD-93 knock-out mice combined with biochemical assays, and slice electrophysiology both in rat and mice, we demonstrate that PSD-93 is required at different developmental synaptic states to maintain the strength of excitatory synaptic transmission. This strength is differentially regulated by the six isoforms of PSD-93, including regulations of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor-active and inactive synapses, and activity-dependent modulations. Collectively, these results demonstrate that alternative combinations of N-terminal PSD-93 isoforms and DLG-MAGUK paralogs can fine-tune signaling scaffolds to adjust synaptic needs to regulate synaptic transmission.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P01 GM061354(United States)

Synaptic state-dependent functional interplay between postsynaptic density-95 and synapse-associated protein 102.

  • Bonnet SA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Aug 14

Literature context:


Activity-dependent regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission is the basis for establishing differences in synaptic weights among individual synapses during developmental and experience-dependent synaptic plasticity. Synaptic signaling scaffolds of the Discs large (DLG)-membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein family regulate these processes by tethering signaling proteins to receptor complexes. Using a molecular replacement strategy with RNAi-mediated knockdown in rat and mouse hippocampal organotypic slice cultures, a postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) knock-out mouse line and electrophysiological analysis, our current study identified a functional interplay between two paralogs, PSD-95 and synapse-associated protein 102 (SAP102) to regulate synaptic AMPARs. During synaptic development, the SAP102 protein levels normally plateau but double if PSD-95 expression is prevented during synaptogenesis. For an autonomous function of PSD-95 in regulating synaptic AMPARs, in addition to the previously demonstrated N-terminal multimerization and the first two PDZ (PSD-95, Dlg1, zona occludens-1) domains, the PDZ3 and guanylate kinase domains were required. The Src homology 3 domain was dispensable for the PSD-95-autonomous regulation of basal synaptic transmission. However, it mediated the functional interaction with SAP102 of PSD-95 mutants to enhance AMPARs. These results depict a protein domain-based multifunctional aspect of PSD-95 in regulating excitatory synaptic transmission and unveil a novel form of domain-based interplay between signaling scaffolds of the DLG-MAGUK family.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 077046(United Kingdom)

Mrp14 deficiency ameliorates amyloid β burden by increasing microglial phagocytosis and modulation of amyloid precursor protein processing.

  • Kummer MP
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2012 Dec 5

Literature context:


Neuroinflammation plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), resulting in the extensive activation of microglial and astroglial cells. Here we describe the role of myeloid-related protein Mrp14, a recently described amplifier of inflammation, in Alzheimer's disease and in the related amyloid precursor protein/presenilin1 (APP/PS1) mouse model. Detection of Mrp14 in control, mildly cognitive impaired, and AD patients revealed a strong induction of Mrp14 in protein extracts as well as in the cerebrospinal fluid, but not in blood plasma. In APP/PS1 mice, Mrp14 and its heterodimeric partner Mrp8 was found to be upregulated in microglial cells surrounding amyloid plaques. Functionally, loss of Mrp14 led to increased phagocytosis of fibrillar amyloid β (Aβ) in microglia cells in vitro and in vivo. Generating APP/PS1-transgenic mice deficient for Mrp14, we observed a decrease of key cytokines involved in APP processing, a reduction of BACE1 expression and activity, and consequently overall Aβ deposition. We therefore conclude that Mrp14 promotes APP processing and Aβ accumulation under neuroinflammatory conditions.

Activity-dependent phosphorylation of neuronal Kv2.1 potassium channels by CDK5.

  • Cerda O
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2011 Aug 19

Literature context:


Dynamic modulation of ion channel expression, localization, and/or function drives plasticity in intrinsic neuronal excitability. Voltage-gated Kv2.1 potassium channels are constitutively maintained in a highly phosphorylated state in neurons. Increased neuronal activity triggers rapid calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation, loss of channel clustering, and hyperpolarizing shifts in voltage-dependent activation that homeostatically suppress neuronal excitability. These changes are reversible, such that rephosphorylation occurs after removal of excitatory stimuli. Here, we show that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a Pro-directed Ser/Thr protein kinase, directly phosphorylates Kv2.1, and determines the constitutive level of Kv2.1 phosphorylation, the rapid increase in Kv2.1 phosphorylation upon acute blockade of neuronal activity, and the recovery of Kv2.1 phosphorylation after stimulus-induced dephosphorylation. We also demonstrate that although the phosphorylation state of Kv2.1 is also shaped by the activity of the PP1 protein phosphatase, the regulation of Kv2.1 phosphorylation by CDK5 is not mediated through the previously described regulation of PP1 activity by CDK5. Together, these studies support a novel role for CDK5 in regulating Kv2.1 channels through direct phosphorylation.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - (United Kingdom)