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Kv1.1 potassium channel antibody

RRID:AB_10673165

Antibody ID

AB_10673165

Target Antigen

Kv1.1 potassium channel null

Proper Citation

(UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility Cat# 75-007, RRID:AB_10673165)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Originating manufacturer of this product. Applications: IB, ICC, IHC, IP, KO, WB. Validation status: IF or IB (Pass), IB in brain (Pass), IHC in brain (Pass), KO (Pass).

Clone ID

K20/78

Host Organism

mouse

mTOR-dependent alterations of Kv1.1 subunit expression in the neuronal subset-specific Pten knockout mouse model of cortical dysplasia with epilepsy.

  • Nguyen LH
  • Sci Rep
  • 2018 Feb 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cortical dysplasia (CD) is a common cause for intractable epilepsy. Hyperactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been implicated in CD; however, the mechanisms by which mTOR hyperactivation contribute to the epilepsy phenotype remain elusive. Here, we investigated whether constitutive mTOR hyperactivation in the hippocampus is associated with altered voltage-gated ion channel expression in the neuronal subset-specific Pten knockout (NS-Pten KO) mouse model of CD with epilepsy. We found that the protein levels of Kv1.1, but not Kv1.2, Kv1.4, or Kvβ2, potassium channel subunits were increased, along with altered Kv1.1 distribution, within the hippocampus of NS-Pten KO mice. The aberrant Kv1.1 protein levels were present in young adult (≥postnatal week 6) but not juvenile (≤postnatal week 4) NS-Pten KO mice. No changes in hippocampal Kv1.1 mRNA levels were found between NS-Pten KO and WT mice. Interestingly, mTOR inhibition with rapamycin treatment at early and late stages of the pathology normalized Kv1.1 protein levels in NS-Pten KO mice to WT levels. Together, these studies demonstrate altered Kv1.1 protein expression in association with mTOR hyperactivation in NS-Pten KO mice and suggest a role for mTOR signaling in the modulation of voltage-gated ion channel expression in this model.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01AI067979(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD083092()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS081053()

Activity-Dependent Gating of Parvalbumin Interneuron Function by the Perineuronal Net Protein Brevican.

  • Favuzzi E
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Activity-dependent neuronal plasticity is a fundamental mechanism through which the nervous system adapts to sensory experience. Several lines of evidence suggest that parvalbumin (PV+) interneurons are essential in this process, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the influence of experience on interneuron plasticity remain poorly understood. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) enwrapping PV+ cells are long-standing candidates for playing such a role, yet their precise contribution has remained elusive. We show that the PNN protein Brevican is a critical regulator of interneuron plasticity. We find that Brevican simultaneously controls cellular and synaptic forms of plasticity in PV+ cells by regulating the localization of potassium channels and AMPA receptors, respectively. By modulating Brevican levels, experience introduces precise molecular and cellular modifications in PV+ cells that are required for learning and memory. These findings uncover a molecular program through which a PNN protein facilitates appropriate behavioral responses to experience by dynamically gating PV+ interneuron function.

Auditory nerve perinodal dysmyelination in noise-induced hearing loss.

  • Tagoe T
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Feb 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Exposure to loud sound (acoustic overexposure; AOE) induces hearing loss and damages cellular structures at multiple locations in the auditory pathway. Whether AOE can also induce changes in myelin sheaths of the auditory nerve (AN) is an important issue particularly because these changes can be responsible for impaired action potential propagation along the AN. Here we investigate the effects of AOE on morphological and electrophysiological features of the centrally directed part of the rat AN projecting from the cochlear spiral ganglion to brainstem cochlear nuclei. Using electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry, we show that AOE elongates the AN nodes of Ranvier and triggers notable perinodal morphological changes. Compound action potential recordings of the AN coupled to biophysical modeling demonstrated that these nodal and perinodal structural changes were associated with decreased conduction velocity and conduction block. Furthermore, AOE decreased the number of release sites in the cochlear nuclei associated with the reduced amplitudes of EPSCs evoked by AN stimulation. In conclusion, AN dysmyelination may be of fundamental importance in auditory impairment following exposure to loud sound.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH101130(United States)

Regulation of action potential delays via voltage-gated potassium Kv1.1 channels in dentate granule cells during hippocampal epilepsy.

  • Kirchheim F
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2013 Dec 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Action potential (AP) responses of dentate gyrus granule (DG) cells have to be tightly regulated to maintain hippocampal function. However, which ion channels control the response delay of DG cells is not known. In some neuron types, spike latency is influenced by a dendrotoxin (DTX)-sensitive delay current (ID) mediated by unidentified combinations of voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels of the Kv1 family Kv1.1-6. In DG cells, the ID has not been characterized and its molecular basis is unknown. The response phenotype of mature DG cells is usually considered homogenous but intrinsic plasticity likely occurs in particular in conditions of hyperexcitability, for example during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this study, we examined response delays of DG cells and underlying ion channel molecules by employing a combination of gramicidin-perforated patch-clamp recordings in acute brain slices and single-cell reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (SC RT-qPCR) experiments. An in vivo mouse model of TLE consisting of intrahippocampal kainate (KA) injection was used to examine epilepsy-related plasticity. Response delays of DG cells were DTX-sensitive and strongly increased in KA-injected hippocampi; Kv1.1 mRNA was elevated 10-fold, and the response delays correlated with Kv1.1 mRNA abundance on the single cell level. Other Kv1 subunits did not show overt changes in mRNA levels. Kv1.1 immunolabeling was enhanced in KA DG cells. The biophysical properties of ID and a delay heterogeneity within the DG cell population was characterized. Using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs), where KA incubation also induced ID upregulation, the homeostatic reversibility and neuroprotective potential for DG cells were tested. In summary, the AP timing of DG cells is effectively controlled via scaling of Kv1.1 subunit transcription. With this antiepileptic mechanism, DG cells delay their responses during hyperexcitation.

Funding information:
  • NLM NIH HHS - L40 LM009906-01(United States)

A long noncoding RNA contributes to neuropathic pain by silencing Kcna2 in primary afferent neurons.

  • Zhao X
  • Nat. Neurosci.
  • 2013 Aug 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuropathic pain is a refractory disease characterized by maladaptive changes in gene transcription and translation in the sensory pathway. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as new players in gene regulation, but how lncRNAs operate in the development of neuropathic pain is unclear. Here we identify a conserved lncRNA, named Kcna2 antisense RNA, for a voltage-dependent potassium channel mRNA, Kcna2, in first-order sensory neurons of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Peripheral nerve injury increased Kcna2 antisense RNA expression in injured DRG through activation of myeloid zinc finger protein 1, a transcription factor that binds to the Kcna2 antisense RNA gene promoter. Mimicking this increase downregulated Kcna2, reduced total voltage-gated potassium current, increased excitability in DRG neurons and produced neuropathic pain symptoms. Blocking this increase reversed nerve injury-induced downregulation of DRG Kcna2 and attenuated development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. These findings suggest endogenous Kcna2 antisense RNA as a therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG003985(United States)

Degradation of high affinity HuD targets releases Kv1.1 mRNA from miR-129 repression by mTORC1.

  • Sosanya NM
  • J. Cell Biol.
  • 2013 Jul 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Little is known about how a neuron undergoes site-specific changes in intrinsic excitability during neuronal activity. We provide evidence for a novel mechanism for mTORC1 kinase-dependent translational regulation of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.1 messenger RNA (mRNA). We identified a microRNA, miR-129, that repressed Kv1.1 mRNA translation when mTORC1 was active. When mTORC1 was inactive, we found that the RNA-binding protein, HuD, bound to Kv1.1 mRNA and promoted its translation. Unexpectedly, inhibition of mTORC1 activity did not alter levels of miR-129 and HuD to favor binding to Kv1.1 mRNA. However, reduced mTORC1 signaling caused the degradation of high affinity HuD target mRNAs, freeing HuD to bind Kv1.1 mRNA. Hence, mTORC1 activity regulation of mRNA stability and high affinity HuD-target mRNA degradation mediates the bidirectional expression of dendritic Kv1.1 ion channels.

Ankyrin-B structurally defines terminal microdomains of peripheral somatosensory axons.

  • Engelhardt M
  • Brain Struct Funct
  • 2013 Jul 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Axons are subdivided into functionally organized microdomains, which are required for generation and propagation of action potentials (APs). In the central nervous system (CNS), APs are generated near the soma in the axon initial segment (AIS) and propagated by nodes of Ranvier (noR). The crucial role of the membrane adapter proteins ankyrin-B and ankyrin-G as organizers of AIS and noR is now well established. By comparison, little is known on the localization and function of these proteins in sensory axon terminals of the peripheral nervous systems (PNS). Here, we tested the hypothesis that somatosensory PNS terminals are organized by distinct members of the ankyrin protein family. We discovered a specific distribution of ankyrin-B in somatosensory axon terminals of skin and muscle. Specifically, ankyrin-B was localized along the membrane of axons innervating Meissner corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles and hair follicle receptors. Likewise, proprioceptive terminals of muscle spindles exhibited prominent ankyrin-B expression. Furthermore, ankyrin-B expression extended into nociceptive and thermoceptive intraepidermal nerve fibers. Interestingly, all studied somatosensory terminals were largely devoid of ankyrin-G, indicating that this scaffolding protein does not contribute to organization of mechanoelectric transduction zones in peripheral somatosensory neurons. Instead, we propose that ankyrin-B serves as a major membrane organizer in mechanoreceptive and nociceptive terminals of the PNS.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R44 HG002991(United States)

Coexpression of high-voltage-activated ion channels Kv3.4 and Cav1.2 in pioneer axons during pathfinding in the developing rat forebrain.

  • Huang CY
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Precise axon pathfinding is crucial for establishment of the initial neuronal network during development. Pioneer axons navigate without the help of preexisting axons and pave the way for follower axons that project later. Voltage-gated ion channels make up the intrinsic electrical activity of pioneer axons and regulate axon pathfinding. To elucidate which channel molecules are present in pioneer axons, immunohistochemical analysis was performed to examine 14 voltage-gated ion channels (Kv1.1-Kv1.3, Kv3.1-Kv3.4, Kv4.3, Cav1.2, Cav1.3, Cav2.2, Nav1.2, Nav1.6, and Nav1.9) in nine axonal tracts in the developing rat forebrain, including the optic nerve, corpus callosum, corticofugal fibers, thalamocortical axons, lateral olfactory tract, hippocamposeptal projection, anterior commissure, hippocampal commissure, and medial longitudinal fasciculus. We found A-type K⁺ channel Kv3.4 in both pioneer axons and early follower axons and L-type Ca²⁺ channel Cav1.2 in pioneer axons and early and late follower axons. Spatially, Kv3.4 and Cav1.2 were colocalized with markers of pioneer neurons and pioneer axons, such as deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), in most fiber tracts examined. Temporally, Kv3.4 and Cav1.2 were expressed abundantly in most fiber tracts during axon pathfinding but were downregulated beginning in synaptogenesis. By contrast, delayed rectifier Kv channels (e.g., Kv1.1) and Nav channels (e.g., Nav1.2) were absent from these fiber tracts (except for the corpus callosum) during pathfinding of pioneer axons. These data suggest that Kv3.4 and Cav1.2, two high-voltage-activated ion channels, may act together to control Ca²⁺ -dependent electrical activity of pioneer axons and play important roles during axon pathfinding.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R37 EY006837(United States)

Neuritin activates insulin receptor pathway to up-regulate Kv4.2-mediated transient outward K+ current in rat cerebellar granule neurons.

  • Yao JJ
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2012 Nov 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuritin is a new neurotrophic factor discovered in a screen to identify genes involved in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Neuritin also plays multiple roles in the process of neural development and synaptic plasticity. The receptors for binding neuritin and its downstream signaling effectors, however, remain unclear. Here, we report that neuritin specifically increases the densities of transient outward K(+) currents (I(A)) in rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Neuritin-induced amplification of I(A) is mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of Kv4.2, the main α-subunit of I(A). Exposure of CGNs to neuritin markedly induces phosphorylation of ERK (pERK), Akt (pAkt), and mammalian target of rapamycin (pmTOR). Neuritin-induced I(A) and increased expression of Kv4.2 are attenuated by ERK, Akt, or mTOR inhibitors. Unexpectedly, pharmacological blockade of insulin receptor, but not the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, abrogates the effect of neuritin on I(A) amplification and Kv4.2 induction. Indeed, neuritin activates downstream signaling effectors of the insulin receptor in CGNs and HeLa. Our data reveal, for the first time, an unanticipated role of the insulin receptor in previously unrecognized neuritin-mediated signaling.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - U54 HG003273(United States)

Changes in the physiology of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons in preplaque CRND8 mice.

  • Wykes R
  • Neurobiol. Aging
  • 2012 Aug 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Amyloid-β protein (Aβ) is thought to play a central pathogenic role in Alzheimer's disease. Aβ can impair synaptic transmission, but little is known about the effects of Aβ on intrinsic cellular properties. Here we compared the cellular properties of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons in acute slices from preplaque transgenic (Tg+) CRND8 mice and wild-type (Tg-) littermates. CA1 pyramidal neurons from Tg+ mice had narrower action potentials with faster decays than neurons from Tg- littermates. Action potential-evoked intracellular Ca(2+) transients in the apical dendrite were smaller in Tg+ than in Tg- neurons. Resting calcium concentration was higher in Tg+ than in Tg- neurons. The difference in action potential waveform was eliminated by low concentrations of tetraethylammonium ions and of 4-aminopyridine, implicating a fast delayed-rectifier potassium current. Consistent with this suggestion, there was a small increase in immunoreactivity for Kv3.1b in stratum radiatum in Tg+ mice. These changes in intrinsic properties may affect information flow through the hippocampus and contribute to the behavioral deficits observed in mouse models and patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG006677-13(United States)

The cytoskeletal adapter protein 4.1G organizes the internodes in peripheral myelinated nerves.

  • Ivanovic A
  • J. Cell Biol.
  • 2012 Feb 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Myelinating Schwann cells regulate the localization of ion channels on the surface of the axons they ensheath. This function depends on adhesion complexes that are positioned at specific membrane domains along the myelin unit. Here we show that the precise localization of internodal proteins depends on the expression of the cytoskeletal adapter protein 4.1G in Schwann cells. Deletion of 4.1G in mice resulted in aberrant distribution of both glial adhesion molecules and axonal proteins that were present along the internodes. In wild-type nerves, juxtaparanodal proteins (i.e., Kv1 channels, Caspr2, and TAG-1) were concentrated throughout the internodes in a double strand that flanked paranodal junction components (i.e., Caspr, contactin, and NF155), and apposes the inner mesaxon of the myelin sheath. In contrast, in 4.1G(-/-) mice, these proteins "piled up" at the juxtaparanodal region or aggregated along the internodes. These findings suggest that protein 4.1G contributes to the organization of the internodal axolemma by targeting and/or maintaining glial transmembrane proteins along the axoglial interface.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P50 AG005146(United States)

Extending the dynamic range of label-free mass spectrometric quantification of affinity purifications.

  • Bildl W
  • Mol. Cell Proteomics
  • 2012 Feb 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Affinity purification (AP) of protein complexes combined with LC-MS/MS analysis is the current method of choice for identification of protein-protein interactions. Their interpretation with respect to significance, specificity, and selectivity requires quantification methods coping with enrichment factors of more than 1000-fold, variable amounts of total protein, and low abundant, unlabeled samples. We used standardized samples (0.1-1000 fmol) measured on high resolution hybrid linear ion trap instruments (LTQ-FT/Orbitrap) to characterize and improve linearity and dynamic range of label-free approaches. Quantification based on spectral counts was limited by saturation and ion suppression effects with samples exceeding 100 ng of protein, depending on the instrument setup. In contrast, signal intensities of peptides (peak volumes) selected by a novel correlation-based method (TopCorr-PV) were linear over at least 4 orders of magnitude and allowed for accurate relative quantification of standard proteins spiked into a complex protein background. Application of this procedure to APs of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.1 as a model membrane protein complex unambiguously identified the whole set of known interaction partners together with novel candidates. In addition to discriminating these proteins from background, we could determine efficiency, cross-reactivities, and selection biases of the used purification antibodies. The enhanced dynamic range of the developed quantification procedure appears well suited for sensitive identification of specific protein-protein interactions, detection of antibody-related artifacts, and optimization of AP conditions.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS025044(United States)

Characterization of the axon initial segment (AIS) of motor neurons and identification of a para-AIS and a juxtapara-AIS, organized by protein 4.1B.

  • Duflocq A
  • BMC Biol.
  • 2011 Sep 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The axon initial segment (AIS) plays a crucial role: it is the site where neurons initiate their electrical outputs. Its composition in terms of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, as well as its length and localization determine the neuron's spiking properties. Some neurons are able to modulate their AIS length or distance from the soma in order to adapt their excitability properties to their activity level. It is therefore crucial to characterize all these parameters and determine where the myelin sheath begins in order to assess a neuron's excitability properties and ability to display such plasticity mechanisms. If the myelin sheath starts immediately after the AIS, another question then arises as to how would the axon be organized at its first myelin attachment site; since AISs are different from nodes of Ranvier, would this particular axonal region resemble a hemi-node of Ranvier? RESULTS: We have characterized the AIS of mouse somatic motor neurons. In addition to constant determinants of excitability properties, we found heterogeneities, in terms of AIS localization and Nav composition. We also identified in all α motor neurons a hemi-node-type organization, with a contactin-associated protein (Caspr)+ paranode-type, as well as a Caspr2+ and Kv1+ juxtaparanode-type compartment, referred to as a para-AIS and a juxtapara (JXP)-AIS, adjacent to the AIS, where the myelin sheath begins. We found that Kv1 channels appear in the AIS, para-AIS and JXP-AIS concomitantly with myelination and are progressively excluded from the para-AIS. Their expression in the AIS and JXP-AIS is independent from transient axonal glycoprotein-1 (TAG-1)/Caspr2, in contrast to juxtaparanodes, and independent from PSD-93. Data from mice lacking the cytoskeletal linker protein 4.1B show that this protein is necessary to form the Caspr+ para-AIS barrier, ensuring the compartmentalization of Kv1 channels and the segregation of the AIS, para-AIS and JXP-AIS. CONCLUSIONS: α Motor neurons have heterogeneous AISs, which underlie different spiking properties. However, they all have a para-AIS and a JXP-AIS contiguous to their AIS, where the myelin sheath begins, which might limit some AIS plasticity. Protein 4.1B plays a key role in ensuring the proper molecular compartmentalization of this hemi-node-type region.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA173903(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 2R01 GM063891(United States)

DPP6 establishes the A-type K(+) current gradient critical for the regulation of dendritic excitability in CA1 hippocampal neurons.

  • Sun W
  • Neuron
  • 2011 Sep 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Subthreshold-activating A-type K(+) currents are essential for the proper functioning of the brain, where they act to delay excitation and regulate firing frequency. In CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neuron dendrites, the density of A-type K(+) current increases with distance from the soma, playing an important role in synaptic integration and plasticity. The mechanism underlying this gradient has, however, remained elusive. Here, dendritic recordings from mice lacking the Kv4 transmembrane auxiliary subunit DPP6 revealed that this protein is critical for generating the A-current gradient. Loss of DPP6 led to a decrease in A-type current, specifically in distal dendrites. Decreased current density was accompanied by a depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of channel activation. Together these changes resulted in hyperexcitable dendrites with enhanced dendritic AP back-propagation, calcium electrogenesis, and induction of synaptic long-term potentiation. Despite enhanced dendritic excitability, firing behavior evoked by somatic current injection was mainly unaffected in DPP6-KO recordings, indicating compartmentalized regulation of neuronal excitability.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

Contribution of Kv1.2 voltage-gated potassium channel to D2 autoreceptor regulation of axonal dopamine overflow.

  • Fulton S
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2011 Mar 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Impairments in axonal dopamine release are associated with neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and pathophysiological conditions promoting drug abuse and obesity. The D2 dopamine autoreceptor (D2-AR) exerts tight regulatory control of axonal dopamine (DA) release through a mechanism suggested to involve K(+) channels. To evaluate the contribution of Kv1 voltage-gated potassium channels of the Shaker gene family to the regulation of axonal DA release by the D2-AR, the present study employed expression analyses, real time measurements of striatal DA overflow, K(+) current measurements and immunoprecipitation assays. Kv1.1, -1.2, -1.3, and -1.6 mRNA and protein were detected in midbrain DA neurons purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and in primary DA neuron cultures. In addition, Kv1.1, -1.2, and -1.6 were localized to DA axonal processes in the dorsal striatum. By means of fast scan cyclic voltammetry in striatal slice preparations, we found that the inhibition of stimulation-evoked DA overflow by a D2 agonist was attenuated by Kv1.1, -1.2, and -1.6 toxin blockers. A particular role for the Kv1.2 subunit in the process whereby axonal D2-AR inhibits DA overflow was established with the use of a selective Kv1.2 blocker and Kv1.2 knock-out mice. Moreover, we demonstrate the ability of D2-AR activation to increase Kv1.2 currents in co-transfected cells and its reliance on Gβγ subunit signaling along with the physical coupling of D2-AR and Kv1.2-containing channels in striatal tissue. These findings underline the contribution of Kv1.2 in the regulation of nigrostriatal DA release by the D2-AR and thereby offer a novel mechanism by which DA release is regulated.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - UL1 RR024996(United States)

Cdk-mediated phosphorylation of the Kvβ2 auxiliary subunit regulates Kv1 channel axonal targeting.

  • Vacher H
  • J. Cell Biol.
  • 2011 Mar 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Kv1 channels are concentrated at specific sites in the axonal membrane, where they regulate neuronal excitability. Establishing these distributions requires regulated dissociation of Kv1 channels from the neuronal trafficking machinery and their subsequent insertion into the axonal membrane. We find that the auxiliary Kvβ2 subunit of Kv1 channels purified from brain is phosphorylated on serine residues 9 and 31, and that cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-mediated phosphorylation at these sites negatively regulates the interaction of Kvβ2 with the microtubule plus end-tracking protein EB1. Endogenous Cdks, EB1, and Kvβ2 phosphorylated at serine 31 are colocalized in the axons of cultured hippocampal neurons, with enrichment at the axon initial segment (AIS). Acute inhibition of Cdk activity leads to intracellular accumulation of EB1, Kvβ2, and Kv1 channel subunits within the AIS. These studies reveal a new regulatory mechanism for the targeting of Kv1 complexes to the axonal membrane through the reversible Cdk phosphorylation-dependent binding of Kvβ2 to EB1.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - N01-EY-5-0007(United States)

Localization of Kv1.3 channels in presynaptic terminals of brainstem auditory neurons.

  • Gazula VR
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Elimination of the Kv1.3 voltage-dependent potassium channel gene produces striking changes in the function of the olfactory bulb, raising the possibility that this channel also influences other sensory systems. We have examined the cellular and subcellular localization of Kv1.3 in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) in the auditory brainstem, a nucleus in which neurons fire at high rates with high temporal precision. A clear gradient of Kv1.3 immunostaining along the lateral to medial tonotopic axis of the MNTB was detected. Highest levels were found in the lateral region of the MNTB, which corresponds to neurons that respond selectively to low-frequency auditory stimuli. Previous studies have demonstrated that MNTB neurons and their afferent inputs from the cochlear nucleus express three other members of the Kv1 family, Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.6. Nevertheless, confocal microscopy of MNTB sections coimmunostained for Kv1.3 with these subunits revealed that the distribution of Kv1.3 differed significantly from other Kv1 family subunits. In particular, no axonal staining of Kv1.3 was detected, and most prominent labeling was in structures surrounding the somata of the principal neurons, suggesting specific localization to the large calyx of Held presynaptic endings that envelop the principal cells. The presence of Kv1.3 in presynaptic terminals was confirmed by coimmunolocalization with the synaptic markers synaptophysin, syntaxin, and synaptotagmin and by immunogold electron microscopy. Kv1.3 immunogold particles in the terminals were arrayed along the plasma membrane and on internal vesicular structures. To confirm these patterns of staining, we carried out immunolabeling on sections from Kv1.3(-/-) mice. No immunoreactivity could be detected in Kv1.3(-/-) mice either at the light level or in immunogold experiments. The finding of a tonotopic gradient in presynaptic terminals suggests that Kv1.3 may regulate neurotransmitter release differentially in neurons that respond to different frequencies of sound.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - R01 EB002010(United States)

Kv1.1 potassium channel deficiency reveals brain-driven cardiac dysfunction as a candidate mechanism for sudden unexplained death in epilepsy.

  • Glasscock E
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2010 Apr 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mice lacking Kv1.1 Shaker-like potassium channels encoded by the Kcna1 gene exhibit severe seizures and die prematurely. The channel is widely expressed in brain but only minimally, if at all, in mouse myocardium. To test whether Kv1.1-potassium deficiency could underlie primary neurogenic cardiac dysfunction, we performed simultaneous video EEG-ECG recordings and found that Kcna1-null mice display potentially malignant interictal cardiac abnormalities, including a fivefold increase in atrioventricular (AV) conduction blocks, as well as bradycardia and premature ventricular contractions. During seizures the occurrence of AV conduction blocks increased, predisposing Kv1.1-deficient mice to sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP), which we recorded fortuitously in one animal. To determine whether the interictal AV conduction blocks were of cardiac or neural origin, we examined their response to selective pharmacological blockade of the autonomic nervous system. Simultaneous administration of atropine and propranolol to block parasympathetic and sympathetic branches, respectively, eliminated conduction blocks. When administered separately, only atropine ameliorated AV conduction blocks, indicating that excessive parasympathetic tone contributes to the neurocardiac defect. We found no changes in Kv1.1-deficient cardiac structure, but extensive Kv1.1 expression in juxtaparanodes of the wild-type vagus nerve, the primary source of parasympathetic input to the heart, suggesting a novel site of action leading to Kv1.1-associated cardiac bradyarrhythmias. Together, our data suggest that Kv1.1 deficiency leads to impaired neural control of cardiac rhythmicity due in part to aberrant parasympathetic neurotransmission, making Kcna1 a strong candidate gene for human SUDEP.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/L018616/1(United Kingdom)

Disruption of LGI1-linked synaptic complex causes abnormal synaptic transmission and epilepsy.

  • Fukata Y
  • Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • 2010 Feb 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Epilepsy is a devastating and poorly understood disease. Mutations in a secreted neuronal protein, leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1), were reported in patients with an inherited form of human epilepsy, autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF). Here, we report an essential role of LGI1 as an antiepileptogenic ligand. We find that loss of LGI1 in mice (LGI1(-/-)) causes lethal epilepsy, which is specifically rescued by the neuronal expression of LGI1 transgene, but not LGI3. Moreover, heterozygous mice for the LGI1 mutation (LGI1(+/-)) show lowered seizure thresholds. Extracellularly secreted LGI1 links two epilepsy-related receptors, ADAM22 and ADAM23, in the brain and organizes a transsynaptic protein complex that includes presynaptic potassium channels and postsynaptic AMPA receptor scaffolds. A lack of LGI1 disrupts this synaptic protein connection and selectively reduces AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Thus, LGI1 may serve as a major determinant of brain excitation, and the LGI1 gene-targeted mouse provides a good model for human epilepsy.

Functional analysis of the Kv1.1 N255D mutation associated with autosomal dominant hypomagnesemia.

  • van der Wijst J
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2010 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations in the voltage-gated K(+) channel Kv1.1 have been linked with a mixed phenotype of episodic ataxia and/or myokymia. Recently, we presented autosomal dominant hypomagnesemia as a new phenotypic characteristic associated with a mutation in Kv1.1 (N255D) (Glaudemans, B., van der Wijst, J., Scola, R. H., Lorenzoni, P. J., Heister, A., van der Kemp, A. W., Knoers, N. V., Hoenderop, J. G., and Bindels, R. J. (2009) J. Clin. Invest. 119, 936-942). A conserved asparagine at position 255 in the third transmembrane segment was converted into an aspartic acid, resulting in a non-functional channel. In this study, we explored the functional consequence of this conserved residue by substitution with other hydrophobic, polar, or charged amino acids (N255E, N255Q, N255A, N255V, N255T, and N255H). Upon overexpression in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, cell surface biotinylation revealed plasma membrane expression of all mutant channels. Next, we used the whole-cell patch clamp technique to demonstrate that the N255E and N255Q mutants were non-functional. Substitution of Asn-255 with other amino acids (N255A, N255V, N255T, and N255H) did not prevent ion conduction, and these mutant channels activated at more negative potentials when compared with wild-type channels, -41.5 +/- 1.6, -45.5 +/- 2.0, -50.5 +/- 1.9, and -33.8 +/- 1.3 mV to -29.4 +/- 1.1 mV, respectively. The time constant of activation was significantly faster for the two most hydrophobic mutations, N255A (6.2 +/- 0.2 ms) and N255V (5.2 +/- 0.3 ms), and the hydrophilic mutant N255T (9.8 +/- 0.4 ms) in comparison with wild type (13.0 +/- 0.9 ms). Furthermore, the voltage dependence of inactivation was shifted approximately 13 mV to more negative potentials in all mutant channels except for N255H. Taken together, our data showed that an asparagine at position 255 in Kv1.1 is required for normal voltage dependence and kinetics of channel gating.

Deficiency of neural recognition molecule NB-2 affects the development of glutamatergic auditory pathways from the ventral cochlear nucleus to the superior olivary complex in mouse.

  • Toyoshima M
  • Dev. Biol.
  • 2009 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neural recognition molecule NB-2/contactin 5 is expressed transiently during the first postnatal week in glutamatergic neurons of the central auditory system. Here, we investigated the effect of NB-2 deficiency on the auditory brainstem in mouse. While almost all principal neurons are wrapped with the calyces of Held in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) in wild type, 8% of principal neurons in NB-2 knockout (KO) mice lack the calyces of Held at postnatal day (P) 6. At P10 and P15, apoptotic principal neurons were detected in NB-2 KO mice, but not in wild type. Apoptotic cells were also increased in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of NB-2 KO mice, which contains bushy neurons projecting to the MNTB and the lateral superior olive (LSO). At the age of 1 month, the number of principal neurons in the MNTB and of glutamatergic synapses in the LSO was reduced in NB-2 KO mice. Finally, interpeak latencies for auditory brainstem response waves II-III and III-IV were significantly increased in NB-2 KO mice. Together, these findings suggest that NB-2 deficiency causes a deficit in synapse formation and then induces apoptosis in MNTB and VCN neurons, affecting auditory brainstem function.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS040929-09(United States)

A missense mutation in the Kv1.1 voltage-gated potassium channel-encoding gene KCNA1 is linked to human autosomal dominant hypomagnesemia.

  • Glaudemans B
  • J. Clin. Invest.
  • 2009 Apr 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Primary hypomagnesemia is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by renal or intestinal magnesium (Mg2+) wasting, resulting in tetany, cardiac arrhythmias, and seizures. The kidney plays an essential role in maintaining blood Mg2+ levels, with a prominent function for the Mg2+-transporting channel transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 6 (TRPM6) in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT). In the DCT, Mg2+ reabsorption is an active transport process primarily driven by the negative potential across the luminal membrane. Here, we studied a family with isolated autosomal dominant hypomagnesemia and used a positional cloning approach to identify an N255D mutation in KCNA1, a gene encoding the voltage-gated potassium (K+) channel Kv1.1. Kv1.1 was found to be expressed in the kidney, where it colocalized with TRPM6 along the luminal membrane of the DCT. Upon overexpression in a human kidney cell line, patch clamp analysis revealed that the KCNA1 N255D mutation resulted in a nonfunctional channel, with a dominant negative effect on wild-type Kv1.1 channel function. These data suggest that Kv1.1 is a renal K+ channel that establishes a favorable luminal membrane potential in DCT cells to control TRPM6-mediated Mg2+ reabsorption.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS057815-04(United States)

Kv1 potassium channel complexes in vivo require Kvbeta2 subunits in dorsal spinal neurons.

  • Pineda RH
  • J. Neurophysiol.
  • 2008 Oct 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Whereas Kvbeta2 subunits modulate potassium current properties carried by Kv1 channel complexes in heterologous systems, little is known about the contributions of Kvbeta2 subunits to native potassium channel function. Using antisense approaches and in situ recordings from Xenopus embryo spinal cord neurons, we tested the in vivo roles of Kvbeta2 subunits in modulation of voltage-dependent potassium current (IKv). We focused on 1) two different populations of dorsal spinal neurons that express both Kvbeta2 and Kv1 alpha-subunit genes and 2) the 24- and 48-h developmental period, during which IKv undergoes developmental regulation. At both 24 and 48 h, antisense methods produced efficient knock-down of both Kvbeta2 protein and IKv. At both times, dominant negative suppression of Kv1 channels also eliminated IKv, indicating that Kv1 channels require Kvbeta2 subunits to function in dorsal spinal neurons. Even though Kv1 channels determined the IKv values of both dorsal neuron types, comparisons of their IKv properties revealed important differences at both developmental stages. The latter results support the notion that different Kv1 alpha-subunits and/or posttranslational modifications underlie the IKv values of the two dorsal neuron types. Overall, the results demonstrate that Kvbeta2 subunits function in vivo as obligatory subunits of Kv1 channels in at least two neuron types and two different developmental stages.

Postsynaptic density-93 clusters Kv1 channels at axon initial segments independently of Caspr2.

  • Ogawa Y
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2008 May 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Postsynaptic density-93 (PSD-93)/Chapsyn-110 is a PDZ (PSD-95/Discs large/zona occludens-1) domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) that functions as a scaffold to assemble channels, receptors, and other signaling proteins at cell membranes. PSD-93 is highly enriched at synapses, but mice lacking this protein have no synaptic structural abnormalities, probably because of overlapping expression and redundancy with other MAGUKs. Consequently, the function of PSD-93 is not well understood. Here, we show that PSD-93, but not other MAGUKs, is enriched at the axon initial segment (AIS), where it colocalizes with Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kv1.4, and Kvbeta2 subunit-containing K(+) channels, Caspr2, and TAG-1 (transient axonal glycoprotein-1). When coexpressed with Kv1 channels in heterologous cells, PSD-93 induces formation of large cell-surface clusters. Knockdown of PSD-93 in cultured hippocampal neurons by RNA interference disrupted Kv1 channel localization at the AIS. Similarly, PSD-93-/- mice failed to cluster Kv1 channels at the AIS of cortical and hippocampal neurons. In contrast, Caspr2, which mediates Kv1 channel clustering at the juxtaparanode, is not required for localization of Kv1 channels at the AIS. These results show PSD-93 mediates AIS accumulation of Kv1 channels independently of Caspr2.

The microtubule plus-end tracking protein EB1 is required for Kv1 voltage-gated K+ channel axonal targeting.

  • Gu C
  • Neuron
  • 2006 Dec 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Axonal Kv1 channels regulate action potential propagation-an evolutionarily conserved function important for the control of motor behavior as evidenced from the linkage of human Kv1 channel mutations to myokymia/episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) and the Shaker mutant phenotype in Drosophila. To search for the machinery that mediates axonal targeting of Kv1 channels composed of both alpha and beta subunits, we first demonstrate that Kvbeta2 is responsible for targeting Kv1 channels to the axon. Next, we show that Kvbeta2 axonal targeting depends on its ability to associate with the microtubule (MT) plus-end tracking protein (+TIP) EB1. Not only do Kvbeta2 and EB1 move in unison down the axon, Brefeldin A-sensitive Kv1-containing vesicles can also be found at microtubule ends near the cell membrane. In addition, we found that Kvbeta2 associates with KIF3/kinesin II as well. Indeed, Kv1 channels rely on both KIF3/kinesin II and EB1 for their axonal targeting.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM-069801(United States)