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PICK1 scaffold protein antibody

RRID:AB_10672986

Antibody ID

AB_10672986

Target Antigen

PICK1 scaffold protein null

Proper Citation

(UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility Cat# 73-040, RRID:AB_10672986)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Originating manufacturer of this product. Applications: IB, ICC, IHC, IP, KO, WB. Validation status: IF or IB (Pass), IB in brain (Pass), IHC in brain (Pass), KO (Pass).

Clone ID

L20/8

Host Organism

mouse

Loss of SynDIG1 Reduces Excitatory Synapse Maturation But Not Formation In Vivo.

  • Chenaux G
  • eNeuro
  • 2017 Oct 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Modification of the strength of excitatory synaptic connections is a fundamental mechanism by which neural circuits are refined during development and learning. Synapse Differentiation Induced Gene 1 (SynDIG1) has been shown to play a key role in regulating synaptic strength in vitro. Here, we investigated the role of SynDIG1 in vivo in mice with a disruption of the SynDIG1 gene rather than use an alternate loxP-flanked conditional mutant that we find retains a partial protein product. The gene-trap insertion with a reporter cassette mutant mice shows that the SynDIG1 promoter is active during embryogenesis in the retina with some activity in the brain, and postnatally in the mouse hippocampus, cortex, hindbrain, and spinal cord. Ultrastructural analysis of the hippocampal CA1 region shows a decrease in the average PSD length of synapses and a decrease in the number of synapses with a mature phenotype. Intriguingly, the total synapse number appears to be increased in SynDIG1 mutant mice. Electrophysiological analyses show a decrease in AMPA and NMDA receptor function in SynDIG1-deficient hippocampal neurons. Glutamate stimulation of individual dendritic spines in hippocampal slices from SynDIG1-deficient mice reveals increased short-term structural plasticity. Notably, the overall levels of PSD-95 or glutamate receptors enriched in postsynaptic biochemical fractions remain unaltered; however, activity-dependent synapse development is strongly compromised upon the loss of SynDIG1, supporting its importance for excitatory synapse maturation. Together, these data are consistent with a model in which SynDIG1 regulates the maturation of excitatory synapse structure and function in the mouse hippocampus in vivo.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH104638(United States)

C-terminal domain of ICA69 interacts with PICK1 and acts on trafficking of PICK1-PKCα complex and cerebellar plasticity.

  • Wang Z
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2013 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1) is a PKC (protein kinase C)-binding protein, which is essential for synaptic plasticity. The trafficking of PKCα-PICK1 complex to plasma membrane is critical for the internalization of GluR2 and induction of long-term depression. ICA69 (islet cell autoantigen 69 kDa) is identified as a major binding partner of PICK1. While heteromeric BAR domain complex is suggested to underlie the interaction between PICK1 and ICA69, the role of C-terminal domain of ICA69 (ICAC) in PICK1-ICA69 complex is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that ICAC interacted with PICK1 and regulated the trafficking of PICK1-PKCα complex. ICAC and ΔICAC (containing BAR domain) might function distinctly in the association of ICA69 with PICK1. While ΔICAC domain inclined to form clusters, the distribution of ICAC was diffuse. The trafficking of PICK1 to plasma membrane mediated by activated PKCα was inhibited by ICA69. This action might ascribe to ICAC, because overexpression of ICAC, but not ΔICAC, interrupted PKCα-mediated PICK1 trafficking. Notably, infusion of maltose binding protein (MBP) fusion protein, MBP-ICA69 or MBP-ICAC, in cerebellar Purkinje cells significantly inhibited the induction of long-term depression at parallel fiber- and climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. CONCLUSIONS: Our experiments showed that ICAC is an important domain for the ICA69-PICK1 interaction and plays essential roles in PICK1-mediated neuronal plasticity.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM-069801(United States)

PICK1 interacts with PACSIN to regulate AMPA receptor internalization and cerebellar long-term depression.

  • Anggono V
  • Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • 2013 Aug 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The dynamic trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) into and out of synapses is crucial for synaptic transmission, plasticity, learning, and memory. The protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) directly interacts with GluA2/3 subunits of the AMPARs. Although the role of PICK1 in regulating AMPAR trafficking and multiple forms of synaptic plasticity is known, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here, we report a unique interaction between PICK1 and all three members of the protein kinase C and casein kinase II substrate in neurons (PACSIN) family and show that they form a complex with AMPARs. Our results reveal that knockdown of the neuronal-specific protein, PACSIN1, leads to a significant reduction in AMPAR internalization following the activation of NMDA receptors in hippocampal neurons. The interaction between PICK1 and PACSIN1 is regulated by PACSIN1 phosphorylation within the variable region and is required for AMPAR endocytosis. Similarly, the binding of PICK1 to the ubiquitously expressed PACSIN2 is also regulated by the homologous phosphorylation sites within the PACSIN2-variable region. Genetic deletion of PACSIN2, which is highly expressed in Purkinje cells, eliminates cerebellar long-term depression. This deficit can be fully rescued by overexpressing wild-type PACSIN2, but not by a PACSIN2 phosphomimetic mutant, which does not bind PICK1 efficiently. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the interaction of PICK1 and PACSIN is required for the activity-dependent internalization of AMPARs and for the expression of long-term depression in the cerebellum.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - P41 HG00739(United States)

Neuroligin1 drives synaptic and behavioral maturation through intracellular interactions.

  • Hoy JL
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2013 May 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

In vitro studies suggest that the intracellular C terminus of Neuroligin1 (NL1) could play a central role in the maturation of excitatory synapses. However, it is unknown how this activity affects synapses in vivo, and whether it may impact the development of complex behaviors. To determine how NL1 influences the state of glutamatergic synapses in vivo, we compared the synaptic and behavioral phenotypes of mice overexpressing a full-length version of NL1 (NL1FL) with mice overexpressing a version missing part of the intracellular domain (NL1ΔC). We show that overexpression of full-length NL1 yielded an increase in the proportion of synapses with mature characteristics and impaired learning and flexibility. In contrast, the overexpression of NL1ΔC increased the number of excitatory postsynaptic structures and led to enhanced flexibility in mnemonic and social behaviors. Transient overexpression of NL1FL revealed that elevated levels are not necessary to maintain synaptic and behavioral states altered earlier in development. In contrast, overexpression of NL1FL in the fully mature adult was able to impair normal learning behavior after 1 month of expression. These results provide the first evidence that NL1 significantly impacts key developmental processes that permanently shape circuit function and behavior, as well as the function of fully developed neural circuits. Overall, these manipulations of NL1 function illuminate the significance of NL1 intracellular signaling in vivo, and enhance our understanding of the factors that gate the maturation of glutamatergic synapses and complex behavior. This has significant implications for our ability to address disorders such as autism spectrum disorders.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - WT077008(United Kingdom)

PICK1 mediates transient synaptic expression of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors during glycine-induced AMPA receptor trafficking.

  • Jaafari N
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2012 Aug 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

The number and subunit composition of postsynaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is a key determinant of synaptic transmission. The vast majority of AMPARs contain GluA2 subunit, which renders the channel impermeable to calcium. However, a small proportion are GluA2 lacking and therefore calcium permeable (CP-AMPARs). It has been proposed recently that long-term potentiation (LTP) involves not only an increase in the total number of AMPARs at the synapse but also a transient switch to CP-AMPARs in the first few minutes after LTP induction. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this switch to CP-AMPARs and the subsequent switch back to calcium-impermeable AMPARs are unknown. Here, we show that endogenous GluA1 is rapidly inserted at the synaptic plasma membrane of rat hippocampal neurons immediately after stimulation with elevated glycine, a treatment known to induce LTP. In contrast, GluA2 is restricted from trafficking to the cell surface by a glycine-induced increase in PICK1-GluA2 binding on endosomal compartments. Between 5 and 20 min after stimulus, activation of CP-AMPARs triggers a release of GluA2 from PICK1, allowing GluA2-containing AMPARs to traffic to the synaptic plasma membrane. These results define a PICK1-dependent mechanism that underlies transient alterations in the subunit composition and calcium permeability of synaptic AMPARs that is important during the early phase after stimulation with glycine and therefore is likely to be important during the expression of LTP.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 086084(United Kingdom)

Cortical development of AMPA receptor trafficking proteins.

  • Murphy KM
  • Front Mol Neurosci
  • 2012 May 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

AMPA-receptor trafficking plays a central role in excitatory plasticity, especially during development. Changes in the number of AMPA receptors and time spent at the synaptic surface are important factors of plasticity that directly affect long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD), synaptic scaling, and the excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) balance in the developing cortex. Experience-dependent changes in synaptic strength in visual cortex (V1) use a molecularly distinct AMPA trafficking pathway that includes the GluA2 subunit. We studied developmental changes in AMPA receptor trafficking proteins by quantifying expression of GluA2, pGluA2 (GluA2serine880), GRIP1, and PICK1 in rat visual and frontal cortex. We used Western Blot analysis of synaptoneurosome preparations of rat visual and frontal cortex from animals ranging in age from P0 to P105. GluA2 and pGluA2 followed different developmental trajectories in visual and frontal cortex, with a brief period of over expression in frontal cortex. The over expression of GluA2 and pGluA2 in immature frontal cortex raises the possibility that there may be a period of GluA2-dependent vulnerability in frontal cortex that is not found in V1. In contrast, GRIP1 and PICK1 had the same developmental trajectories and were expressed very early in development of both cortical areas. This suggests that the AMPA-interacting proteins are available to begin trafficking receptors as soon as GluA2-containing receptors are expressed. Finally, we used all four proteins to analyze the surface-to-internalization balance and found that this balance was roughly equal across both cortical regions, and throughout development. Our finding of an exquisite surface-to-internalization balance highlights that these AMPA receptor trafficking proteins function as a tightly controlled system in the developing cortex.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - R24RR024790(United States)

NeuroD2 regulates the development of hippocampal mossy fiber synapses.

  • Wilke SA
  • Neural Dev
  • 2012 Feb 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The assembly of neural circuits requires the concerted action of both genetically determined and activity-dependent mechanisms. Calcium-regulated transcription may link these processes, but the influence of specific transcription factors on the differentiation of synapse-specific properties is poorly understood. Here we characterize the influence of NeuroD2, a calcium-dependent transcription factor, in regulating the structural and functional maturation of the hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) synapse. RESULTS: Using NeuroD2 null mice and in vivo lentivirus-mediated gene knockdown, we demonstrate a critical role for NeuroD2 in the formation of CA3 dendritic spines receiving MF inputs. We also use electrophysiological recordings from CA3 neurons while stimulating MF axons to show that NeuroD2 regulates the differentiation of functional properties at the MF synapse. Finally, we find that NeuroD2 regulates PSD95 expression in hippocampal neurons and that PSD95 loss of function in vivo reproduces CA3 neuron spine defects observed in NeuroD2 null mice. CONCLUSION: These experiments identify NeuroD2 as a key transcription factor that regulates the structural and functional differentiation of MF synapses in vivo.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R21 DA034195(United States)

Glutamatergic plasticity in medial prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area following extended-access cocaine self-administration.

  • Ghasemzadeh MB
  • Brain Res.
  • 2011 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glutamate signaling in prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area plays an important role in the molecular and behavioral plasticity associated with addiction to drugs of abuse. The current study investigated the expression and postsynaptic density redistribution of glutamate receptors and synaptic scaffolding proteins in dorsomedial and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area after cocaine self-administration. After 14 days of extended-access (6h/day) cocaine self-administration, rats were exposed to one of three withdrawal regimen for 10 days. Animals either stayed in home cages (Home), returned to self-administration boxes with the levers withdrawn (Box), or underwent extinction training (Extinction). Extinction training was associated with significant glutamatergic plasticity. In dorsomedial prefrontal cortex of the Extinction group, there was an increase in postsynaptic density GluR1, PSD95, and actin proteins; while postsynaptic density mGluR5 protein decreased and there was no change in NMDAR1, Homer1b/c, or PICK1 proteins. These changes were not observed in ventromedial prefrontal cortex or ventral tegmental area. In ventral tegmental area, Extinction training reversed the decreased postsynaptic density NMDAR1 protein in the Home and Box withdrawal groups. These data suggest that extinction of drug seeking is associated with selective glutamatergic plasticity in prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area that include modulation of receptor trafficking to postsynaptic density.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS014841(United States)

The AAA+ ATPase Thorase regulates AMPA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity and behavior.

  • Zhang J
  • Cell
  • 2011 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The synaptic insertion or removal of AMPA receptors (AMPAR) plays critical roles in the regulation of synaptic activity reflected in the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). The cellular events underlying this important process in learning and memory are still being revealed. Here we describe and characterize the AAA+ ATPase Thorase, which regulates the expression of surface AMPAR. In an ATPase-dependent manner Thorase mediates the internalization of AMPAR by disassembling the AMPAR-GRIP1 complex. Following genetic deletion of Thorase, the internalization of AMPAR is substantially reduced, leading to increased amplitudes of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, enhancement of LTP, and elimination of LTD. These molecular events are expressed as deficits in learning and memory in Thorase null mice. This study identifies an AAA+ ATPase that plays a critical role in regulating the surface expression of AMPAR and thereby regulates synaptic plasticity and learning and memory.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA015802-05(United States)

Ex vivo identification of protein-protein interactions involving the dopamine transporter.

  • Hadlock GC
  • J. Neurosci. Methods
  • 2011 Mar 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) is a key regulator of dopaminergic signaling as it mediates the reuptake of extrasynaptic DA and thereby terminates dopaminergic signaling. Emerging evidence indicates that DAT function is influenced through interactions with other proteins. The current report describes a method to identify such interactions following DAT immunoprecipitation from a rat striatal synaptosomal preparation. This subcellular fraction was selected since DAT function is often determined ex vivo by measuring DA uptake in this preparation and few reports investigating DAT-protein interactions have utilized this preparation. Following SDS-PAGE and colloidal Coomassie staining, selected protein bands from a DAT-immunoprecipitate were excised, digested with trypsin, extracted, and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). From the analysis of the tryptic peptides, several proteins were identified including DAT, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) β, CaMKII δ, protein kinase C (PKC) β, and PKC γ. Co-immunoprecipitation of PKC, CaMKII, and protein interacting with C kinase-1 with DAT was confirmed by Western blotting. Thus, the present study highlights a method to immunoprecipitate DAT and to identify co-immunoprecipitating proteins using LC/MS/MS and Western blotting. This method can be utilized to evaluate DAT protein-protein interactions but also to assess interactions involving other synaptic proteins. Ex vivo identification of protein-protein interactions will provide new insight into the function and regulation of a variety of synaptic, membrane-associated proteins, including DAT.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG004881(United States)

Locomotor sensitization to cocaine is associated with distinct pattern of glutamate receptor trafficking to the postsynaptic density in prefrontal cortex: early versus late withdrawal effects.

  • Ghasemzadeh MB
  • Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.
  • 2009 May 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glutamatergic neurotransmission plays an important role in the behavioral and molecular plasticity observed in cocaine mediated locomotor sensitization. Recent studies show that glutamatergic signaling is regulated by receptor trafficking, synaptic localization, and association with scaffolding proteins. The trafficking of the glutamate receptors was investigated in the dorsal and ventral prefrontal cortex at 1 and 21 days after repeated cocaine administration which produced robust locomotor sensitization. A subcellular fractionation technique was used to isolate the cellular synaptosomal fraction containing the postsynaptic density. At early withdrawal, the prefrontal cortex displayed a reduction in the synaptosomal content of the AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits. In contrast, after extended withdrawal, there was a significant increase in the trafficking of the receptors into the synaptosomal compartment. These changes were accompanied by corresponding trafficking of the postsynaptic glutamatergic scaffolding proteins. Thus, enhanced trafficking of glutamate receptors from cytosolic to synaptosomal compartment is associated with prolonged withdrawal from repeated exposure to cocaine and may have functional consequences for the synaptic and behavioral plasticity.

Region-specific alterations in glutamate receptor expression and subcellular distribution following extinction of cocaine self-administration.

  • Ghasemzadeh MB
  • Brain Res.
  • 2009 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

A role for glutamatergic signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NA) in both the expression and extinction of cocaine seeking has been suggested. The effects of extinction following cocaine self-administration on the expression and synaptosomal distribution of GluR1 and NMDAR1 glutamate receptor subunits in the NA shell and core and the dorsolateral striatum were examined. Rats self-administered cocaine or had access to saline for 14 days followed by a period of extinction training, home-cage exposure, or placement in the self-administration chambers with levers retracted in the absence of discrete cues. Self-administration followed by home-cage exposure reduced GluR1 expression in the NA shell and NMDAR1 expression in the dorsolateral striatum without affecting expression in the NA core. These effects were not observed following extinction. Extinction training increased synaptosomal GluR1 in the NA shell and core and NMDAR1 in the dorsolateral striatum while decreasing synaptosomal NMDAR1 in the shell. Extinction but not home-cage exposure was associated with altered expression and synaptosomal content of the scaffolding proteins PICK1 and PSD95.Following extinction, synaptosomal PICK1 decreased in the dorsolateral striatum while total PICK1 expression was increased in the shell. The synaptosomal PSD95 was decreased in the NA shell, while total PSD95 expression was increased in the core. These data suggest that extinguished cocaine seeking is associated with changes in GluR1 and NMDAR1 expression and subcellular distribution that are region-specific and consist of both a reversal of cocaine-induced adaptations and emergent extinction-related alterations that include receptor subunit redistribution and may involve alterations in scaffolding proteins.

Behavioral sensitization to cocaine is associated with increased glutamate receptor trafficking to the postsynaptic density after extended withdrawal period.

  • Ghasemzadeh MB
  • Neuroscience
  • 2009 Mar 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glutamatergic signaling plays an important role in the behavioral and molecular plasticity observed in behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Redistribution of the glutamate receptors in the synaptosomal membrane fraction was investigated in the nucleus accumbens, dorsolateral striatum, and ventral tegmental area at 1 or 21 days of withdrawal in behaviorally sensitized rats. At 1 day of withdrawal, there were no changes in either tissue level or redistribution of glutamate receptors in nucleus accumbens core and shell and ventral tegmental area. At 21 days of withdrawal, there was a decrease in the expression of mGluR2/3 protein in core and shell, an increase in GluR1 and a decrease in Homer1b/c proteins in the nucleus accumbens core tissue. In dorsolateral striatum, the tissue level of NMDAR2B protein was increased. Moreover, there was an augmented presence of AMPA (GluR1, GluR2), NMDA (NMDAR1, 2A, 2B), and group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5) proteins in the synaptosomal fraction in core and shell of the nucleus accumbens. There was also an increase in synaptosomal mGluR2/3 protein in nucleus accumbens core. The redistribution of glutamate receptors was selective for nucleus accumbens since no changes were observed in the dorsolateral striatum and ventral tegmental area. While the tissue level of the Homer1b/c protein was selectively reduced in nucleus accumbens core, that of PSD95, PICK1, and actin was not changed in any of the brain regions examined. However, the synaptosomal membrane fraction level of Homer1b/c and PSD95 was increased in nucleus accumbens core and shell, with no changes in PICK1, and a decrease in actin protein. These observations suggest that significant redistribution of glutamate receptors and postsynaptic scaffolding proteins into synaptosomal membrane fraction is associated with withdrawal from behavioral sensitization to cocaine.

Inhibition of Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization by PICK1 regulates neuronal morphology and AMPA receptor endocytosis.

  • Rocca DL
  • Nat. Cell Biol.
  • 2008 Mar 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

The dynamic regulation of actin polymerization plays crucial roles in cell morphology and endocytosis. The mechanistic details of these processes and the proteins involved are not fully understood, especially in neurons. PICK1 is a PDZ-BAR-domain protein involved in regulated AMPA receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis in neurons. Here, we demonstrate that PICK1 binds filamentous (F)-actin and the actin-nucleating Arp2/3 complex, and potently inhibits Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization. RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of PICK1 in neurons induces a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton resulting in aberrant cell morphology. Wild-type PICK1 rescues this phenotype, but a mutant PICK1, PICK1(W413A), that does not bind or inhibit Arp2/3 has no effect. Furthermore, this mutant also blocks NMDA-induced AMPAR internalization. This study identifies PICK1 as a negative regulator of Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization that is critical for a specific form of vesicle trafficking, and also for the development of neuronal architecture.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R03 AR059942(United States)