X
Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

HotHsd:SD Sprague Dawley

RRID:_RGD_5508397

Database

RGD

Proper Citation

RRID:RGD_5508397

Species

Rattus norvegicus

Phenotype

decreased susceptibility to neuronal excitotoxicity

Availability

live

Reference

PMID:17804792

Notes

Originally developed by the Holtzman Company in Madison, Wisconsin, from Sprague Dawley stock in 1947; to Harlan through acquisition in 1986. Harlan

Catalog ID

5508397

Cortical spreading depolarizations in the postresuscitation period in a cardiac arrest male rat model.

  • Hansen FB
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 May 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurological injury develops over days following cardiac arrest (CA); however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. After stroke or trauma, the progression of neurological injury is associated with cortical-spreading depolarizations (CSDs). The objective was to investigate whether CA and subsequent resuscitation in rats are associated with 1) the development of spontaneous negative direct current (DC) shifts indicative of CSDs, and 2) changes in artificially induced CSDs in the postresuscitation period. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: 1) CA 90, 2) Control 90, 3) CA 360, and 4) Control 360. Following 8 min of asphyxial CA, animals were resuscitated using adrenaline, ventilation, and chest compressions. Animals were observed for 90 or 360 min, respectively, before a 210-min data collection period. Cortical potentials were recorded through burr holes over the right hemisphere. Animals were intubated and monitored with invasive blood pressure, ECG, and arterial blood gas samples throughout the study. Spontaneous DC shifts occurred in only 1 of the 14 CA animals. In control animals, DC shifts were easy to induce, and their shape was highly uniform, consistent with that of classical CSDs. In CA animals, significantly fewer DC shifts could be induced, and their shape was profoundly altered compared with controls. We observed frequent epileptiform discharges and temporal clusters of activity. Spontaneous CSDs were not a consistent finding in CA animals. Instead, spontaneous epileptiform discharges and temporal cluster of activity were observed, while the shapes of induced DC shifts were profoundly altered compared with controls. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Temporal kinetics of CD8+ CD28+ and CD8+ CD28- T lymphocytes in the injured rat spinal cord.

  • Wu Y
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Apr 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

This study aims to explore the temporal changes of cytotoxic CD8+ CD28+ and regulatory CD8+ CD28- T-cell subsets in the lesion microenvironment after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats, by combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and flow cytometry (FCM). In the sham-opened spinal cord, few CD8+ T cells were found. After SCI, the CD8+ T cells were detected at one day post-injury (dpi), then markedly increased and were significantly higher at 3, 7, and 14 dpi compared with one dpi (p < 0.01), the highest being seven dpi. In CD8+ T cells, more than 90% were CD28+ , and there were only small part of CD28- ( < 10%). After 14 days, the infiltrated CD8+ T cells were significantly decreased, and few could be found in good condition at 21 and 28 dpi. Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) staining showed that the percentages of apoptotic/necrotic CD8+ cells at 14 dpi and 21 dpi were significantly higher than those of the other early time-points (p < 0.01). These results indicate that CD8+ T cells could rapidly infiltrate into the injured spinal cords and survive two weeks, however, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells were dominant. Therefore, two weeks after injury might be the "time window" for treating SCI by prolonging survival times and increasing the fraction of CD8+ regulatory T-cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • MRC - U105192732(United Kingdom)

Effects of ischemic post-conditioning on neuronal VEGF regulation and microglial polarization in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia.

  • Esposito E
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ischemic postconditioning is increasingly being investigated as a therapeutic approach for cerebral ischemia. However, the majority of studies are focused on the acute protection of neurons per se. Whether and how postconditioning affects multiple cells in the recovering neurovascular unit remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we asked whether postconditioning may modulate help-me signaling between injured neurons and reactive microglia. Rats were subjected to 100 min of focal cerebral ischemia, then randomized into a control versus postconditioning group. After 3 days of reperfusion, infarct volumes were significantly reduced in animals treated with postconditioning, along with better neurologic outcomes. Immunostaining revealed that ischemic postconditioning increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in neurons within peri-infarct regions. Correspondingly, we confirmed that VEGFR2 was expressed on Iba1-positive microglia/macrophages, and confocal microscopy showed that in postconditioned rats, these cells were polarized to a ramified morphology with higher expression of M2-like markers. Treating rats with a VEGF receptor 2 kinase inhibitor negated these effects of postconditioning on microglia/macrophage polarization. In vitro, postconditoning after oxygen-glucose deprivation up-regulated VEGF release in primary neuron cultures, and adding VEGF to microglial cultures partly shifted their M2-like markers. Altogether, our findings support the idea that after postconditioning, injured neurons may release VEGF as a 'help-me' signal that promotes microglia/macrophage polarization into potentially beneficial phenotypes.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA114209(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS093415()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R03 NS099739()

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Contributes to the Loss of Newborn Hippocampal Neurons after Traumatic Brain Injury.

  • Hood KN
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been shown to be required for certain types of cognitive function. For example, studies have shown that these neurons are critical for pattern separation, the ability to store similar experiences as distinct memories. Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been shown to cause the loss of newborn hippocampal neurons, the signaling pathway(s) that triggers their death is unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the PERK-eIF2α pathway that acts to restore ER function and improve cell survival. However, unresolved/intense ER stress activates C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), leading to cell death. We show that TBI causes the death of hippocampal newborn neurons via CHOP. Using CHOP KO mice, we show that loss of CHOP markedly reduces newborn neuron loss after TBI. Injured CHOP mice performed significantly better in a context fear discrimination task compared with injured wild-type mice. In contrast, the PERK inhibitor GSK2606414 exacerbated doublecortin cell loss and worsened contextual discrimination. Administration of guanabenz (which reduces ER stress) to injured male rats reduced the loss of newborn neurons and improved one-trial contextual fear memory. Interestingly, we also found that the surviving newborn neurons in brain-injured animals had dendritic loss, which was not observed in injured CHOP KO mice or in animals treated with guanabenz. These results indicate that ER stress plays a key role in the death of newborn neurons after TBI. Further, these findings indicate that ER stress can alter dendritic arbors, suggesting a role for ER stress in neuroplasticity and dendritic pathologies.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The hippocampus, a structure in the temporal lobe, is critical for learning and memory. The hippocampus is one of only two areas in which neurons are generated in the adult brain. These newborn neurons are required for certain types of memory, and are particularly vulnerable to traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the mechanism(s) that causes the loss of these cells after TBI is poorly understood. We show that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways are activated in newborn neurons after TBI, and that manipulation of the CHOP cascade improves newborn neuron survival and cognitive outcome. These results suggest that treatments that prevent/resolve ER stress may be beneficial in treating TBI-triggered memory dysfunction.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY017296(United States)

Endogenous ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) acylates local ghrelin in the hippocampus.

  • Murtuza MI
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 Jan 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulating peptide. Serine 3 on ghrelin must be acylated by octanoate via the enzyme ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) for the peptide to bind and activate the cognate receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR1a). Interest in GHSR1a increased dramatically when GHSR1a mRNA was demonstrated to be widespread in the brain, including the cortex and hippocampus, indicating that it has multifaceted functions beyond the regulation of metabolism. However, the source of octanoylated ghrelin for GHSR1a in the brain, outside of the hypothalamus, is not well understood. Here, we report the presence of GOAT and its ability to acylate non-octanoylated ghrelin in the hippocampus. GOAT immunoreactivity is aggregated at the base of the dentate granule cell layer in the rat and wild-type mouse. This immunoreactivity was not affected by the pharmacological inhibition of GHSR1a or the metabolic state-dependent fluctuation of systemic ghrelin levels. However, it was absent in the GHSR1a knockout mouse hippocampus, pointing the possibility that the expression of GHSR1a may be a prerequisite for the production of GOAT. Application of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated non-octanoylated ghrelin in live hippocampal slice culture (but not in fixed culture or in the presence of GOAT inhibitors) mimicked the binding profile of FITC-conjugated octanoylated ghrelin, suggesting that extracellularly applied non-octanoylated ghrelin was acylated by endogenous GOAT in the live hippocampus while GOAT being mobilized out of neurons. Our results will advance the understanding for the role of endogenous GOAT in the hippocampus and facilitate the search for the source of ghrelin that is intrinsic to the brain.

Increased ceruloplasmin expression caused by infiltrated leukocytes, activated microglia, and astrocytes in injured female rat spinal cords.

  • Wu Y
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Jan 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ceruloplasmin (Cp), an enzyme containing six copper atoms, has important roles in iron homeostasis and antioxidant defense. After spinal cord injury (SCI), the cellular components in the local microenvironment are very complex and include functional changes of resident cells and the infiltration of leukocytes. It has been confirmed that Cp is elevated primarily in astrocytes and to a lesser extent in macrophages following SCI in mice. However, its expression in other cell types is still not very clear. In this manuscript, we provide a sensible extension of these findings by examining this system within a female Sprague-Dawley rat model and expanding the scope of inquiry to include additional cell types. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed that the Cp mRNA and protein in SCI tissue homogenates were quite consistent with prior publications. However, we observed that Cp was expressed not only in GFAP+ astrocytes (consistent with prior reports) but also in CD11b+ microglia, CNPase+ oligodendrocytes, NeuN+ neurons, CD45+ leukocytes, and CD68+ activated microglia/macrophages. Quantitative analysis proved that infiltrated leukocytes, activated microglia/macrophages, and astrocytes should be the major sources of increased Cp.

The role of glutamate signaling in incentive salience: second-by-second glutamate recordings in awake Sprague-Dawley rats.

  • Batten SR
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The attribution of incentive salience to reward-predictive stimuli has been shown to be associated with substance abuse-like behavior such as increased drug taking. Evidence suggests that glutamate neurotransmission and sequential N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) activation are involved in the attribution of incentive salience. Here, we further explore the role of second-by-second glutamate neurotransmission in the attribution of incentive salience to reward-predictive stimuli by measuring sign-tracking behavior during a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure using ceramic-based microelectrode arrays configured for sensitive measures of extracellular glutamate in awake behaving Sprague-Dawley rats. Specifically, we show that there is an increase in extracellular glutamate levels in the prelimbic cortex (PrL) and the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) during sign-tracking behavior to a food-predictive conditioned stimulus (CS+) compared to the presentation of a non-predictive conditioned stimulus (CS-). Furthermore, the results indicate greater increases in extracellular glutamate levels in the PrL compared to NAcC in response to the CS+, including differences in glutamate release and signal decay. Taken together, the present research suggests that there is differential glutamate signaling in the NAcC and PrL during sign-tracking behavior to a food-predictive CS+.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - K99 DA033373()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R00 DA033373()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM070864(United States)

Spatio-temporal expression of Hexokinase-3 in the injured female rat spinal cords.

  • Lin YH
  • Neurochem. Int.
  • 2017 Dec 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hexokinase-3 (HK3) is a member of hexokinase family, which can catalyze the first step of glucose metabolism. It can increase ATP levels, reduce the production of reactive oxygen species, increase mitochondrial biogenesis, protect mitochondrial membrane potential and play an antioxidant role. However, the change of its expression in spinal cord after injury is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal expression of HK3 in the spinal cords by using a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analysis revealed that HK3 could be detected in sham-opened spinal cords. After SCI, it gradually increased, reached a peak at 7 days post-injury (dpi), and then gradually decreased with the prolonging of injury time, but still maintained at a higher level for up to 28 dpi (the longest time evaluated in this study). Immunofluorescence staining showed that HK3 was found in GFAP+, β-tubulin III+ and IBA-1+ cells in sham-opened spinal cords. After SCI, in addition to the above-mentioned cells, it could also be found in CD45+ and CD68+ cells. These results demonstrate that HK3 is mainly expressed in astrocytes, neurons and microglia in normal spinal cords, and could rapidly increase in infiltrated leukocytes, activated microglia/macrophages and astrocytes after SCI. These data suggest that HK3 may be involved in the pathologic process of SCI by promoting glucose metabolism.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022415(United States)

Functional changes in the neural retina occur in the absence of mitochondrial dysfunction in a rodent model of diabetic retinopathy.

  • Masser DR
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Diabetic retinopathy is a neurovascular diabetes complication resulting in vision loss. A wealth of literature reports retinal molecular changes indicative of neural deficits, inflammation, and vascular leakage with chronic diabetes, but the mechanistic causes of disease initiation and progression are unknown. Microvascular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage leading to mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed to drive vascular dysfunction in retinopathy. However, growing evidence suggests that neural retina dysfunction precedes and may cause vascular damage. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that neural mtDNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction are an early initiating factor of neural diabetic retinopathy development in a rat streptozotocin-induced, Type I diabetes model. Mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption rates) was quantified in retinal synaptic terminals from diabetic and non-diabetic rats with paired retinal structural and function assessment (optical coherence tomography and electroretinography, respectively). Mitochondrial genome damage was assessed by identifying mutations and deletions across the mtDNA genome by high depth sequencing and absolute mtDNA copy number counting through digital PCR. Mitochondrial protein expression was assessed by targeted mass spectrometry. Retinal functional deficits and neural anatomical changes were present after 3 months of diabetes and prevented/normalized by insulin treatment. No marked dysfunction of mitochondrial activity, maladaptive changes in mitochondrial protein expression, alterations in mtDNA copy number, or increase in mtDNA damage was observed in conjunction with retinal functional and anatomical changes. These results demonstrate that neural retinal dysfunction with diabetes begins prior to mtDNA damage and dysfunction, and therefore retinal neurodegeneration initiation with diabetes occurs through other, non-mitochondrial DNA damage, mechanisms.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - (United Kingdom)
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY021725(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY021716(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - R21 EY024520(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - T32 EY023202(United States)
  • NIA NIH HHS - P30 AG050911(United States)
  • NIA NIH HHS - T32 AG052363(United States)

Drp1 Mitochondrial Fission in D1 Neurons Mediates Behavioral and Cellular Plasticity during Early Cocaine Abstinence.

  • Chandra R
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Altered brain energy homeostasis is a key adaptation occurring in the cocaine-addicted brain, but the effect of cocaine on the fundamental source of energy, mitochondria, is unknown. We demonstrate an increase of dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1), the mitochondrial fission mediator, in nucleus accumbens (NAc) after repeated cocaine exposure and in cocaine-dependent individuals. Mdivi-1, a demonstrated fission inhibitor, blunts cocaine seeking and locomotor sensitization, while blocking c-Fos induction and excitatory input onto dopamine receptor-1 (D1) containing NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Drp1 and fission promoting Drp1 are increased in D1-MSNs, consistent with increased smaller mitochondria in D1-MSN dendrites after repeated cocaine. Knockdown of Drp1 in D1-MSNs blocks drug seeking after cocaine self-administration, while enhancing the fission promoting Drp1 enhances seeking after long-term abstinence from cocaine. We demonstrate a role for altered mitochondrial fission in the NAc, during early cocaine abstinence, suggesting potential therapeutic treatment of disrupting mitochondrial fission in cocaine addiction.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA140198(United States)
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01 AA024845()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA037257()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA038613()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R25 GM055036()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - SC2 GM109811()

Activation of caspase-6 and cleavage of caspase-6 substrates is an early event in NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity.

  • Girling KD
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Dec 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Excitotoxicity, due to overstimulation of N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), has a pivotal role in many neurological disorders. However, NMDAR antagonists often cause side effects, and identifying more druggable therapeutic targets for NMDAR excitotoxicity is an important goal. Activation of caspases is a downstream effect of excitotoxicity that may be critically involved in NMDAR-mediated cell death. Caspase-6 (casp6) in particular has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of stroke, Huntington disease, and Alzheimer disease. Using N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitotoxic injuries of primary rat neurons, we demonstrate that there is an early increase in caspase profiles after an excitotoxic event at the level of mRNA, protein, and activity. Casp6 is elevated and activated first, followed by caspase-8 and caspase-3. Similarly, known casp6 substrates huntingtin, as well as novel casp6 substrates serine/threonine kinase 3 and death domain-associated protein, are cleaved in similar temporal patterns post NMDA. On the basis of these data, we propose that casp6 may be an initiator caspase in apoptotic cascades leading to neuronal death after an excitotoxic event and suggest casp6 as a potential therapeutic target for neurological disorders where NMDAR-mediated excitotoxicity has been shown to play a role.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - 272111(Canada)

Cholinergic Projections to the Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata Inhibit Dopamine Modulation of Basal Ganglia through the M4 Muscarinic Receptor.

  • Moehle MS
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cholinergic regulation of dopaminergic inputs into the striatum is critical for normal basal ganglia (BG) function. This regulation of BG function is thought to be primarily mediated by acetylcholine released from cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) acting locally in the striatum. We now report a combination of pharmacological, electrophysiological, optogenetic, chemogenetic, and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies suggesting extra-striatal cholinergic projections from the pedunculopontine nucleus to the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) act on muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype 4 (M4) to oppose cAMP-dependent dopamine receptor subtype 1 (D1) signaling in presynaptic terminals of direct pathway striatal spiny projections neurons. This induces a tonic inhibition of transmission at direct pathway synapses and D1-mediated activation of motor activity. These studies provide important new insights into the unique role of M4 in regulating BG function and challenge the prevailing hypothesis of the centrality of striatal ChIs in opposing dopamine regulation of BG output.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21-CA124817(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD083211()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH073676()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH065215()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS031373()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS031373()

Specific rescue by ortho-hydroxy atorvastatin of cortical GABAergic neurons from previous oxygen/glucose deprivation: role of pCREB.

  • Guirao V
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Nov 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

The statin atorvastatin (ATV) given as a post-treatment has been reported beneficial in stroke, although the mechanisms involved are not well understood so far. Here, we investigated in vitro the effect of post-treatment with ATV and its main bioactive metabolite ortho-hydroxy ATV (o-ATV) on neuroprotection after oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), and the role of the pro-survival cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Post-OGD treatment of primary cultures of rat cortical neurons with o-ATV, but not ATV, provided neuroprotection to a specific subset of cortical neurons that were large and positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase (large-GAD(+) neurons, GABAergic). Significantly, only these GABAergic neurons showed an increase in phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) early after neuronal cultures were treated post-OGD with o-ATV. We found that o-ATV, but not ATV, increased the neuronal uptake of glutamate from the medium; this provides a rationale for the specific effect of o-ATV on pCREB in large-GABAergic neurons, which have a higher ratio of synaptic (pCREB-promoting) vs extrasynaptic (pCREB-reducing) N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDAR) than that of small-non-GABAergic neurons. When we pharmacologically increased pCREB levels post-OGD in non-GABAergic neurons, through the selective activation of synaptic NMDAR, we observed as well long-lasting neuronal survival. We propose that the statin metabolite o-ATV given post-OGD boosts the intrinsic pro-survival factor pCREB in large-GABAergic cortical neurons in vitro, this contributing to protect them from OGD.

Inhibition of HMGB1 reduces rat spinal cord astrocytic swelling and AQP4 expression after oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation via TLR4 and NF-κB signaling in an IL-6-dependent manner.

  • Sun L
  • J Neuroinflammation
  • 2017 Nov 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord astrocyte swelling is an important component to spinal cord edema and is associated with poor functional recovery as well as therapeutic resistance after spinal cord injury (SCI). High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a mediator of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system and plays a critical role after SCI. Given this, we sought to identify both the role and underlying mechanisms of HMGB1 in cellular swelling and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression in cultured rat spinal cord astrocytes after oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R). METHODS: The post-natal day 1-2 Sprague-Dawley rat spinal cord astrocytes were cultured in vitro, and the OGD/R model was induced. We first investigated the effects of OGD/R on spinal cord astrocytic swelling and HMGB1 and AQP4 expression, as well as HMGB1 release. We then studied the effects of HMGB1 inhibition on cellular swelling, HMGB1 and AQP4 expression, and HMGB1 release. The roles of both toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in reducing cellular swelling resulting from HMGB1 inhibition in spinal cord astrocytes after OGD/R were studied. Intergroup data were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's test. RESULTS: The OGD/R increased spinal cord astrocytic swelling and HMGB1 and AQP4 expression, as well as HMGB1 release. Inhibition of HMGB1 using either HMGB1 shRNA or ethyl pyruvate resulted in reduced cellular volume, mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling, and lysosome number and decreased upregulation of both HMGB1 and AQP4 in spinal cord astrocytes, as well as HMGB1 release. The HMGB1 effects on spinal cord astrocytic swelling and AQP4 upregulation after OGD/R were mediated-at least in part-via activation of TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), and NF-κB. These activation effects can be repressed by TLR4 inhibition using CLI-095 or C34, or by NF-κB inhibition using BAY 11-7082. Furthermore, either OGD/R or HMGB1 inhibition resulted in changes in IL-6 release. IL-6 was also shown to mediate AQP4 expression in spinal cord astrocytes. CONCLUSIONS: HMGB1 upregulates AQP4 expression and promotes cell swelling in cultured spinal cord astrocytes after OGD/R, which is mediated through HMGB1/TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling and in an IL-6-dependent manner.

Funding information:
  • Doctoral Foundation of Shanxi Medical University - 03201422()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 81401028()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U19-AI096187(United States)
  • Youth Science and Technology Research Foundation of Shanxi - 2015021201()

Clenbuterol reduces GABAergic transmission in prefrontal cortex layer 5/6 pyramidal neurons of juvenile rat via reducing action potentials firing frequency of GABAergic interneurons.

  • Luo F
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Beta-adrenoceptors (β2 -ARs) have beneficial effects on prefrontal cortex (PFC) working memory, however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms are unclear yet. In this study, we probed the effect of β2 -AR-selective agonist clenbuterol (Clen) on synaptic transmission in layer 5/6 pyramidal neurons of PFC. Bath application of Clen reduced spontaneous IPSC (sIPSC) frequency without effects on sEPSCs. Clen did not alter the frequency and amplitude of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs), but exerted heterogeneous effects on evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) recorded from PFC layer 5/6 pyramidal neurons. Clen decreased the firing rate of action potentials of fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons. Clen-induced hyperpolarization of fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons required potentiation of an inward rectifier K+ channels. Clen-induced hyperpolarization of fast-spiking interneurons was dependent on Gs protein rather than cAMP and protein kinase A. Our findings demonstrate that Clen (10 μM) enhances inward rectifier K+ channels via Gs protein to cause membrane hyperpolarization of fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons resulting in reduction of action potentials firing rate to reduce GABAergic transmission.

The Role of Sirt1 in Epileptogenesis.

  • Hall AM
  • eNeuro
  • 2017 Oct 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mechanisms by which brain insults lead to subsequent epilepsy remain unclear. Insults, including trauma, stroke, tumors, infections, and long seizures [status epilepticus (SE)], create a neuronal state of increased metabolic demand or decreased energy supply. Neurons express molecules that monitor their metabolic state, including sirtuins (Sirts). Sirtuins deacetylate cytoplasmic proteins and nuclear histones, and their epigenetic modulation of the chromatin governs the expression of many genes, influencing neuronal properties. Thus, sirtuins are poised to enduringly modulate neuronal properties following SE, potentially contributing to epileptogenesis, a hypothesis supported by the epilepsy-attenuating effects of blocking a downstream target of Sirt1, Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor (NRSF) also know as REST (RE1-Silencing Transcription factor). Here we used an adult male rat model of epileptogenesis provoked by kainic acid-induced SE (KA-SE). We assessed KA-SE-provoked Sirt1 activity, infused a Sirt1 inhibitor (EX-527) after KA-SE, and examined for epileptogenesis using continuous digital video-EEG. Sirt1 activity, measured using chromatin immunoprecipitation for Sirt1 binding at a target gene, increased rapidly after SE. Post hoc infusion of the Sirt1 inhibitor prevented Sirt1-mediated repression of a target gene. Blocking Sirt1 activity transiently after KA-SE did not significantly influence the time- course and all of the parameters of epilepsy development. Specifically, latency to first seizure and seizure number, duration, and severity (using the Racine scale and EEG measures) as well as the frequency and duration of interictal spike series, were all unchanged. KA-SE provoked a robust inflammatory response and modest cell loss, yet neither was altered by blocking Sirt1. In conclusion, blocking Sirt1 activity after KA-SE does not abrogate epilepsy development, suggesting that the mechanisms of such acquired epileptogenesis are independent of Sirt1 function.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS035439()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS078279()

Novel luciferase-opsin combinations for improved luminopsins.

  • Park SY
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Previous work has demonstrated that fusion of a luciferase to an opsin, to create a luminescent opsin or luminopsin, provides a genetically encoded means of manipulating neuronal activity via both chemogenetic and optogenetic approaches. Here we have expanded and refined the versatility of luminopsin tools by fusing an alternative luciferase variant with high light emission, Gaussia luciferase mutant GLucM23, to depolarizing and hyperpolarizing channelrhodopsins with increased light sensitivity. The combination of GLucM23 with Volvox channelrhodopsin-1 produced LMO4, while combining GLucM23 with the anion channelrhodopsin iChloC yielded iLMO4. We found efficient activation of these channelrhodopsins in the presence of the luciferase substrate, as indicated by responses measured in both single neurons and in neuronal populations of mice and rats, as well as by changes in male rat behavior during amphetamine-induced rotations. We conclude that these new luminopsins will be useful for bimodal opto- and chemogenetic analyses of brain function.

Synaptic Activity and Muscle Contraction Increases PDK1 and PKCβI Phosphorylation in the Presynaptic Membrane of the Neuromuscular Junction.

  • Hurtado E
  • Front Mol Neurosci
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Conventional protein kinase C βI (cPKCβI) is a conventional protein kinase C (PKC) isoform directly involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release in the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). It is located exclusively at the nerve terminal and both synaptic activity and muscle contraction modulate its protein levels and phosphorylation. cPKCβI molecular maturation includes a series of phosphorylation steps, the first of which is mediated by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1). Here, we sought to localize PDK1 in the NMJ and investigate the hypothesis that synaptic activity and muscle contraction regulate in parallel PDK1 and cPKCβI phosphorylation in the membrane fraction. To differentiate the presynaptic and postsynaptic activities, we abolished muscle contraction with μ-conotoxin GIIIB (μ-CgTx-GIIIB) in some experiments before stimulation of the phrenic nerve (1 Hz, 30 min). Then, we analyzed total and membrane/cytosol fractions of skeletal muscle by Western blotting. Results showed that PDK1 is located exclusively in the nerve terminal of the NMJ. After nerve stimulation with and without coincident muscle contraction, total PDK1 and phosphorylated PDK1 (pPDK1) protein levels remained unaltered. However, synaptic activity specifically enhanced phosphorylation of PDK1 in the membrane, an important subcellular location for PDK1 function. This increase in pPDK1 coincides with a significant increase in the phosphorylation of its substrate cPKCβI also in the membrane fraction. Moreover, muscle contraction maintains PDK1 and pPDK1 but increases cPKCβI protein levels and its phosphorylation. Thus, even though PDK1 activity is maintained, pcPKCβI levels increase in concordance with total cPKCβI. Together, these results indicate that neuromuscular activity could induce the membrane targeting of pPDK1 in the nerve terminal of the NMJ to promote the phosphorylation of the cPKCβI, which is involved in ACh release.

Differing intrinsic biological properties between forebrain and spinal oligodendroglial lineage cells.

  • Horiuchi M
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Aug 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes is known to be regulated by the microenvironment where they differentiate. However, current research has not verified whether or not oligodendroglial lineage cells (OLCs) derived from different anatomical regions of the central nervous system (CNS) respond to microenvironmental cues in the same manner. Here, we isolated pure OPCs from rat neonatal forebrain (FB) and spinal cord (SC) and compared their phenotypes in the same in vitro conditions. We found that although FB and SC OLCs responded differently to the same external factors; they were distinct in proliferation response to mitogens, oligodendrocyte phenotype after differentiation, and cytotoxic responses to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate-type glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity at immature stages of differentiation in a cell-intrinsic manner. Moreover, transcriptome analysis identified genes differentially expressed between these OPC populations, including those encoding transcription factors (TFs), cell surface molecules, and signaling molecules. Particularly, FB and SC OPCs retained the expression of FB- or SC-specific TFs, such as Foxg1 and Hoxc8, respectively, even after serial passaging in vitro. Given the essential role of these TFs in the regional identities of CNS cells along the rostrocaudal axis, our results suggest that CNS region-specific gene regulation by these TFs may cause cell-intrinsic differences in cellular responses between FB and SC OLCs to extracellular molecules. Further understanding of the regional differences among OPC populations will help to improve treatments for demyelination in different CNS regions and to facilitate the development of stem cell-derived OPCs for cell transplantation therapies for demyelination. Cover Image for this issue: doi. 10.1111/jnc.13809.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R15 GM/072622(United States)

Electrophysiological Evidence That the Retrosplenial Cortex Displays a Strong and Specific Activation Phased with Hippocampal Theta during Paradoxical (REM) Sleep.

  • Koike BDV
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Aug 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is widely accepted that cortical neurons are similarly more activated during waking and paradoxical sleep (PS; aka REM) than during slow-wave sleep (SWS). However, we recently reported using Fos labeling that only a few limbic cortical structures including the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACA) contain a large number of neurons activated during PS hypersomnia. Our aim in the present study was to record local field potentials and unit activity from these two structures across all vigilance states in freely moving male rats to determine whether the RSC and the ACA are electrophysiologically specifically active during basal PS episodes. We found that theta power was significantly higher during PS than during active waking (aWK) similarly in the RSC and hippocampus (HPC) but not in ACA. Phase-amplitude coupling between HPC theta and gamma oscillations strongly and specifically increased in RSC during PS compared with aWK. It did not occur in ACA. Further, 68% and 43% of the units recorded in the RSC and ACA were significantly more active during PS than during aWK and SWS, respectively. In addition, neuronal discharge of RSC but not of ACA neurons increased just after the peak of hippocampal theta wave. Our results show for the first time that RSC neurons display enhanced spiking in synchrony with theta specifically during PS. We propose that activation of RSC neurons specifically during PS may play a role in the offline consolidation of spatial memories, and in the generation of vivid perceptual scenery during dreaming.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Fifty years ago, Michel Jouvet used the term paradoxical to define REM sleep because of the simultaneous occurrence of a cortical activation similar to waking accompanied by muscle atonia. However, we recently demonstrated using functional neuroanatomy that only a few limbic structures including the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACA) are activated during PS. In the present study, we show for the first time that the RSC and ACA contain neurons firing more during PS than in any other state. Further, RSC neurons are firing in phase with the hippocampal theta rhythm. These data indicate that the RSC is very active during PS and could play a key role in memory consolidation taking place during this state.

Physiological and pathophysiological control of synaptic GluN2B-NMDA receptors by the C-terminal domain of amyloid precursor protein.

  • Pousinha PA
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jul 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

The amyloid precursor protein (APP) harbors physiological roles at synapses and is central to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Evidence suggests that APP intracellular domain (AICD) could regulate synapse function, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We addressed AICD actions at synapses, per se, combining in vivo AICD expression, ex vivo AICD delivery or APP knock-down by in utero electroporation of shRNAs with whole-cell electrophysiology. We report a critical physiological role of AICD in controlling GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors (NMDARs) at immature excitatory synapses, via a transcription-dependent mechanism. We further show that AICD increase in mature neurons, as reported in AD, alters synaptic NMDAR composition to an immature-like GluN2B-rich profile. This disrupts synaptic signal integration, via over-activation of SK channels, and synapse plasticity, phenotypes rescued by GluN2B antagonism. We provide a new physiological role for AICD, which becomes pathological upon AICD increase in mature neurons. Thus, AICD could contribute to AD synaptic failure.

Proximal clustering between BK and CaV1.3 channels promotes functional coupling and BK channel activation at low voltage.

  • Vivas O
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

CaV-channel dependent activation of BK channels is critical for feedback control of both calcium influx and cell excitability. Here we addressed the functional and spatial interaction between BK and CaV1.3 channels, unique CaV1 channels that activate at low voltages. We found that when BK and CaV1.3 channels were co-expressed in the same cell, BK channels started activating near -50 mV, ~30 mV more negative than for activation of co-expressed BK and high-voltage activated CaV2.2 channels. In addition, single-molecule localization microscopy revealed striking clusters of CaV1.3 channels surrounding clusters of BK channels and forming a multi-channel complex both in a heterologous system and in rat hippocampal and sympathetic neurons. We propose that this spatial arrangement allows tight tracking between local BK channel activation and the gating of CaV1.3 channels at quite negative membrane potentials, facilitating the regulation of neuronal excitability at voltages close to the threshold to fire action potentials.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL085686()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL085870()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS008174()

Task-Dependent Behavioral Dynamics Make the Case for Temporal Integration in Multiple Strategies during Odor Processing.

  • Frederick DE
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Differing results in olfactory-based decision-making research regarding the amount of time that rats and mice use to identify odors have led to some disagreements about odor-processing mechanics, including whether or not rodents use temporal integration (i.e., sniffing longer to identify odors better). Reported differences in behavioral strategies may be due to the different types of tasks used in different laboratories. Some researchers have reported that animals performing two-alternative choice (TAC) tasks need only 1-2 sniffs and do not increase performance with longer sampling. Others have reported that animals performing go/no-go (GNG) tasks increase sampling times and performance for difficult discriminations, arguing for temporal integration. We present results from four experiments comparing GNG and TAC tasks over several behavioral variables (e.g., performance, sampling duration). When rats know only one task, they perform better in GNG than in TAC. However, performance was not statistically different when rats learned and were tested in both tasks. Rats sample odors longer in GNG than in TAC, even when they know both tasks and perform them in the same or different sessions. Longer sampling is associated with better performance for both tasks in difficult discriminations, which supports the case for temporal integration over ≥2-6 sniffs in both tasks. These results illustrate that generalizations from a single task about behavioral or cognitive abilities (e.g., processing, perception) do not capture the full range of complexity and can significantly impact inferences about general abilities in sensory perception.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Behavioral tasks and training and testing history affect measured outcomes in cognitive tests. Rats sample odors longer in a go/no-go (GNG) than in a two-alternative choice (TAC) task, performing better in GNG unless they know both tasks. Odor-sampling time is extended in both tasks when the odors to be discriminated are very similar. Rats may extend sampling time to integrate odor information up to ∼0.5 s (2-6 sniffs). Such factors as task, task parameters, and training history affect decision times and performance, making it important to use multiple tasks when making inferences about sensory or cognitive processing.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC014367()

Dendritic GIRK Channels Gate the Integration Window, Plateau Potentials, and Induction of Synaptic Plasticity in Dorsal But Not Ventral CA1 Neurons.

  • Malik R
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Apr 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Studies comparing neuronal activity at the dorsal and ventral poles of the hippocampus have shown that the scale of spatial information increases and the precision with which space is represented declines from the dorsal to ventral end. These dorsoventral differences in neuronal output and spatial representation could arise due to differences in computations performed by dorsal and ventral CA1 neurons. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by quantifying the differences in dendritic integration and synaptic plasticity between dorsal and ventral CA1 pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampus. Using a combination of somatic and dendritic patch-clamp recordings, we show that the threshold for LTP induction is higher in dorsal CA1 neurons and that a G-protein-coupled inward-rectifying potassium channel mediated regulation of dendritic plateau potentials and dendritic excitability underlies this gating. By contrast, similar regulation of LTP is absent in ventral CA1 neurons. Additionally, we show that generation of plateau potentials and LTP induction in dorsal CA1 neurons depends on the coincident activation of Schaffer collateral and temporoammonic inputs at the distal apical dendrites. The ventral CA1 dendrites, however, can generate plateau potentials in response to temporally dispersed excitatory inputs. Overall, our results highlight the dorsoventral differences in dendritic computation that could account for the dorsoventral differences in spatial representation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The dorsal and ventral parts of the hippocampus encode spatial information at very different scales. Whereas the place-specific firing fields are small and precise at the dorsal end of the hippocampus, neurons at the ventral end have comparatively larger place fields. Here, we show that the dorsal CA1 neurons have a higher threshold for LTP induction and require coincident timing of excitatory synaptic inputs for the generation of dendritic plateau potentials. By contrast, ventral CA1 neurons can integrate temporally dispersed inputs and have a lower threshold for LTP. Together, these dorsoventral differences in the threshold for LTP induction could account for the differences in scale of spatial representation at the dorsal and ventral ends of the hippocampus.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS084473()

Ubiquitin Ligase RNF138 Promotes Episodic Ataxia Type 2-Associated Aberrant Degradation of Human Cav2.1 (P/Q-Type) Calcium Channels.

  • Fu SJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Voltage-gated CaV2.1 channels comprise a pore-forming α1A subunit with auxiliary α2δ and β subunits. CaV2.1 channels play an essential role in regulating synaptic signaling. Mutations in the human gene encoding the CaV2.1 subunit are associated with the cerebellar disease episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2). Several EA2-causing mutants exhibit impaired protein stability and exert dominant-negative suppression of CaV2.1 wild-type (WT) protein expression via aberrant proteasomal degradation. Here, we set out to delineate the protein degradation mechanism of human CaV2.1 subunit by identifying RNF138, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, as a novel CaV2.1-binding partner. In neurons, RNF138 and CaV2.1 coexist in the same protein complex and display notable subcellular colocalization at presynaptic and postsynaptic regions. Overexpression of RNF138 promotes polyubiquitination and accelerates protein turnover of CaV2.1. Disrupting endogenous RNF138 function with a mutant (RNF138-H36E) or shRNA infection significantly upregulates the CaV2.1 protein level and enhances CaV2.1 protein stability. Disrupting endogenous RNF138 function also effectively rescues the defective protein expression of EA2 mutants, as well as fully reversing EA2 mutant-induced excessive proteasomal degradation of CaV2.1 WT subunits. RNF138-H36E coexpression only partially restores the dominant-negative effect of EA2 mutants on CaV2.1 WT functional expression, which can be attributed to defective membrane trafficking of CaV2.1 WT in the presence of EA2 mutants. We propose that RNF138 plays a critical role in the homeostatic regulation of CaV2.1 protein level and functional expression and that RNF138 serves as the primary E3 ubiquitin ligase promoting EA2-associated aberrant degradation of human CaV2.1 subunits.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Loss-of-function mutations in the human CaV2.1 subunit are linked to episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2), a dominantly inherited disease characterized by paroxysmal attacks of ataxia and nystagmus. EA2-causing mutants may exert dominant-negative effects on the CaV2.1 wild-type subunit via aberrant proteasomal degradation. The molecular nature of the CaV2.1 ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway is currently unknown. The present study reports the first identification of an E3 ubiquitin ligase for CaV2.1, RNF138. CaV2.1 protein stability is dynamically regulated by RNF138 and auxiliary α2δ and β subunits. We provide a proof of concept that protecting the human CaV2.1 subunit from excessive proteasomal degradation with specific interruption of endogenous RNF138 function may partially contribute to the future development of a novel therapeutic strategy for EA2 patients.

The Role of Primary Motor Cortex (M1) Glutamate and GABA Signaling in l-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinsonian Rats.

  • Lindenbach D
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2016 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Long-term treatment of Parkinson's disease with l-DOPA almost always leads to the development of involuntary movements termed l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Whereas hyperdopaminergic signaling in the basal ganglia is thought to cause dyskinesia, alterations in primary motor cortex (M1) activity are also prominent during dyskinesia, suggesting that the cortex may represent a therapeutic target. The present study used the rat unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion model of Parkinson's disease to characterize in vivo changes in GABA and glutamate neurotransmission within M1 and determine their contribution to behavioral output. 6-Hydroxydopamine lesion led to parkinsonian motor impairment that was partially reversed by l-DOPA. Among sham-lesioned rats, l-DOPA did not change glutamate or GABA efflux. Likewise, 6-hydroxydopamine lesion did not impact GABA or glutamate among rats chronically treated with saline. However, we observed an interaction of lesion and treatment whereby, among lesioned rats, l-DOPA given acutely (1 d) or chronically (14-16 d) reduced glutamate efflux and enhanced GABA efflux. Site-specific microinjections into M1 demonstrated that l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia was reduced by M1 infusion of a D1 antagonist, an AMPA antagonist, or a GABAA agonist. Overall, the present study demonstrates that l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia is associated with increased M1 inhibition and that exogenously enhancing M1 inhibition may attenuate dyskinesia, findings that are in agreement with functional imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation studies in human Parkinson's disease patients. Together, our study suggests that increasing M1 inhibitory tone is an endogenous compensatory response designed to limit dyskinesia severity and that potentiating this response is a viable therapeutic strategy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Most Parkinson's disease patients will receive l-DOPA and eventually develop hyperkinetic involuntary movements termed dyskinesia. Such symptoms can be as debilitating as the disease itself. Although dyskinesia is associated with dynamic changes in primary motor cortex physiology, to date, there are no published studies investigating in vivo neurotransmitter release in M1 during dyskinesia. In parkinsonian rats, l-DOPA administration reduced M1 glutamate efflux and enhanced GABA efflux, coincident with the emergence of dyskinetic behaviors. Dyskinesia could be reduced by local M1 modulation of D1, AMPA, and GABAA receptors, providing preclinical support for the notion that exogenously blunting M1 signaling (pharmacologically or with cortical stimulation) is a therapeutic approach to the treatment of debilitating dyskinesias.

Transcriptional rewiring over evolutionary timescales changes quantitative and qualitative properties of gene expression.

  • Dalal CK
  • Elife
  • 2016 Sep 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Evolutionary changes in transcription networks are an important source of diversity across species, yet the quantitative consequences of network evolution have rarely been studied. Here we consider the transcriptional 'rewiring' of the three GAL genes that encode the enzymes needed for cells to convert galactose to glucose. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcriptional regulator Gal4 binds and activates these genes. In the human pathogen Candida albicans (which last shared a common ancestor with S. cerevisiae some 300 million years ago), we show that different regulators, Rtg1 and Rtg3, activate the three GAL genes. Using single-cell dynamics and RNA-sequencing, we demonstrate that although the overall logic of regulation is the same in both species-the GAL genes are induced by galactose-there are major differences in both the quantitative response of these genes to galactose and in the position of these genes in the overall transcription network structure of the two species.

Gating of reafference in the external cuneate nucleus during self-generated movements in wake but not sleep.

  • Tiriac A
  • Elife
  • 2016 Aug 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nervous systems distinguish between self- and other-generated movements by monitoring discrepancies between planned and performed actions. To do so, corollary discharges are conveyed to sensory areas and gate expected reafference. Such gating is observed in neonatal rats during wake-related movements. In contrast, twitches, which are self-generated movements produced during active (or REM) sleep, differ from wake movements in that they reliably trigger robust neural activity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the gating actions of corollary discharge are absent during twitching. Here, we identify the external cuneate nucleus (ECN), which processes sensory input from the forelimbs, as a site of movement-dependent sensory gating during wake. Whereas pharmacological disinhibition of the ECN unmasked wake-related reafference, twitch-related reafference was unaffected. This is the first demonstration of a neural comparator that is differentially engaged depending on the kind of movement produced. This mechanism explains how twitches, although self-generated, trigger abundant reafferent activation of sensorimotor circuits in the developing brain.

Temporal kinetics of macrophage polarization in the injured rat spinal cord.

  • Chen YJ
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2015 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Local activated macrophages derived from infiltrating monocytes play an important role in the damage and repair process of spinal cord injury (SCI). The present study investigates the dynamic change of classically activated proinflammatory (M1) and alternatively activated anti-inflammatory (M2) cells in a rat model with contusive SCI by flow cytometry (FCM) and immunohistochemistry. The macrophage subsets were immunophenotyped by using antibodies against cluster of differentiation (CD)-68, C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7), CD163, and arginase 1 (Arg1). The CD68(+) CD163(-) and CD68(+) CCR7(+) cells were determined to be M1 subsets, whereas the CD68(+) CD163(+) and CD68(+) Arg1(+) cell subpopulations represented M2 cells. The subsets of macrophages in the injured spinal cord at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 28 days postinjury (dpi) were examined. In the sham-opened spinal cord, few M1 or M2 cells were found. After SCI, the phenotypes of both M1 and M2 cells were rapidly induced. However, M1 cells were detected and maintained at a high level for up to 28 dpi (the longest time evaluated in this study). In contrast, M2 cells were transiently detected at high levels before 7 dpi and returned to preinjury levels at 14 dpi. These results indicate that M1 cell response is rapidly induced and sustained, whereas M2 induction is transient after SCI in rat. Increasing the fraction of M2 cells and prolonging their residence time in the injured local microenvironment is a promising strategy for the repair of SCI.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL74082(United States)