Literature context: AP2 (Santa Cruz, Cat# sc-20172, RRID:AB_2250101), GAD67, nNOS, or N-Tyr. DAPI (
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia that is often accompanied by mood and emotional disturbances and seizures. There is growing body of evidence that neurons expressing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play an important role in regulation of cognition, mood, and emotion as well as seizure susceptibility, but participation of GABAergic neuronal pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not understood well at present. Here, we report that transgenic mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein Swedish-Dutch-Iowa mutant (APPSweDI) exhibit early loss of neurons expressing GAD67, a GABA-synthesizing enzyme, in advance of the loss of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA1 region. The loss of GAD67+ neurons in APPSweDI mice accompanied with decreased spatial cognition as well as increased anxiety-like behaviors and kainic acid-induced seizure susceptibility at early phase. In the hippocampal CA1 region, GAD67+ neurons expressed high basal levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and nitrosative stress (nitrotyrosine). Similarly, GAD67+ neurons in primary cortical and hippocampal neuron cultures also expressed high basal levels of nNOS and degenerated in response to lower Aβ concentrations due to their high basal levels of nitrosative stress. Given the role of GABAergic neurons in cognitive and neuropsychiatric functions, this study reports the role of nNOS-mediated nitrosative stress in dysfunction of GABAergic neurons and its potential participation in early development of cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD.
Tau is a major component of the neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) that represent a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although generally considered an axonal protein, Tau is found in the somato-dendritic compartment of degenerating neurons and this redistribution is thought to be a trigger of neurodegeneration in AD. Here, we show the presence of tau mRNA in a dendritic ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that includes Ca2+-calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMK)IIα mRNA and that is translated locally in response to glutamate stimulation. Further, we show that Tau mRNA is a component of mRNP granules that contain RNA-binding proteins, and that it interacts with Myosin Va, a postsynaptic motor protein; these findings suggest that tau mRNA is transported into dendritic spines. We also report that tau mRNA localized in the somato-dendritic component of primary hippocampal cells and that a sub-toxic concentration of glutamate enhances local translation and hyperphosphorylation of tau, effects that are blocked by the gluatamatergic antagonists MK801 and NBQX. These data thus demonstrate that alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) stimulation redistributes tau to the somato-dendritic region of neurons where it may trigger neurodegeneration.
Literature context: RRID:AB_2250101) (Santa Cruz), Cathepsin B (Cat
Lysosomal proteolysis is essential for the quality control of intracellular components and the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Lysosomal alterations have been implicated as one of the main cellular defects contributing to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying lysosomal deficits in AD remains poorly understood. Here, we reveal that lysosomal deficits are attributed to retromer dysfunction induced by altered retromer trafficking in the axon of AD-related mutant human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) transgenic (Tg) mouse neurons. We demonstrate that retrograde transport of retromer is impaired, leading to its significant reduction in the soma and abnormal retention within late endosomes in distal axons of mutant hAPP neurons. Therefore, retromer-mediated endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptors (CI-MPR) in the soma is disrupted in mutant hAPP neurons, causing defects in lysosome biogenesis. Such defects result in protease deficiency in lysosomes and impaired lysosomal proteolysis, as evidenced by aberrant accumulation of sequestered substrates within lysosomes. Intriguingly, enhancement of retrograde transport in mutant hAPP neurons facilitates the trafficking of axonal retromer toward the soma and thus enhances protease transport to lysosomes, thereby restoring lysosomal proteolytic activity. Taken together, our study provides new insights into the regulation of retromer trafficking through retrograde axonal transport to fulfil its function in promoting lysosome biogenesis in the soma, suggesting a potential approach for rescuing lysosomal proteolysis deficits in AD.
Literature context: sc-20172 RRID:AB_2250101 MC1 Gift f
Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) provide a unique entry to study species-specific aspects of human disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, in vitro culture of neurons deprives them of their natural environment. Here we transplanted human PSC-derived cortical neuronal precursors into the brain of a murine AD model. Human neurons differentiate and integrate into the brain, express 3R/4R Tau splice forms, show abnormal phosphorylation and conformational Tau changes, and undergo neurodegeneration. Remarkably, cell death was dissociated from tangle formation in this natural 3D model of AD. Using genome-wide expression analysis, we observed upregulation of genes involved in myelination and downregulation of genes related to memory and cognition, synaptic transmission, and neuron projection. This novel chimeric model for AD displays human-specific pathological features and allows the analysis of different genetic backgrounds and mutations during the course of the disease.
Literature context: sc-20172, RRID:AB_2250101, Lot D2710
In-vitro neuronal differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells has become a widely used tool in disease modeling and prospective regenerative medicine. Most studies evaluate neurons molecularly and only a handful of them use electrophysiological tools to directly indicate that these are genuine neurons. Therefore, the specific timing of development of intrinsic electrophysiological properties and synaptic capabilities remains poorly understood. Here we describe a systematic analysis of developing neurons derived in-vitro from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We show that hESCs differentiated in-vitro into early embryonic neurons, displaying basically mature morphological and electrical features as early as day 37. This early onset of action potential discharges suggests that first stages of neurogenesis in humans are already associated with electrical maturation. Spike frequency, amplitude, duration, threshold and after hyperpolarization were found to be the most predictive parameters for electrical maturity. Furthermore, we were able to detect spontaneous synaptic activity already at these early time-points, demonstrating that neuronal connectivity can develop concomitantly with the gradual process of electrical maturation. These results highlight the functional properties of hESCs in the process of their development into neurons. Moreover, our results provide practical tools for the direct measurement of functional maturity, which can be reproduced and implemented for stem cell research of neurogenesis in general, and neurodevelopmental disorders in particular.
Literature context: z Biotechnology, Cat# sc-20172, RIID: AB_2250101), rabbit anti-phosphorylated IK
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of motoneurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex. Mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene represent a frequent genetic determinant and recapitulate a disease phenotype similar to ALS when expressed in mice. Previous studies using SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice have suggested a paracrine mechanism of neuronal loss, in which cytokines and other toxic factors released from astroglia or microglia trigger motoneuron degeneration. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines activate death receptors and may downstream from this activate the Bcl-2 family protein, Bid. We here sought to investigate the role of Bid in astrocyte activation and non-cell autonomous motoneuron degeneration. We found that spinal cord Bid protein levels increased significantly during disease progression in SOD1(G93A) mice. Subsequent experiments in vitro indicated that Bid was expressed at relatively low levels in motoneurons, but was enriched in astrocytes and microglia. Bid was strongly induced in astrocytes in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines or exposure to lipopolysaccharide. Experiments in bid-deficient astrocytes or astrocytes treated with a small molecule Bid inhibitor demonstrated that Bid was required for the efficient activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB in response to these pro-inflammatory stimuli. Finally, we found that conditioned medium from wild-type astrocytes, but not from bid-deficient astrocytes, was toxic when applied to primary motoneuron cultures. Collectively, our data demonstrate a new role for the Bcl-2 family protein Bid as a mediator of astrocyte activation during neuroinflammation, and suggest that Bid activation may contribute to non-cell autonomous motoneuron degeneration in ALS.
Cholesterol 24-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 (CYP46A1) that is selectively expressed in the brain and is responsible for the majority of cholesterol turnover in the central nervous system. Mice deficient in 24-hydroxylase exhibit impaired learning and defective hippocampal long-term potentiation, suggesting that the metabolism of cholesterol by this enzyme is required for learning and memory formation. To determine where in the neuron cholesterol turnover was taking place, monoclonal antibodies directed against 24-hydroxylase were generated by immunization of mice with recombinant protein and used to detect the enzyme in brain homogenates, cultured neurons, and histological sections. 24-Hydroxylase was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and was distributed throughout the cell bodies and dendrites of multiple types of neurons; the enzyme was not detected in axon terminals or in the cells of 24-hydroxylase knockout mice. 24-Hydroxylase was highly expressed in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus and cortex, in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, and in hippocampal and cerebellar interneurons. Within the retina, 24-hydroxylase was detected in ganglion cells and some but not all cells of the inner nuclear layer. These findings reveal the microsomal localization of 24-hydroxylase and provide subcellular insight into cholesterol turnover in the brain.