Identification of a cell protein (FIP-3) as a modulator of NF-kappaB activity and as a target of an adenovirus inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis.
FIP-3 (14.7K interacting protein) was discovered during a search for cell proteins that could interact with an adenovirus protein (Ad E3-14.7K) that had been shown to prevent tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced cytolysis. FIP-3, which contains leucine zippers and a zinc finger domain, inhibits both basal and induced transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB and causes a late-appearing apoptosis with unique morphologic manifestations. Ad E3-14.7K can partially reverse apoptotic death induced by FIP-3. FIP-3 also was shown to bind to other cell proteins, RIP and NIK, which previously had been described as essential components of TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation. In addition, FIP-3 inhibited activation of NF-kappaB induced by TNF-alpha, the TNFR-1 receptor, RIP, NIK, and IKKbeta, as well as basal levels of endogenous NF-kappaB in 293 cells. Because the activation of NF-kappaB has been shown to inhibit apoptosis, FIP-3 appears both to activate a cell-death pathway and to inhibit an NF-kappaB-dependent survival mechanism.