Heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (G proteins) determine tissue and cell polarity in a variety of organisms. In yeast, cells orient polarized growth toward the mating partner along a pheromone gradient by a mechanism that requires Far1p and Cdc24p. Far1p bound Gbetagamma and interacted with polarity establishment proteins, which organize the actin cytoskeleton. Cells containing mutated Far1p unable to bind Gbetagamma or polarity establishment proteins were defective for orienting growth toward their mating partner. In response to pheromones, Far1p moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Thus, Far1p functions as an adaptor that recruits polarity establishment proteins to the site of extracellular signaling marked by Gbetagamma to polarize assembly of the cytoskeleton in a morphogenetic gradient.
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