The proteasome consists of a 20S proteolytic core particle (CP) and a 19S regulatory particle (RP), which selects ubiquitinated substrates for translocation into the CP. An eight-subunit subcomplex of the RP, the lid, can be dissociated from proteasomes prepared from a deletion mutant for Rpn10, an RP subunit. A second subcomplex, the base, contains all six proteasomal ATPases and links the RP to the CP. The base is sufficient to activate the CP for degradation of peptides or a nonubiquitinated protein, whereas the lid is required for ubiquitin-dependent degradation. By electron microscopy, the base and the lid correspond to the proximal and distal masses of the RP, respectively. The lid subunits share sequence motifs with components of the COP9/signalosome complex and eIF3, suggesting that these functionally diverse particles have a common evolutionary ancestry.
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