cRaf-1 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase that is the main effector recruited by GTP-bound Ras in order to activate the MAP kinase pathway. Inactive Raf is found in the cytosol in a complex with Hsp90, Hsp50 (Cdc37) and the 14-3-3 proteins. GTP-bound Ras binds Raf and is necessary but not sufficient for the stable activation of Raf that occurs in response to serum, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor or insulin. These agents cause a two- to threefold increase in overall phosphorylation of Raf on serine/threonine residues, and treatment of cRaf-1 with protein (serine/threonine) phosphatases can deactivate it, at least partially. The role of 14-3-3 proteins in the regulation of Raf's kinase activity is uncertain and is investigated here. Active Raf can be almost completely deactivated in vitro by displacement of 14-3-3 using synthetic phosphopeptides. Deactivation can be substantially reversed by addition of purified recombinant bacterial 14-3-3; however, Raf must have been previously activated in vivo to be reactivated by 14-3-3 in vitro. The ability of 14-3-3 to support Raf activity is dependent on phosphorylation of serine residues on Raf and on the integrity of the 14-3-3 dimer; mutant monomeric forms of 14-3-3, although able to bind Raf in vivo, do not enable Raf to be activated in vivo or restore Raf activity after displacement of 14-3-3 in vitro. The 14-3-3 protein is not required to induce dimerization of Raf. We propose that dimeric 14-3-3 is needed both to maintain Raf in an inactive state in the absence of GTP-bound Ras and to stabilize an active conformation of Raf produced during activation in vivo.
SciCrunch is a data sharing and display platform. Anyone can create a custom portal where they can select searchable subsets of hundreds of data sources, brand their web pages and create their community. SciCrunch will push data updates automatically to all portals on a weekly basis. User communities can also add their own data to scicrunch, however this is not currently a free service.