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Virus infection induces the assembly of coordinately activated transcription factors on the IFN-beta enhancer in vivo.

We have identified a virus-activated factor (VAF) that binds to a regulatory element shared by different virus-inducible genes. We provide evidence that VAF contains two members of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family of transcriptional activator proteins (IRF-3 and IRF-7), as well as the transcriptional coactivator proteins p300 and CBP. Remarkably, VAF, as well as recombinant IRF-3 and IRF-7 proteins, binds very weakly to the interferon-beta (IFN-beta) gene promoter in vitro. However, in virus-infected cells, both proteins are recruited to the endogenous IFN-beta promoter as part of a protein complex that includes ATF-2/c-Jun and NF-kappa B. These observations provide a unique example of the coordinate activation of multiple transcriptional activator proteins and their highly cooperative assembly into a transcriptional enhancer complex in vivo.

Pubmed ID: 9660935


  • Wathelet MG
  • Lin CH
  • Parekh BS
  • Ronco LV
  • Howley PM
  • Maniatis T


Molecular cell

Publication Data

March 28, 1998

Associated Grants

  • Agency: NIAID NIH HHS, Id: AI20642
  • Agency: NCI NIH HHS, Id: CA50661

Mesh Terms

  • Activating Transcription Factor 2
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • CHO Cells
  • CREB-Binding Protein
  • Cell Nucleus
  • Cricetinae
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
  • DNA
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Viral
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-3
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-7
  • Interferon-beta
  • Leucine Zippers
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • NF-kappa B
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Phosphorylation
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Respirovirus
  • Respirovirus Infections
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transcription Factors
  • Transcription, Genetic