Cytoplasmic dynein, a minus end-directed, microtubule-based motor protein, is thought to drive the movement of membranous organelles and chromosomes. It is a massive complex that consists of multiple polypeptides. Among these polypeptides, the cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (cDHC) constitutes the major part of this complex. To elucidate the function of cytoplasmic dynein, we have produced mice lacking cDHC by gene targeting. cDHC-/- embryos were indistinguishable from cDHC+/-or cDHC+/+ littermates at the blastocyst stage. However, no cDHC-/- embryos were found at 8.5 d postcoitum. When cDHC-/- blastocysts were cultured in vitro, they showed interesting phenotypes. First, the Golgi complex became highly vesiculated and distributed throughout the cytoplasm. Second, endosomes and lysosomes were not concentrated near the nucleus but were distributed evenly throughout the cytoplasm. Interestingly, the Golgi "fragments" and lysosomes were still found to be attached to microtubules. These results show that cDHC is essential for the formation and positioning of the Golgi complex. Moreover, cDHC is required for cell proliferation and proper distribution of endosomes and lysosomes. However, molecules other than cDHC might mediate attachment of the Golgi complex and endosomes/lysosomes to microtubules.
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