Genetic mapping of lung cancer modifier loci specifically affecting tumor initiation and progression.
Mouse inbred strains with inherited predisposition and resistance to lung cancer provide a tool for the dissection of the complex genetics of this disease. In the present report, we have crossed the BALB/c with the SWR/J strain and performed whole-genome scanning for loci affecting lung tumor development in their F2 progeny. Both parental strains carry the pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus, a major locus affecting predisposition to lung cancer in mice. On distal chromosome 18 and on centromere of chromosome 6, we have mapped two pulmonary adenoma resistance loci (Par2 and Par4, respectively), which reduce lung tumor multiplicity strongly, up to 15-fold. Par2 and Par4, however, do not affect lung tumor size, which is instead controlled by an additional locus that we have mapped on the central region of chromosome 4. We designated this locus as "pulmonary adenoma progression 1" (Papg1), because it specifically modifies lung tumor size but not multiplicity. The present results, therefore, provide evidence for the existence of cancer modifier loci acting on specific stages of lung tumorigenesis.