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The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12.
The 4,639,221-base pair sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 is presented. Of 4288 protein-coding genes annotated, 38 percent have no attributed function. Comparison with five other sequenced microbes reveals ubiquitous as well as narrowly distributed gene families; many families of similar genes within E. coli are also evident. The largest family of paralogous proteins contains 80 ABC transporters. The genome as a whole is strikingly organized with respect to the local direction of replication; guanines, oligonucleotides possibly related to replication and recombination, and most genes are so oriented. The genome also contains insertion sequence (IS) elements, phage remnants, and many other patches of unusual composition indicating genome plasticity through horizontal transfer.
Pubmed ID: 9278503
Blattner FR Plunkett G Bloch CA Perna NT Burland V Riley M Collado-Vides J Glasner JD Rode CK Mayhew GF Gregor J Davis NW Kirkpatrick HA Goeden MA Rose DJ Mau B Shao Y
Science (New York, N.Y.)
September 5, 1997
Agency: NHGRI NIH HHS, Id: P01 HG01428 Agency: NCRR NIH HHS, Id: S10 RR10379
Bacterial Proteins Bacteriophage lambda Base Composition Binding Sites Chromosome Mapping DNA Replication DNA Transposable Elements DNA, Bacterial Escherichia coli Genes, Bacterial Genome, Bacterial Molecular Sequence Data Mutation Operon RNA, Bacterial RNA, Transfer Recombination, Genetic Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid Sequence Analysis, DNA Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Fumarate reductase subunit D: Energy production and conversion Thymidylate synthase: Nucleotide transport and metabolism DNA polymerase III subunit tau: Involved in nucleotide binding Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate synthase: Coenzyme transport and metabolism Protein crcA Glucarate dehydratase: Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis Flavohemoprotein: Involved in oxidoreductase activity 30S ribosomal protein S4: Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis Porphobilinogen deaminase: Coenzyme transport and metabolism 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase: Lipid transport and metabolism Outer membrane protein X precursor FMN-dependent NADH-azoreductase: Involved in oxidoreductase activity Pyruvate dehydrogenase [cytochrome]: Amino acid transport and metabolism Thiol:disulfide interchange protein dsbC precursor: Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones Colicin I receptor: Inorganic ion transport and metabolism Penicillin-binding protein 1C: Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis Sulfite reductase [NADPH] flavoprotein alpha-component: Involved in sulfite reductase (NADPH) activity Succinate dehydrogenase iron-sulfur subunit: Energy production and conversion 4-hydroxythreonine-4-phosphate dehydrogenase: Coenzyme transport and metabolism Diaminopimelate decarboxylase: Amino acid transport and metabolism DNA topoisomerase 4 subunit A: Replication, recombination and repair Ferrichrome-binding periplasmic protein: Inorganic ion transport and metabolism Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase 2: Nucleotide transport and metabolism 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase [NADPH]: Energy production and conversion Ferrichrome-iron receptor: Inorganic ion transport and metabolism Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase: Carbohydrate transport and metabolism 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 3: Lipid transport and metabolism Beta-lactamase: Defense mechanisms and antibiotic degradation 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase: Lipid transport and metabolism Phospholipase A1 precursor: Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis L-asparaginase 2: Amino acid transport and metabolism AMP nucleosidase: Nucleotide transport and metabolism Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase ATPase subunit: Involved in catalytic activity Chorismate--pyruvate lyase: Coenzyme transport and metabolism Inorganic pyrophosphatase: Energy production and conversion Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase: Coenzyme transport and metabolism Glycine betaine-binding periplasmic protein precursor: Amino acid transport and metabolism Fumarate reductase iron-sulfur subunit: Energy production and conversion Galactoside O-acetyltransferase: Carbohydrate transport and metabolism Ribosome-recycling factor: Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis RNA 3'-terminal phosphate cyclase: Involved in ligase activity, forming phosphoric ester bonds UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanyl-D-glutamate--2,6-diaminopimelate ligase: Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit: Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones Soluble lytic murein transglycosylase precursor: Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis D-allose-binding periplasmic protein: Carbohydrate transport and metabolism 30S ribosomal protein S10: Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis Enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase [NADH]: Lipid transport and metabolism 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase: Amino acid transport and metabolism Outer-membrane lipoprotein lolB: Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis