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The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12.
The 4,639,221-base pair sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 is presented. Of 4288 protein-coding genes annotated, 38 percent have no attributed function. Comparison with five other sequenced microbes reveals ubiquitous as well as narrowly distributed gene families; many families of similar genes within E. coli are also evident. The largest family of paralogous proteins contains 80 ABC transporters. The genome as a whole is strikingly organized with respect to the local direction of replication; guanines, oligonucleotides possibly related to replication and recombination, and most genes are so oriented. The genome also contains insertion sequence (IS) elements, phage remnants, and many other patches of unusual composition indicating genome plasticity through horizontal transfer.
Pubmed ID: 9278503
Blattner FR Plunkett G Bloch CA Perna NT Burland V Riley M Collado-Vides J Glasner JD Rode CK Mayhew GF Gregor J Davis NW Kirkpatrick HA Goeden MA Rose DJ Mau B Shao Y
Science (New York, N.Y.)
September 5, 1997
Agency: NHGRI NIH HHS, Id: P01 HG01428 Agency: NCRR NIH HHS, Id: S10 RR10379
Bacterial Proteins Bacteriophage lambda Base Composition Binding Sites Chromosome Mapping DNA Replication DNA Transposable Elements DNA, Bacterial Escherichia coli Genes, Bacterial Genome, Bacterial Molecular Sequence Data Mutation Operon RNA, Bacterial RNA, Transfer Recombination, Genetic Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid Sequence Analysis, DNA Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Adenylate kinase: Nucleotide transport and metabolism Catabolite gene activator: Signal transduction mechanisms Ferrichrome-iron receptor: Inorganic ion transport and metabolism N-succinylarginine dihydrolase: Amino acid transport and metabolism Chorismate--pyruvate lyase: Coenzyme transport and metabolism AMP nucleosidase: Nucleotide transport and metabolism Porphobilinogen deaminase: Coenzyme transport and metabolism 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase: Lipid transport and metabolism Outer membrane protein X precursor Thymidine phosphorylase: Nucleotide transport and metabolism FMN-dependent NADH-azoreductase: Involved in oxidoreductase activity Pyruvate dehydrogenase [cytochrome]: Amino acid transport and metabolism Thiol:disulfide interchange protein dsbC precursor: Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones Colicin I receptor: Inorganic ion transport and metabolism Penicillin-binding protein 1C: Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis Sulfite reductase [NADPH] flavoprotein alpha-component: Involved in sulfite reductase (NADPH) activity 30S ribosomal protein S19: Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis Succinate dehydrogenase iron-sulfur subunit: Energy production and conversion Osmolarity sensor protein envZ: Signal transduction mechanisms 4-hydroxythreonine-4-phosphate dehydrogenase: Coenzyme transport and metabolism Protein methyltransferase hemK: Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis Formate dehydrogenase H: Energy production and conversion Long-chain fatty acid transport protein: Lipid transport and metabolism Diaminopimelate decarboxylase: Amino acid transport and metabolism UPF0189 protein ymdB DNA topoisomerase 4 subunit A: Replication, recombination and repair Phospho-2-dehydro-3-deoxyheptonate aldolase, Phe-sensitive: Amino acid transport and metabolism Dihydroorotase: Nucleotide transport and metabolism Ferrichrome-binding periplasmic protein: Inorganic ion transport and metabolism Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase 2: Nucleotide transport and metabolism Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase: Carbohydrate transport and metabolism 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 3: Lipid transport and metabolism Sugar phosphatase supH: Involved in sugar phosphatase activity Probable L-ascorbate-6-phosphate lactonase ulaG: Involved in carboxylesterase activity NH(3)-dependent NAD(+) synthetase: Coenzyme transport and metabolism Beta-lactamase: Defense mechanisms and antibiotic degradation 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase: Lipid transport and metabolism Phospholipase A1 precursor: Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis ATP phosphoribosyltransferase: Amino acid transport and metabolism Coenzyme A biosynthesis bifunctional protein coaBC: Coenzyme transport and metabolism 30S ribosomal protein S4: Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis Lactaldehyde dehydrogenase: Energy production and conversion L-asparaginase 2: Amino acid transport and metabolism Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase ATPase subunit: Involved in catalytic activity Inorganic pyrophosphatase: Energy production and conversion Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A: Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones Isopentenyl-diphosphate Delta-isomerase: Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism Putrescine-binding periplasmic protein: Amino acid transport and metabolism Penicillin-binding protein 2: Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis Glutathione S-transferase: Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones