We have identified several genes that are required for various morphogenetic processes during gastrulation and tail formation. Two genes are required in the anterior region of the body axis: one eyed pinhead (oep) and dirty nose (dns).oep mutant embryos are defective in prechordal plate formation and the specification of anterior and ventral structures of the central nervous system. In dns mutants, cells of the prechordal plate, such as the prospective hatching gland cells, fail to specify. Two genes are required for convergence and extension movements. In mutant trilobite embryos, extension movements on the dorsal side of the embryo are affected, whereas in the formerly described spadetail mutants, for which two new alleles have been isolated, convergent movements of ventrolateral cells to the dorsal side are blocked. Two genes are required for the development of the posterior end of the body axis. In pipetail mutants, the tailbud fails to move ventrally on the yolk sac after germ ring closure, and the tip of the tail fails to detach from the yolk tube. Mutants in kugelig (kgg) do not form the yolk tube at the posterior side of the yolk sac.
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