Prior magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies report both medial and lateral cortical temporal changes and disturbed temporal lobe asymmetries in schizophrenic patients compared with healthy controls. The specificity of temporal lobe (TL) changes in schizophrenia is unknown. We determined the occurrence and specificity of these TL changes. Forty-six schizophrenic patients were compared to 60 normal controls and 27 bipolar subjects on MRI measures of bilateral volumes of anterior and posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG), amygdala, entorhinal cortex, and multiple medial temporal structures, as well as global brain measures. Several regional comparisons distinguished schizophrenia from bipolar disorder. Entorhinal cortex, not previously assessed using MRI in schizophrenia, was bilaterally smaller than normal in schizophrenia but not in bipolar disorder. Schizophrenic but not bipolar patients had an alteration of normal posterior STG asymmetry. Additionally, left anterior STG and right amygdala were smaller than predicted in schizophrenia but not bipolar disorder. Left amygdala was smaller and right anterior STG larger in bipolar disorder but not schizophrenia.
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