Growth factors induce c-fos transcription by stimulating phosphorylation of transcription factor TCF/Elk-1, which binds to the serum response element (SRE). Under such conditions Elk-1 could be phosphorylated by the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) ERK1 and ERK2. However, c-fos transcription and SRE activity are also induced by stimuli, such as UV irradiation and activation of the protein kinase MEKK1, that cause only an insignificant increase in ERK1/2 activity. However, both of these stimuli strongly activate two other MAPKs, JNK1 and JNK2, and stimulate Elk-1 transcriptional activity and phosphorylation. We find that the JNKs are the predominant Elk-1 activation domain kinases in extracts of UV-irradiated cells and that immunopurified JNK1/2 phosphorylate Elk-1 on the same major sites recognized by ERK1/2, that potentiate its transcriptional activity. Finally, we show that UV irradiation, but not serum or phorbol esters, stimulate translocation of JNK1 to the nucleus. As Elk-1 is most likely phosphorylated while bound to the c-fos promoter, these results suggest that UV irradiation and MEKK1 activation stimulate TCF/Elk-1 activity through JNK activation, while growth factors induce c-fos through ERK activation.
We have not found any resources mentioned in this publication.
SciCrunch is a data sharing and display platform. Anyone can create a custom portal where they can select searchable subsets of hundreds of data sources, brand their web pages and create their community. SciCrunch will push data updates automatically to all portals on a weekly basis. User communities can also add their own data to SciCrunch, however this is not currently a free service.