Mutations in the homologous ZDS1 and ZDS2 genes affect cell cycle progression.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZDS1 and ZDS2 genes were identified as multicopy suppressors in distinct genetic screens but were found to encode highly similar proteins. We show that at semipermissive temperatures, a yeast strain with a cdc28-1N allele was uniquely deficient in plasmid maintenance in comparison with strains harboring other cdc28 thermolabile alleles. Quantitative analysis of plasmid loss rates in cdc28-1N strains carrying plasmids with multiple replication origins suggests that a defect in initiating DNA replication probably causes this plasmid loss phenotype. The ZDS1 gene was isolated as a multicopy suppressor of the cdc28-1N plasmid loss defect. A zds1 deletion exhibits genetic interactions with cdc28-1N but not with other cdc28 alleles. SIN4 encodes a protein which is part of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme-mediator complex, and a sin4 null mutation has pleiotropic effects suggesting roles in transcriptional regulation and chromatin structure. The ZDS2 gene was isolated as a multicopy suppressor of the temperature-sensitive growth defect caused by the sin4 null mutation. Disruption of either ZDS1 or ZDS2 causes only modest phenotypes. However, a strain with both ZDS1 and ZDS2 disrupted is extremely slowly growing, has marked defects in bud morphology, and shows defects in completing S phase or entering mitosis.
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