Mapping of the inducible IkappaB phosphorylation sites that signal its ubiquitination and degradation.
Extracellular stimuli that activate the transcription factor NF-kappaB cause rapid phosphorylation of the IkappaBalpha inhibitor, which retains NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm of nonstimulated cells. Phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha is followed by its rapid degradation, the inhibition of which prevents NF-kappaB activation. To determine the relationship between these events, we mapped the inducible phosphorylation sites of IkappaBalpha. We found that two residues, serines 32 and 36, were phosphorylated in response to either tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, or phorbol ester. Substitution of either serine blocks or slows down induction of IkappaBalpha degradation. Substitutions of the homologous sites in IkappaBbeta, serines 19 and 23, also prevent inducible IkappaBbeta degradation. We suggest that activation of a single IkappaB kinas e or closely related IkappaB kinases is the first cr itical step in NF-kappaB activation. Once phosphorylated, IkappaB is ubiquitinated. Unlike wild-type IkappaBalpha, the phosphorylation-defective mutants do not undergo inducible polyubiquitination. As substitution of a conserved lysine residue slows down the ubiquitination and degradation of IkappaBalpha without affecting its phosphorylation, polyubiquitination is required for inducible IkappaB degradation.
SciCrunch is a data sharing and display platform. Anyone can create a custom portal where they can select searchable subsets of hundreds of data sources, brand their web pages and create their community. SciCrunch will push data updates automatically to all portals on a weekly basis. User communities can also add their own data to scicrunch, however this is not currently a free service.