Signal transduction by tumor necrosis factor mediated by JNK protein kinases.
JNK protein kinases are distantly related to mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERKs) and are activated by dual phosphorylation on Tyr and Thr. The JNK protein kinase group includes the 46-kDa isoform JNK1. Here we describe the molecular cloning of a second member of the JNK group, the 55-kDa protein kinase JNK2. The activities of both JNK isoforms are markedly increased by exposure of cells to UV radiation. Furthermore, JNK protein kinase activation is observed in cells treated with tumor necrosis factor. Although both JNK isoforms phosphorylate the NH2-terminal activation domain of the transcription factor c-Jun, the activity of JNK2 was approximately 10-fold greater than that of JNK1. This difference in c-Jun phosphorylation correlates with increased binding of c-Jun to JNK2 compared with JNK1. The distinct in vitro biochemical properties of these JNK isoforms suggest that they may have different functions in vivo. Evidence in favor of this hypothesis was obtained from the observation that JNK1, but not JNK2, complements a defect in the expression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase HOG1 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Together, these data indicate a role for the JNK group of protein kinases in the signal transduction pathway initiated by proinflammatory cytokines and UV radiation.