The immunosuppressive drug, rapamycin, interferes with an undefined signaling pathway required for the progression of G1-phase T-cells into S phase. Genetic analyses in yeast indicate that binding of rapamycin to its intracellular receptor, FKBP12, generates a toxic complex that inhibits cell growth in G1 phase. These analyses implicated two related proteins, TOR1 and TOR2, as targets of the FKBP12-rapamycin complex in yeast. In this study, we have used a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-FKBP12-rapamycin affinity matrix to isolate putative mammalian targets of rapamycin (mTOR) from tissue extracts. In the presence of rapamycin, immobilized GST-FKBP12 specifically precipitates similar high molecular mass proteins from both rat brain and murine T-lymphoma cell extracts. Binding experiments performed with rapamycin-sensitive and -resistant mutant clones derived from the YAC-1 T-lymphoma cell line demonstrate that the GST-FKBP12-rapamycin complex recovers significantly lower amounts of the candidate mTOR from rapamycin-resistant cell lines. The latter results suggest that mTOR is a relevant target of rapamycin in these cells. Finally, we report the isolation of a full-length mTOR cDNA that encodes a direct ligand for the FKBP12-rapamycin complex. The deduced amino acid sequence of mTOR displays 42 and 45% identity to those of yeast TOR1 and TOR2, respectively. These results strongly suggest that the FKBP12-rapamycin complex interacts with homologous ligands in yeast and mammalian cells and that the loss of mTOR function is directly related to the inhibitory effect of rapamycin on G1- to S-phase progression in T-lymphocytes and other sensitive cell types.
SciCrunch is a data sharing and display platform. Anyone can create a custom portal where they can select searchable subsets of hundreds of data sources, brand their web pages and create their community. SciCrunch will push data updates automatically to all portals on a weekly basis. User communities can also add their own data to scicrunch, however this is not currently a free service.