A direct interaction between G-protein beta gamma subunits and the Raf-1 protein kinase.
Raf-1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase positioned downstream of Ras in the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Using a yeast two-hybrid strategy to identify other proteins that interact with and potentially regulate Raf-1, we isolated a clone encoding the carboxyl-terminal half of the G beta 2 subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins. In vitro, purified G beta gamma subunits specifically bound to a GST fusion protein encoding amino acids 1-330 of Raf-1 (Raf/330). Binding assays with truncation mutants of GST-Raf indicate that the region located between amino acids 136 and 239 is a primary determinant for interaction with G beta gamma. In competition experiments, the carboxyl terminus of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK) blocked the binding of G beta gamma to Raf/330; however, the Raf-1-binding proteins, Ras and 14-3-3, had no effect. Scatchard analysis of in vitro binding between Raf/330 and G beta gamma revealed an affinity of interaction (Kd = 163 +/- 36 nM), similar to that seen between G beta gamma and beta ARK (Kd = 87 +/- 24 nM). The formation of native heterotrimeric G alpha beta gamma complexes, as measured by pertussis toxin ADP-ribosylation of G alpha, could be disrupted by increasing amounts of Raf/330, with an EC50 of approximately 200 nM, in close agreement with the estimated binding affinity. In vivo complexes of Raf-1 and G beta gamma were isolated from human embryonic kidney 293-T cells transfected with epitope-tagged G beta 2. The identification and characterization of this novel interaction raises several possibilities for signaling cross-talk between growth factor receptors and those receptors coupled to heterotrimeric G-proteins.
SciCrunch is a data sharing and display platform. Anyone can create a custom portal where they can select searchable subsets of hundreds of data sources, brand their web pages and create their community. SciCrunch will push data updates automatically to all portals on a weekly basis. User communities can also add their own data to scicrunch, however this is not currently a free service.