• Register
Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.


Leaving Community

Are you sure you want to leave this community? Leaving the community will revoke any permissions you have been granted in this community.


Role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta as a negative regulator of dorsoventral axis formation in Xenopus embryos.

The dorsoventral axis is established early in Xenopus development and may involve signaling by Wnts, a family of Wnt1-protooncogene-related proteins. The protein kinase shaggy functions in the wingless/Wnt signaling pathway, which operates during Drosophila development. To assess the role of a closely related kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3 beta), in vertebrate embryogenesis, we cloned a cDNA encoding a Xenopus homolog of GSK-3 beta (XGSK-3 beta). XGSK-3 beta-specific transcripts were detected by Northern analysis in Xenopus eggs and early embryos. Microinjection of the mRNA encoding a catalytically inactive form of rat GSK-3 beta into a ventrovegetal blastomere of eight-cell embryos caused ectopic formation of a secondary body axis containing a complete set of dorsal and anterior structures. Furthermore, in isolated ectodermal explants, the mutant GSK-3 beta mRNA activated the expression of neural tissue markers. Wild-type XGSK-3 beta mRNA suppressed the dorsalizing effects of both the mutated GSK-3 beta and Xenopus dishevelled, a proposed upstream signaling component of the same pathway. These results strongly suggest that XGSK-3 beta functions to inhibit dorsoventral axis formation in the embryo and provide evidence for conservation of the Wnt signaling pathway in Drosophila and vertebrates.

Pubmed ID: 7667318


  • Dominguez I
  • Itoh K
  • Sokol SY


Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Publication Data

August 29, 1995

Associated Grants


Mesh Terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA Primers
  • Genes, Dominant
  • Genes, Regulator
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinases
  • Larva
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Nervous System
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Xenopus