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Integration of MAP kinase signal transduction pathways at the serum response element.

The ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors bind with serum response factor (SRF) to the serum response element (SRE) and mediate increased gene expression. The TCF protein Elk-1 is phosphorylated by the JNK and ERK groups of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases causing increased DNA binding, ternary complex formation, and transcriptional activation. Activated SRE-dependent gene expression is induced by JNK in cells treated with interleukin-1 and by ERK after treatment with phorbol ester. The Elk-1 transcription factor therefore integrates MAP kinase signaling pathways in vivo to coordinate biological responses to different extracellular stimuli.

Pubmed ID: 7618106


  • Whitmarsh AJ
  • Shore P
  • Sharrocks AD
  • Davis RJ


Science (New York, N.Y.)

Publication Data

July 21, 1995

Associated Grants


Mesh Terms

  • Animals
  • CHO Cells
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • Cricetinae
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Interleukin-1
  • JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • MAP Kinase Kinase 1
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Phosphorylation
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Serum Response Factor
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • Transcription Factors
  • Transfection
  • ets-Domain Protein Elk-1
  • ets-Domain Protein Elk-4