Searching across hundreds of databases

Our searching services are busy right now. Your search will reload in five seconds.

X
Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

X
Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

Kir4.1-Dependent Astrocyte-Fast Motor Neuron Interactions Are Required for Peak Strength.

Neuron | Apr 18, 2018

Diversified neurons are essential for sensorimotor function, but whether astrocytes become specialized to optimize circuit performance remains unclear. Large fast α-motor neurons (FαMNs) of spinal cord innervate fast-twitch muscles that generate peak strength. We report that ventral horn astrocytes express the inward-rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 (a.k.a. Kcnj10) around MNs in a VGLUT1-dependent manner. Loss of astrocyte-encoded Kir4.1 selectively altered FαMN size and function and led to reduced peak strength. Overexpression of Kir4.1 in astrocytes was sufficient to increase MN size through activation of the PI3K/mTOR/pS6 pathway. Kir4.1 was downregulated cell autonomously in astrocytes derived from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with SOD1 mutation. However, astrocyte Kir4.1 was dispensable for FαMN survival even in the mutant SOD1 background. These findings show that astrocyte Kir4.1 is essential for maintenance of peak strength and suggest that Kir4.1 downregulation might uncouple symptoms of muscle weakness from MN cell death in diseases like ALS.

Pubmed ID: 29606582 RIS Download

Research resources used in this publication

Data used in this publication

None found

Associated grants

  • Agency: NINDS NIH HHS, Id: R01 NS040511
  • Agency: NIGMS NIH HHS, Id: T32 GM007618
  • Agency: NIMH NIH HHS, Id: K08 MH104417
  • Agency: Wellcome Trust, Id: P30 EY002162
  • Agency: NEI NIH HHS, Id:

Publication data is provided by the National Library of Medicine ® and PubMed ®. Data is retrieved from PubMed ® on a weekly schedule. For terms and conditions see the National Library of Medicine Terms and Conditions.

This is a list of tools and resources that we have found mentioned in this publication.


BioLegend

Commercial antibody supplier and developer for biomedical research. These products are compatible with use in flow cytometry and mass cytometry, immunoprecipitation and chip, western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, and quantitative multiplexing.

tool

View all literature mentions

Addgene

A non-profit plasmid repository dedicated to helping scientists around the world share high-quality plasmids. Addgene’s mission is to accelerate research and discovery by improving access to useful research materials and information. We facilitate the sharing of high-quality scientific materials, research reproducibility, and open science by archiving and distributing DNA-based research reagents and associated data to scientists worldwide. Our repository contains over 65,000 plasmids, including special collections on CRISPR, fluorescent proteins, and ready-to-use viral preparations. There is no cost for scientists to deposit plasmids, which saves time and money associated with shipping plasmids themselves. All plasmids are fully sequenced for validation and sequencing data is openly available. We handle the appropriate Material Transfer Agreements (MTA) with institutions, facilitating open exchange and offering intellectual property and liability protection for depositing scientists. Furthermore, we curate free educational resources for the scientific community including a blog, eBooks, video protocols, and detailed molecular biology resources.

tool

View all literature mentions

Jackson Laboratory

An independent, nonprofit organization focused on mammalian genetics research to advance human health. Their mission is to discover the genetic basis for preventing, treating, and curing human disease, and to enable research for the global biomedical community. Jackson Laboratory breeds and manages colonies of mice as resources for other research institutions and laboratories, along with providing software and techniques. Jackson Lab also conducts genetic research and provides educational material for various educational levels.

tool

View all literature mentions

SAM format

A generic alignment format for storing read alignments against reference sequences, supporting short and long reads (up to 128 Mbp) produced by different sequencing platforms.

tool

View all literature mentions

Bowtie 2

Software for sequencing read alignment. Bowtie 2 supports gapped, local, and paired-end alignment modes.

tool

View all literature mentions

DESeq2

Software package for differential gene expression analysis based on the negative binomial distribution. Used for analyzing RNA-seq data for differential analysis of count data, using shrinkage estimation for dispersions and fold changes to improve stability and interpretability of estimates.

tool

View all literature mentions

SAMTOOLS

Software tool for manipulating alignments in SAM format for storing nucleotide sequence alignment, including sorting, merging, indexing and generating alignments in per position format. Parts that are relevant to genetic analysis include SNP and indel callings.

tool

View all literature mentions

Cufflinks

A software which is used for transcriptome assembly and differential expression analysis for RNA-Seq. This software includes a script called cuffmerge that can be used to merge together several Cufflinks assemblies. It also handles running Cuffcompare as well as automatically filtering a number of transfrags that are likely to be artifacts. If the researcher has a reference GTF file, the researcher can provide it to the script to more effectively merge novel isoforms and maximize overall assembly quality.

tool

View all literature mentions

Ensembl

Collection of genome databases for vertebrates and other eukaryotic species with DNA and protein sequence search capabilities. Used to automatically annotate genome, integrate this annotation with other available biological data and make data publicly available via web. Ensembl tools include BLAST, BLAT, BioMart and the Variant Effect Predictor (VEP) for all supported species.

tool

View all literature mentions

Bowtie

Software tool for aligning short DNA sequences to large genomes. Bowtie 2 supports gapped, local, and paired end alignment modes.

tool

View all literature mentions

Imaris

Interactive Vision In The Life SciencesCombining speed, precision and ease-of-use, Imaris provides an impressive range of capabilities for working with three-dimensional images. Move easily between simple and advanced 3D views. Use flexible editing and processing functions, such as interactive surface rendering and object slicing capabilities. And output to standard TIFF, Quicktime and AVI formats. Imaris accepts virtually all image formats that are used in confocal microscopy and many of those used in wide-field image acquisition.BitPlane, Inc. also releases the following companion products:- ImarisXT is a multi-functional two-way interface from Imaris to both classic programming languages and to Matlab.- Imaris MeasurementPro and Imaris Track provide the ability to segment and follow the movement of independent objects in a 3D image over time. Objects can either be Surface Objects or Spots, created automatically or manually.- ImarisColoc enables users to easily isolate, visualize, and quantify regional overlap in 3D and 4D images and automates the process of selecting colocalized image areas.

tool

View all literature mentions

affy

Software R package of functions and classes for the analysis of oligonucleotide arrays manufactured by Affymetrix. Used to process probe level data and for exploratory oligonucleotide array analysis.

tool

View all literature mentions