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Distinct Inhibitory Circuits Orchestrate Cortical beta and gamma Band Oscillations.

Neuron | Dec 20, 2017

Distinct subtypes of inhibitory interneuron are known to shape diverse rhythmic activities in the cortex, but how they interact to orchestrate specific band activity remains largely unknown. By recording optogenetically tagged interneurons of specific subtypes in the primary visual cortex of behaving mice, we show that spiking of somatostatin (SOM)- and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons preferentially correlates with cortical beta and gamma band oscillations, respectively. Suppression of SOM cell spiking reduces the spontaneous low-frequency band (<30-Hz) oscillations and selectively reduces visually induced enhancement of beta oscillation. In comparison, suppressing PV cell activity elevates the synchronization of spontaneous activity across a broad frequency range and further precludes visually induced changes in beta and gamma oscillations. Rhythmic activation of SOM and PV cells in the local circuit entrains resonant activity in the narrow 5- to 30-Hz band and the wide 20- to 80-Hz band, respectively. Together, these findings reveal differential and cooperative roles of SOM and PV inhibitory neurons in orchestrating specific cortical oscillations.

Pubmed ID: 29268099 RIS Download

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Chronux

Open-source software package for the analysis of neural data. Chronux routines may be employed in the analysis of both point process and continuous data, ranging from preprocessing, exploratory and confirmatory analysis. The current release is implemented as a MATLAB library. Chronux offers several routines for computing spectra and coherences for both point and continuous processes. In addition, it also offers several general purpose routines that were found useful such as a routine for extracting specified segments from data, or binning spike time data with bins of a specified size. Since the data can be continuous valued, point process times, or point processes that are binned, methods that apply to all these data types are given in routines whose names end with ''''c'''' for continuous, ''''pb'''' for binned point processes, and ''''pt'''' for point process times. Thus, mtspectrumc computes the spectrum of continuous data, mtspectrumpb computes a spectrum for binned point processes, and mtspectrumpt compute spectra for data consisting of point process times. Hybrid routines are also available and similarly named - for instance coherencycpb computes the coherency between continuous and binned point process data.

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