Granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMPs) and monocyte-dendritic cell progenitors (MDPs) produce monocytes during homeostasis and in response to increased demand during infection. Both progenitor populations are thought to derive from common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), and a hierarchical relationship (CMP-GMP-MDP-monocyte) is presumed to underlie monocyte differentiation. Here, however, we demonstrate that mouse MDPs arose from CMPs independently of GMPs, and that GMPs and MDPs produced monocytes via similar but distinct monocyte-committed progenitors. GMPs and MDPs yielded classical (Ly6Chi) monocytes with gene expression signatures that were defined by their origins and impacted their function. GMPs produced a subset of "neutrophil-like" monocytes, whereas MDPs gave rise to a subset of monocytes that yielded monocyte-derived dendritic cells. GMPs and MDPs were also independently mobilized to produce specific combinations of myeloid cell types following the injection of microbial components. Thus, the balance of GMP and MDP differentiation shapes the myeloid cell repertoire during homeostasis and following infection.
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