Staphylococcus aureus colonization contributes to skin inflammation in diseases such as atopic dermatitis, but the signaling pathways involved are unclear. Herein, epicutaneous S. aureus exposure to mouse skin promoted MyD88-dependent skin inflammation initiated by IL-36, but not IL-1α/β, IL-18, or IL-33. By contrast, an intradermal S. aureus challenge promoted MyD88-dependent host defense initiated by IL-1β rather than IL-36, suggesting that different IL-1 cytokines trigger MyD88 signaling depending on the anatomical depth of S. aureus cutaneous exposure. The bacterial virulence factor PSMα, but not α-toxin or δ-toxin, contributed to the skin inflammation, which was driven by IL-17-producing γδ and CD4+ T cells via direct IL-36R signaling in the T cells. Finally, adoptive transfer of IL-36R-expressing T cells to IL-36R-deficient mice was sufficient for mediating S. aureus-induced skin inflammation. Together, this study defines a previously unknown pathway by which S. aureus epicutaneous exposure promotes skin inflammation involving IL-36R/MyD88-dependent IL-17 T cell responses.
Statistical software package for data analysis, hypothesis testing, and modeling. The software can capable perform mathematical calculations (including biostatistics) and graphical plotting such as curve fitting (nonlinear regression) and scientific graphing.
It is an open source image processing Java program designed for scientific multidimensional images. This open platform for scientific image analysis is used in life sciences.
Image J has been transformed to ImageJ2 application.
This new application improves ImageJ data engine to be sufficient to analyze modern datasets and makes the addition of new functionality possible and provides a framework for interoperability between a plethora of external image visualization and analysis programs.
ImageJ2 strengthens ImageJ’s utility by: 1) generalizing the ImageJ data model; 2) introducing a robust architecture instrumental in building bridges across a range of other image processing tools; 3) remaining open source and cross-platform with permissive licensing, enabling continued widespread adoption and extension; 4) building on the huge collection of existing ImageJ plugins while enabling the creation of new plugins with more powerful features; and 5) leveraging a correspondingly large and diverse community to foster a collaborative and interdisciplinary project that facilitates the collective advancement of science.
SciCrunch is a data sharing and display platform. Anyone can create a custom portal where they can select searchable subsets of hundreds of data sources, brand their web pages and create their community. SciCrunch will push data updates automatically to all portals on a weekly basis. User communities can also add their own data to SciCrunch, however this is not currently a free service.