Lysosomal proteolysis is essential for the quality control of intracellular components and the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Lysosomal alterations have been implicated as one of the main cellular defects contributing to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying lysosomal deficits in AD remains poorly understood. Here, we reveal that lysosomal deficits are attributed to retromer dysfunction induced by altered retromer trafficking in the axon of AD-related mutant human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) transgenic (Tg) mouse neurons. We demonstrate that retrograde transport of retromer is impaired, leading to its significant reduction in the soma and abnormal retention within late endosomes in distal axons of mutant hAPP neurons. Therefore, retromer-mediated endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptors (CI-MPR) in the soma is disrupted in mutant hAPP neurons, causing defects in lysosome biogenesis. Such defects result in protease deficiency in lysosomes and impaired lysosomal proteolysis, as evidenced by aberrant accumulation of sequestered substrates within lysosomes. Intriguingly, enhancement of retrograde transport in mutant hAPP neurons facilitates the trafficking of axonal retromer toward the soma and thus enhances protease transport to lysosomes, thereby restoring lysosomal proteolytic activity. Taken together, our study provides new insights into the regulation of retromer trafficking through retrograde axonal transport to fulfil its function in promoting lysosome biogenesis in the soma, suggesting a potential approach for rescuing lysosomal proteolysis deficits in AD.
Pubmed ID: 28973312 RIS Download
Mesh terms: Alzheimer Disease | Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases | Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor | Animals | Axonal Transport | Axons | Endosomes | Golgi Apparatus | Humans | Lysosomes | Mice | Mice, Transgenic | Neurons | Proteolysis | Vesicular Transport Proteins | trans-Golgi Network
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