The release of dopamine (DA) regulates rewarding behavior and motor actions through striatum-targeting efferents from ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Here, we map and functionally characterize axonal projections from oxytocin neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to midbrain DA regions. Electrophysiological recordings of DA neurons reveal that both the application of oxytocin and optogenetic stimulation of oxytocinergic terminals suffice to increase DA neuron activity in the VTA but downregulate it in SNc. This biased modulation is mediated by oxytocin and vasopressin G-protein-coupled receptors. Oxytocin release directly activates DA neurons and indirectly inhibits them through local GABA neurons, but the relative magnitudes of the two mechanisms differ in VTA and SNc. Oxytocin-modulated DA neurons give rise to canonical striatal projections. Since hypothalamic oxytocinergic projections also target the striatum, oxytocin is poised to bias the balance of DA tone through multiple sites in vertebrate reward circuits.
An image processing package described as a distribution of ImageJ (and ImageJ2) together with Java, Java3D and a lot of plugins organized into a coherent menu structure. The main focus of Fiji is to assist research in life sciences.
Software used for visualizing and graphing data, image processing, and programming. It is designed for use by scientists and engineers and supports large data sets, evenly spaced data, and various data import formats. The software includes a suite of image processing operations for image filtering, manipulation, and quantification and is completely programmable.
Statistical software package for data analysis, hypothesis testing, and modeling. The software can capable perform mathematical calculations (including biostatistics) and graphical plotting such as curve fitting (nonlinear regression) and scientific graphing.
A multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and fourth-generation programming language. It allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in other languages, including C, C++, Java, Fortran and Python. (Adapted from Wikipedia) The high-level language and interactive environment lets you explore and visualize ideas and collaborate across disciplines including signal and image processing, communications, control systems, and computational finance.
SciCrunch is a data sharing and display platform. Anyone can create a custom portal where they can select searchable subsets of hundreds of data sources, brand their web pages and create their community. SciCrunch will push data updates automatically to all portals on a weekly basis. User communities can also add their own data to SciCrunch, however this is not currently a free service.