Malformations of the cerebral cortex (MCCs) are devastating developmental disorders. We report here that mice with embryonic neural stem-cell-specific deletion of Llgl1 (Nestin-Cre/Llgl1fl/fl), a mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila cell polarity gene lgl, exhibit MCCs resembling severe periventricular heterotopia (PH). Immunohistochemical analyses and live cortical imaging of PH formation revealed that disruption of apical junctional complexes (AJCs) was responsible for PH in Nestin-Cre/Llgl1fl/fl brains. While it is well known that cell polarity proteins govern the formation of AJCs, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. We show that LLGL1 directly binds to and promotes internalization of N-cadherin, and N-cadherin/LLGL1 interaction is inhibited by atypical protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of LLGL1, restricting the accumulation of AJCs to the basolateral-apical boundary. Disruption of the N-cadherin-LLGL1 interaction during cortical development in vivo is sufficient for PH. These findings reveal a mechanism responsible for the physical and functional connection between cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion machineries in mammalian cells.
Pubmed ID: 28552558 RIS Download
Mesh terms: Animals | Apoptosis | Brain | Cadherins | Cell Adhesion | Cell Polarity | Cell Proliferation | Cells, Cultured | Embryonic Stem Cells | Female | Homeodomain Proteins | Mice | Mice, Transgenic | Nestin | Neural Stem Cells | Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia | Phosphorylation | Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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Tool that predicts interactions between transcription factors and their regulated genes from binding motifs. Understanding vertebrate development requires unraveling the cis-regulatory architecture of gene regulation. PRISM provides accurate genome-wide computational predictions of transcription factor binding sites for the human and mouse genomes, and integrates the predictions with GREAT to provide functional biological context. Together, accurate computational binding site prediction and GREAT produce for each transcription factor: 1. putative binding sites, 2. putative target genes, 3. putative biological roles of the transcription factor, and 4. putative cis-regulatory elements through which the factor regulates each target in each functional role.
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