Searching across hundreds of databases

Our searching services are busy right now. Your search will reload in five seconds.

X
Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

Astrocytic Process Plasticity and IKKβ/NF-κB in Central Control of Blood Glucose, Blood Pressure, and Body Weight.

Cell metabolism | May 2, 2017

Central regulation of metabolic physiology is mediated critically through neuronal functions; however, whether astrocytes are also essential remains unclear. Here we show that the high-order processes of astrocytes in the mediobasal hypothalamus displayed shortening in fasting and elongation in fed status. Chronic overnutrition and astrocytic IKKβ/NF-κB upregulation similarly impaired astrocytic plasticity, leading to sustained shortening of high-order processes. In physiology, astrocytic IKKβ/NF-κB upregulation resulted in early-onset effects, including glucose intolerance and blood pressure rise, and late-onset effects, including body weight and fat gain. Appropriate inhibition in astrocytic IKKβ/NF-κB protected against chronic overnutrition impairing astrocytic plasticity and these physiological functions. Mechanistically, astrocytic regulation of hypothalamic extracellular GABA level and therefore BDNF expression were found partly accountable. Hence, astrocytic process plasticity and IKKβ/NF-κB play significant roles in central control of blood glucose, blood pressure, and body weight as well as the central induction of these physiological disorders leading to disease.

Pubmed ID: 28467927 RIS Download

Mesh terms: Animals | Astrocytes | Blood Glucose | Blood Pressure | Body Weight | Cells, Cultured | Fasting | Glucose Intolerance | HEK293 Cells | Humans | Hypothalamus | I-kappa B Kinase | Inflammation | Mice | Mice, Inbred C57BL | NF-kappa B | Obesity

Publication data is provided by the National Library of Medicine ® and PubMed ®. Data is retrieved from PubMed ® on a weekly schedule. For terms and conditions see the National Library of Medicine Terms and Conditions.

This is a list of tools and resources that we have found mentioned in this publication.


PRISM

Tool that predicts interactions between transcription factors and their regulated genes from binding motifs. Understanding vertebrate development requires unraveling the cis-regulatory architecture of gene regulation. PRISM provides accurate genome-wide computational predictions of transcription factor binding sites for the human and mouse genomes, and integrates the predictions with GREAT to provide functional biological context. Together, accurate computational binding site prediction and GREAT produce for each transcription factor: 1. putative binding sites, 2. putative target genes, 3. putative biological roles of the transcription factor, and 4. putative cis-regulatory elements through which the factor regulates each target in each functional role.

tool

View all literature mentions

Neurolucida

Neurolucida is advanced scientific software for brain mapping, neuron reconstruction, anatomical mapping, and morphometry. Since its debut more than 20 years ago, Neurolucida has continued to evolve and has become the worldwide gold-standard for neuron reconstruction and 3D mapping. Neurolucida has the flexibility to handle data in many formats: using live images from digital or video cameras; stored image sets from confocal microscopes, electron microscopes, and scanning tomographic sources, or through the microscope oculars using the patented LucividTM. Neurolucida controls a motorized XYZ stage for integrated navigation through tissue sections, allowing for sophisticated analysis from many fields-of-view. Neurolucidas Serial Section Manager integrates unlimited sections into a single data file, maintaining each section in aligned 3D space for full quantitative analysis. Neurolucidas neuron tracing capabilities include 3D measurement and reconstruction of branching processes. Neurolucida also features sophisticated tools for mapping delineate and map anatomical regions for detailed morphometric analyses. Neurolucida uses advanced computer-controlled microscopy techniques to obtain accurate results and speed your work. Plug-in modules are available for confocal and MRI analysis, 3D solid modeling, and virtual slide creation. The user-friendly interface gives you rapid results, allowing you to acquire data and capture the full 3D extent of neurons and brain regions. You can reconstruct neurons or create 3D serial reconstructions directly from slides or acquired images, and Neurolucida offers full microscope control for brightfield, fluorescent, and confocal microscopes. Its added compatibility with 64-bit Microsoft Vista enables reconstructions with even larger images, image stacks, and virtual slides. Adding the Solid Modeling Module allows you to rotate and view your reconstructions in real time. Neurolucida is available in two separate versions Standard and Workstation. The Standard version enables control of microscope hardware, whereas the Workstation version is used for offline analysis away from the microscope. Neurolucida provides quantitative analysis with results presented in graphical or spreadsheet format exportable to Microsoft Excel. Overall, features include: - Tracing Neurons - Anatomical Mapping - Image Processing and Analysis Features - Editing - Morphometric Analysis - Hardware Integration - Cell Analysis - Visualization Features Sponsors: Neurolucida is supported by MBF Bioscience.

tool

View all literature mentions

ImageJ

A Java image processing program which can display, edit, analyze, process, save and print 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit images. It can read many image formats including TIFF, GIF, JPEG, BMP, DICOM, FITS and raw. It runs, either as an online applet or as a downloadable application, on any computer with a Java 1.4 or later virtual machine. Downloadable distributions are available for Windows, Mac OS, Mac OS X and Linux. It supports stacks, a series of images that share a single window. It is multithreaded, so time-consuming operations such as image file reading can be performed in parallel with other operations. It can calculate area and pixel value statistics of user-defined selections. It can measure distances and angles. It can create density histograms and line profile plots. It supports standard image processing functions such as contrast manipulation, sharpening, smoothing, edge detection and median filtering. It does geometric transformations such as scaling, rotation and flips. Image can be zoomed up to 32:1 and down to 1:32. All analysis and processing functions are available at any magnification factor. The program supports any number of windows (images) simultaneously, limited only by available memory. Spatial calibration is available to provide real world dimensional measurements in units such as millimeters. Density or gray scale calibration is also available. ImageJ was designed with an open architecture that provides extensibility via Java plugins. Custom acquisition, analysis and processing plugins can be developed using ImageJ built in editor and Java compiler. User-written plugins make it possible to solve almost any image processing or analysis problem.

tool

View all literature mentions