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Co-option of an endogenous retrovirus envelope for host defense in hominid ancestors.

eLife | Apr 11, 2017

Endogenous retroviral sequences provide a molecular fossil record of ancient infections whose analysis might illuminate mechanisms of viral extinction. A close relative of gammaretroviruses, HERV-T, circulated in primates for ~25 million years (MY) before apparent extinction within the past ~8 MY. Construction of a near-complete catalog of HERV-T fossils in primate genomes allowed us to estimate a ~32 MY old ancestral sequence and reconstruct a functional envelope protein (ancHTenv) that could support infection of a pseudotyped modern gammaretrovirus. Using ancHTenv, we identify monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT-1) as a receptor used by HERV-T for attachment and infection. A single HERV-T provirus in hominid genomes includes an env gene (hsaHTenv) that has been uniquely preserved. This apparently exapted HERV-T env could not support virion infection but could block ancHTenv mediated infection, by causing MCT-1 depletion from cell surfaces. Thus, hsaHTenv may have contributed to HERV-T extinction, and could also potentially regulate cellular metabolism.

Pubmed ID: 28397686 RIS Download

Mesh terms: Animals | Endogenous Retroviruses | Gammaretrovirus | Gene Products, env | Hominidae | Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters | Receptors, Virus | Symporters | Virus Attachment | Virus Internalization

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This is a list of tools and resources that we have found mentioned in this publication.


Seq-Gen

Software program that simulates the evolution of nucleotide or amino acid sequences along a phylogeny using common models of the substitution process. A range of models of molecular evolution are implemented, including the general reversible model. State frequencies and other parameters of the model may be given and site-specific rate heterogeneity may also be incorporated in a number of ways. Any number of trees may be read in and the program will produce any number of data sets for each tree.

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BLASTN

Web application to search nucleotide databases using a nucleotide query. Algorithms: blastn, megablast, discontiguous megablast.

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UCSC Genome Browser

A collection of genomes which include reference sequences and working draft assemblies, as well as a variety of tools to explore these sequences. The Genome Browser zooms and scrolls over chromosomes, showing the work of annotators worldwide. The Gene Sorter shows expression, homology and other information on groups of genes that can be related in many ways. Blat quickly maps your sequence to the genome. The Table Browser provides access to the underlying database. VisiGene lets you browse through a large collection of in situ mouse and frog images to examine expression patterns. Genome Graphs allows you to upload and display genome-wide data sets. Also provided is a portal to the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and Neandertal projects.

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PAUP

Software which creates phylogenetic trees from molecular, morphological and/or behavioral data through high speed computer analysis.

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MUSCLE

Data analysis service for MUltiple Sequence Comparison by Log- Expectation. MUSCLE is claimed to achieve both better average accuracy and better speed than ClustalW2 or T-Coffee, depending on the chosen options.

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PAML

Package of programs for phylogenetic analyses of DNA or protein sequences using maximum likelihood. PAML estimates parameters and tests hypotheses to study the evolutionary process from a phylogenetic tree.

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ProP Server

Web application which predicts arginine and lysine propeptide cleavage sites in eukaryotic protein sequences using an ensemble of neural networks. Furin-specific prediction is the default. It is also possible to perform a general proprotein convertase prediction.

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R Project for Statistical Computing

Software environment and programming language for statistical computing and graphics. R is integrated suite of software facilities for data manipulation, calculation and graphical display. Can be extended via packages. Some packages are supplied with the R distribution and more are available through CRAN family.

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TMHMM Server

Web application for the prediction of transmembrane helices in proteins using Hidden Markov Models. FASTA formatted sequences can be uploaded via file or copy-paste, and output can be formatted as extensive with graphics, extensive without graphics, or one line per protein. Submissions are limited to 10,000 sequences and 4,000,000 amino acids - each sequence is limited to no more than 8,000 amino acids.

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BLASTX

Web application to search protein databases using a translated nucleotide query. Translated BLAST services are useful when trying to find homologous proteins to a nucleotide coding region. Blastx compares translational products of the nucleotide query sequence to a protein database. Because blastx translates the query sequence in all six reading frames and provides combined significance statistics for hits to different frames, it is particularly useful when the reading frame of the query sequence is unknown or it contains errors that may lead to frame shifts or other coding errors. Thus blastx is often the first analysis performed with a newly determined nucleotide sequence and is used extensively in analyzing EST sequences. This search is more sensitive than nucleotide blast since the comparison is performed at the protein level.

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TBLASTN

Tool to search translated nucleotide databases using a protein query.

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Hypermut

Web application for the analysis and detection of APOBEC-induced hypermutations. The first sequence in the input alignment will be used as the reference sequence, and each of the other sequences will be used as a query sequence.

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FigTree

A graphical viewer of phylogenetic trees and a program for producing publication-ready figures. It is designed to display summarized and annotated trees produced by BEAST.

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RefSeq

Database that provides a comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of sequences, including genomic DNA, transcripts, and proteins. It provides a stable reference for genome annotation, gene identification and characterization, mutation and polymorphism analysis (especially RefSeqGene records), expression studies, and comparative analyses. Included are sequences from plasmids, organelles, viruses, archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Each RefSeq is constructed wholly from sequence data submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC). It is a unique resource because it provides a large, multi-species, curated sequence database representing separate but explicitly linked records from genomes to transcripts and translation products, as appropriate. Unlike the sequence redundancy found in the public sequence repositories that comprise the INSDC, (i.e., NCBI's GenBank, the European Nucleotide Archive, and the DNA Data Bank of Japan), the RefSeq collection aims to provide, for each included species, a complete set of non-redundant, extensively cross-linked, and richly annotated nucleic acid and protein records. It is recognized, however, that the coverage and finishing of public sequence data varies from organism to organism so intermediate genomic records are provided in some circumstances. The RefSeq collection is available without restriction and can be retrieved in several different ways, such as by searching or by available links in NCBI resources, including PubMed, Nucleotide, Protein, Gene, and Map Viewer, searching with a sequence via BLAST, and downloading from the RefSeq FTP site.

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RAxML

Software program for phylogenetic analyses of large datasets under maximum likelihood.

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GE Healthcare

A commercial antibody supplier and provider of various services.

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ATCC

Global nonprofit biological resource center (BRC) and research organization that provides biological products, technical services and educational programs to private industry, government and academic organizations. Its mission is to acquire, authenticate, preserve, develop and distribute biological materials, information, technology, intellectual property and standards for the advancement and application of scientific knowledge. The primary purpose of ATCC is to use its resources and experience as a BRC to become the world leader in standard biological reference materials management, intellectual property resource management and translational research as applied to biomaterial development, standardization and certification. ATCC characterizes cell lines, bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa, as well as develops and evaluates assays and techniques for validating research resources and preserving and distributing biological materials to the public and private sector research communities.

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Thermo Fisher Scientific

Commercial vendor and service provider of laboratory reagents and antibodies.

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Covance

A contract research organization providing drug development and animal testing services. Under the name Covance Research Products Inc., based in Denver, Pennsylvania, the company also deals in the import, breeding and sale of laboratory animals. It breeds dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs, non-human primates, and pigs, and runs the largest non-human primate laboratory in Germany. (Wikipedia)

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SMART

Software tool for identification and annotation of genetically mobile domains and analysis of domain architectures.

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