Mitochondria play an integral role in cell death, autophagy, immunity, and inflammation. We previously showed that Nur77, an orphan nuclear receptor, induces apoptosis by targeting mitochondria. Here, we report that celastrol, a potent anti-inflammatory pentacyclic triterpene, binds Nur77 to inhibit inflammation and induce autophagy in a Nur77-dependent manner. Celastrol promotes Nur77 translocation from the nucleus to mitochondria, where it interacts with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), a scaffold protein and E3 ubiquitin ligase important for inflammatory signaling. The interaction is mediated by an LxxLL motif in TRAF2 and results not only in the inhibition of TRAF2 ubiquitination but also in Lys63-linked Nur77 ubiquitination. Under inflammatory conditions, ubiquitinated Nur77 resides at mitochondria, rendering them sensitive to autophagy, an event involving Nur77 interaction with p62/SQSTM1. Together, our results identify Nur77 as a critical intracellular target for celastrol and unravel a mechanism of Nur77-dependent clearance of inflamed mitochondria to alleviate inflammation.
Statistical software package for data analysis, hypothesis testing, and modeling. The software can capable perform mathematical calculations (including biostatistics) and graphical plotting such as curve fitting (nonlinear regression) and scientific graphing.
Image processing software used to modify and clarify sample images for FluoView FV1000 range of confocal laser scanning microscopes and Fluoview FV1000MPE multiphoton excitation systems. The software incorporates high-dynamic-range imaging, minimized signal-to-noise ratios, partial stitching with multiarea time-lapse imaging, and channel unmixing. The software also allows users to select specific areas of the whole sample, which can stitched together.
SciCrunch is a data sharing and display platform. Anyone can create a custom portal where they can select searchable subsets of hundreds of data sources, brand their web pages and create their community. SciCrunch will push data updates automatically to all portals on a weekly basis. User communities can also add their own data to SciCrunch, however this is not currently a free service.